Strain Name:

LPT/LeJ

Stock Number:

000220

Order this mouse

Availability:

Cryopreserved - Ready for recovery

Other products are available, see Purchasing Information for Cryopreserved Embryos

Common Names: Loop-Tail;    

Description

The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Strain Information

Type Inbred Strain;
Additional information on Inbred Strains.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Specieslaboratory mouse

Appearance
Agouti
Related Genotype: A/A

Development
The loop tail mutation was first identified in the eighty-fourth generation of sibling inbreeding of Strong's A strain and was first published in 1949. Loop tail was received at The Jackson Laboratory from Dr. Hollander in approximately 1950. It was backcrossed onto C57BL/6J for 7 generations. A single outcross was made to C3H in approximately 1957 and after that the stock was sibling inbred. The resulting inbred strain was cryopreserved in 1982 from wildtype females bred with heterozygous males at generation F83.

Control Information

  Control
   Wild-type from the colony
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Phenotype

Phenotype Information

View Related Disease (OMIM) Terms

Related Disease (OMIM) Terms provided by MGI
- Model with phenotypic similarity to human disease where etiologies involve orthologs. Human genes are associated with this disease. Orthologs of those genes appear in the mouse genotype(s).
Neural Tube Defects
View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

Vangl2Lp/Vangl2+

        LPT/LeJ
  • hearing/vestibular/ear phenotype
  • *normal* hearing/vestibular/ear phenotype
    • normal stereocilia orientation at E18.5 and in inner ears cultured from E14.5 for 6 days   (MGI Ref ID J:100861)
  • limbs/digits/tail phenotype
  • kinked tail
    • tails are kinked or looped   (MGI Ref ID J:108512)
  • behavior/neurological phenotype
  • abnormal head movements
    • unlike mice descended from KF Stein's albino stock, head wobble is seen   (MGI Ref ID J:5888)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal brain ventricular system morphology
    • distortions in the septal area   (MGI Ref ID J:5888)
    • abnormal lateral ventricle morphology
      • usually bilaterally enlarged and distorted although the abnormality may be unilateral   (MGI Ref ID J:5888)
      • enlarged lateral ventricles   (MGI Ref ID J:5888)
    • enlarged third ventricle
      • occasionally slightly enlarged   (MGI Ref ID J:5888)
  • abnormal hippocampus morphology
    • distortions to the overall shape   (MGI Ref ID J:5888)
  • delayed neural tube closure
    • neural tube remains open at 8- to 9-somite stage   (MGI Ref ID J:108512)
  • embryogenesis phenotype
  • delayed neural tube closure
    • neural tube remains open at 8- to 9-somite stage   (MGI Ref ID J:108512)

Vangl2Lp/Vangl2Lp

        LPT/LeJ
  • hearing/vestibular/ear phenotype
  • abnormal cochlea morphology
    • reduced in size at E18.5   (MGI Ref ID J:132697)
    • abnormal organ of Corti morphology
      • shorter, wider cochlear ducts   (MGI Ref ID J:100861)
      • inner ears from E15.5 cultured for 6 days fail to grow in length, have misoriented stereocilia, and widened apex   (MGI Ref ID J:100861)
      • abnormal orientation of inner hair cell stereociliary bundles
        • 70% of inner hair cell bundles are misoriented   (MGI Ref ID J:132697)
      • abnormal orientation of outer hair cell stereociliary bundles
        • misorientation of stereociliary bundles at E18.5, more severe in the medial region than the base with approximately 95% misoriented in the two outer rows of outer hair cells   (MGI Ref ID J:100861)
        • a significant proportion of bundles in all 3 layers are misoriented   (MGI Ref ID J:132697)
        • vertices are randomly oriented with rotation angles of 40 - 180 degrees   (MGI Ref ID J:132697)
      • increased cochlear hair cell number
        • increased rows of hair cells within the third of the cochlea nearest the apex   (MGI Ref ID J:100861)
  • cardiovascular system phenotype
  • abnormal aortic arch morphology
    • narrowing or interruption of the left aortic arch in about 40% of mice   (MGI Ref ID J:74156)
    • aberrant origin of the right subclavian artery
      • at E14.5, the right subclavian artery is positioned dorsal to the esophagus   (MGI Ref ID J:132697)
    • right aortic arch
      • in 2 of 6 at E13.5 with retroesophageal left subclavian artery   (MGI Ref ID J:74156)
    • vascular ring   (MGI Ref ID J:74156)
      • double aortic arch
        • in 4 of 6 mice at E13.5 and in 3 of 3 at E18.5   (MGI Ref ID J:74156)
  • abnormal heart development
    • at E12.5, myocardial cells do not appear to extend as far into the septum as in control littermates and myocardial cells fail to extend lamellipodia or filopodia into the endocardial cushion tissue   (MGI Ref ID J:106431)
    • at E13.5, fewer cardiomyocytes extend into the septum, the boundary of the myocardial wall and mesenchymal septum does not follow a smooth curve, and the non-muscularized region of the proximal outlet septum appears larger   (MGI Ref ID J:106431)
    • at E15.5, the outlet septum is malpositioned and not muscularized and the aorta maintains contact with the right ventricle   (MGI Ref ID J:106431)
    • abnormal heart looping
      • at E8.5, E9.5, and E10.5, direction of looping is normal but the ventricular loop is rotated clockwise and displaced to the right   (MGI Ref ID J:74156)
      • heart appears displaced in relation to the head but is oriented normally in relation to the forelimb buds   (MGI Ref ID J:74156)
  • abnormal left subclavian artery morphology
    • at E13.5 2 of 6 show right aortic-sided arch with retroesophageal left subclavian artery   (MGI Ref ID J:74156)
  • common truncal valve
    • in some cases (3 of 18) the aortic and pulmonary valves appear as a common valve   (MGI Ref ID J:74156)
  • double outlet right ventricle
    • seen in all homozygotes   (MGI Ref ID J:74156)
  • ventricular septal defect
    • ventricular septal defect   (MGI Ref ID J:74156)
  • embryogenesis phenotype
  • *normal* embryogenesis phenotype
    • despite abnormalities in aortic arch patterning, neural crest cell migration appears normal, the cranial and dorsal root ganglia are normal in size and position, and no defects in left-right patterning are detected   (MGI Ref ID J:74156)
    • abnormal embryogenesis/ development
      • at headfold stage, the embryo length to width ratio is reduced similar to that observed in Dvl1tm1Awb Dvl2tm1Awb homozygotes   (MGI Ref ID J:108512)
      • abnormal notochord morphology
        • the notochord is broader   (MGI Ref ID J:108512)
      • craniorachischisis   (MGI Ref ID J:132697)
      • incomplete embryo turning
        • incomplete axial rotation resulting in misalignment of the head and trunk   (MGI Ref ID J:74156)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • *normal* nervous system phenotype
    • despite abnormalities in aortic arch patterning, neural crest cell migration appears normal and the cranial and dorsal root ganglia are normal in size and position   (MGI Ref ID J:74156)
    • abnormal cervical flexure morphology
      • reduced cervical flexure   (MGI Ref ID J:74156)
    • abnormal orientation of inner hair cell stereociliary bundles
      • 70% of inner hair cell bundles are misoriented   (MGI Ref ID J:132697)
    • abnormal orientation of outer hair cell stereociliary bundles
      • misorientation of stereociliary bundles at E18.5, more severe in the medial region than the base with approximately 95% misoriented in the two outer rows of outer hair cells   (MGI Ref ID J:100861)
      • a significant proportion of bundles in all 3 layers are misoriented   (MGI Ref ID J:132697)
      • vertices are randomly oriented with rotation angles of 40 - 180 degrees   (MGI Ref ID J:132697)
    • craniorachischisis   (MGI Ref ID J:132697)
    • increased cochlear hair cell number
      • increased rows of hair cells within the third of the cochlea nearest the apex   (MGI Ref ID J:100861)

Vangl2Lp/Vangl2Lp

        involves: LPT/LeJ
  • embryogenesis phenotype
  • abnormal notochord morphology
    • midline is shorter and wider at the 1 to 4 somite stage   (MGI Ref ID J:194042)
    • change in size is not due to changes in cell shape   (MGI Ref ID J:194042)
  • abnormal somite size
    • significantly shorter and wider   (MGI Ref ID J:194042)
  • craniorachischisis
  • open neural tube
  • nervous system phenotype
  • craniorachischisis
  • open neural tube

The following phenotype information is associated with a similar, but not exact match to this JAX® Mice strain.

Vangl2Lp/Vangl2+

        involves: A
  • behavior/neurological phenotype
  • *normal* behavior/neurological phenotype
    • head wobble seen in mice on an LPT/LeJ background is lost in mice descended from KF Stein's albino stock   (MGI Ref ID J:5888)
    • abnormal motor capabilities/coordination/movement
      • reduction if the frequency of forepaw vibrations   (MGI Ref ID J:133042)
      • abnormal head movements
        • mice display head rocking or wobbling that in some cases tends to choreic activity   (MGI Ref ID J:13059)
        • choreatic movement of the head   (MGI Ref ID J:133042)
        • head shaking
          • all mice with a marked degree of head shaking also show brain abnormalities   (MGI Ref ID J:5061)
      • abnormal locomotor behavior
        • decrease in the frequency of wire mesh climbing   (MGI Ref ID J:133042)
        • decreased vertical activity
          • decreased frequency of rearing which involves shaking movements of the forepart of the body   (MGI Ref ID J:133042)
      • abnormal tail movements
        • absence of tail rattling behavior   (MGI Ref ID J:133042)
      • impaired balance
        • mice will often fall on their sides when running   (MGI Ref ID J:133042)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • *normal* nervous system phenotype
    • no ventricle abnormalities are detected in mice descended from KF Stein's albino stock unlike mice on an LPT/LeJ background   (MGI Ref ID J:5888)
    • abnormal brain ventricle morphology
      • large ventriculus impar   (MGI Ref ID J:5061)
      • however, the third and fourth ventricles appear unaffected   (MGI Ref ID J:5061)
      • enlarged lateral ventricles
        • seen in 7 of 9 mice examined although sometimes only unilaterally   (MGI Ref ID J:5061)
    • abnormal corpus callosum morphology
      • appears to be reduced in some places   (MGI Ref ID J:5061)
    • abnormal dorsal striatum morphology
      • slightly deformed at the medial margin and in the septal area with the nucleus lateralis septi clearly malformed   (MGI Ref ID J:5061)
    • abnormal hippocampus morphology
      • somewhat deformed and caudally displaced   (MGI Ref ID J:5061)
    • abnormal orientation of cochlear hair cell stereociliary bundles
      • stereociliary bundles in apical regions are rotated compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:142392)
    • craniorachischisis   (MGI Ref ID J:162640)
    • spina bifida
      • in 5% of mice   (MGI Ref ID J:158452)
  • limbs/digits/tail phenotype
  • curly tail   (MGI Ref ID J:162640)
    • partial penetrance of loops in the tail   (MGI Ref ID J:13059)
    • variable degree of contortion of the tail ranging from extreme pretzel-like twists to minor angular crooks or curves   (MGI Ref ID J:13059)
    • in 21 of 28 mice   (MGI Ref ID J:201925)
  • short tail   (MGI Ref ID J:162640)
  • reproductive system phenotype
  • female infertility   (MGI Ref ID J:162640)
  • vagina atresia   (MGI Ref ID J:162640)
    • about one third of females lack a vaginal opening   (MGI Ref ID J:13059)
  • skeleton phenotype
  • abnormal xiphoid process morphology
    • frequent bifurcation of the xiphoid process, extending beyond the cartilaginous tip, is seen   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
  • hearing/vestibular/ear phenotype
  • *normal* hearing/vestibular/ear phenotype
    • despite abnormal head movements, mice are not deaf   (MGI Ref ID J:13059)
    • abnormal orientation of cochlear hair cell stereociliary bundles
      • stereociliary bundles in apical regions are rotated compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:142392)
  • embryogenesis phenotype
  • craniorachischisis   (MGI Ref ID J:162640)
  • spina bifida
    • in 5% of mice   (MGI Ref ID J:158452)

Vangl2Lp/Vangl2+

        involves: C57BL/6 * CBA/Ca * LPT/LeJ
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal neural tube closure
    • when cultured starting at E8.5 more embryos with open neural tubes are detected suggesting an increase in susceptibility to failure of neural tube closure in stressful conditions   (MGI Ref ID J:20323)
    • however, initiation of closure of the cranial neural tube at the midbrain/forebrain boundary is similar to wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:20323)
    • delayed neural tube closure
      • explants of E8.5 embryos show a delay in closure of about 4 - 6 hrs   (MGI Ref ID J:20323)
      • explants of E9.5 and E10.5 embryos show a delay of posterior neuropore closure   (MGI Ref ID J:20323)
  • embryogenesis phenotype
  • abnormal neural tube closure
    • when cultured starting at E8.5 more embryos with open neural tubes are detected suggesting an increase in susceptibility to failure of neural tube closure in stressful conditions   (MGI Ref ID J:20323)
    • however, initiation of closure of the cranial neural tube at the midbrain/forebrain boundary is similar to wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:20323)
    • delayed neural tube closure
      • explants of E8.5 embryos show a delay in closure of about 4 - 6 hrs   (MGI Ref ID J:20323)
      • explants of E9.5 and E10.5 embryos show a delay of posterior neuropore closure   (MGI Ref ID J:20323)

Vangl2Lp/Vangl2+

        Background Not Specified
  • behavior/neurological phenotype
  • abnormal tail movements   (MGI Ref ID J:165965)
  • craniofacial phenotype
  • abnormal snout morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:165965)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • decreased hemoglobin content   (MGI Ref ID J:165965)
  • increased hematocrit   (MGI Ref ID J:165965)
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • decreased circulating cholesterol level   (MGI Ref ID J:165965)
    • decreased circulating HDL cholesterol level   (MGI Ref ID J:165965)
  • increased blood urea nitrogen level   (MGI Ref ID J:165965)
  • limbs/digits/tail phenotype
  • curly tail   (MGI Ref ID J:165965)
  • kinked tail   (MGI Ref ID J:165965)
  • other phenotype
  • other phenotype   (MGI Ref ID J:165965)
  • skeleton phenotype
  • decreased bone mineral content   (MGI Ref ID J:165965)
  • growth/size/body phenotype
  • abnormal snout morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:165965)

Vangl2Lp/Vangl2Lp

        involves: CBA/Ca * LPT/Le
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal embryonic neuroepithelium morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
  • abnormal neural plate morphology
    • marked broadening and flattening of the neural plate ventral midline at E8.5   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
    • fail to develop a sharp midline bending at E8.5   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
  • craniorachischisis   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
  • open neural tube
    • failure to initiate neural tube closure at the cervical/hindbrain boundry   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
    • neural tube is open throughout the hindbrain and spinal region   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
  • embryogenesis phenotype
  • *normal* embryogenesis phenotype
    • more anterior neural fold development is more like controls   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
    • abnormal embryonic neuroepithelium morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
    • abnormal neural plate morphology
      • marked broadening and flattening of the neural plate ventral midline at E8.5   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
      • fail to develop a sharp midline bending at E8.5   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
    • abnormal notochord morphology
      • enlarged   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
      • loosely organized   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
    • abnormal somite development
      • poorly condensed   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
      • abnormal somite shape
        • irregularly shaped   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
    • craniorachischisis   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
    • open neural tube
      • failure to initiate neural tube closure at the cervical/hindbrain boundry   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
      • neural tube is open throughout the hindbrain and spinal region   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
  • skeleton phenotype
  • abnormal sternum morphology
    • sternal defects   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
  • abnormal vertebral arch development
    • neural arches are unfused dorsally   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
    • unfused arches are splayed apart   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)
  • rib fusion
    • multiple rib fusions   (MGI Ref ID J:47700)

Vangl2Lp/Vangl2Lp

        involves: A
  • mortality/aging
  • complete perinatal lethality
    • while alive in the last few days of gestation, homozygotes do not survive birth   (MGI Ref ID J:13059)
  • hearing/vestibular/ear phenotype
  • abnormal ear development
    • at E15 all elements are present but appear somewhat flattened   (MGI Ref ID J:133114)
    • abnormal otic pit morphology
      • at E8.5 the otic pit is ill-defined and somewhat misshapen   (MGI Ref ID J:133113)
      • at E9.0 the otic pit is poorly defined, tends to have a deeper slit-like portion, and the cell are flattened, less densely arranged and have microvilli that are disorganized and distorted   (MGI Ref ID J:133113)
      • at E9.5 the otic pit lacks the oval shape seen in control littermates, ventrally the border tends to be flattened and less defined, and the epidermal cells tend to be more irregular in shape with flattened surfaces   (MGI Ref ID J:133113)
  • abnormal inner ear morphology
    • abnormalities are similar to those in Pax3Sp homozygotes but with increased severity   (MGI Ref ID J:114748)
    • abnormal cochlear inner hair cell morphology
      • inner hair cells are misoriented compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:162640)
    • abnormal cochlear outer hair cell morphology
      • outer hair cells are misoriented compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:162640)
    • abnormal semicircular canal morphology
      • formation is partially or completely suppressed   (MGI Ref ID J:114748)
    • dilated endolymphatic sac
      • grossly enlarged   (MGI Ref ID J:114748)
  • cardiovascular system phenotype
  • hemorrhage
    • in the last few days before birth the neural tracts are generally fractured across the lumbar region with considerable hemorrhage   (MGI Ref ID J:13059)
    • at E12.5 a hemorrhagic area is present in the flap of metencephalon   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
    • hemorrhage in the flap of metencephalon is also seen in some (3 of 12) embryos at E10.5 - E11.5   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
    • into the amniotic cavity in some embryos   (MGI Ref ID J:133114)
  • embryogenesis phenotype
  • abnormal embryo turning
    • abnormal concave flexure of the back suggests that embryos do not complete rotation at E14.5 - E19.5   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
    • in a study looking at 6 inbred lines, impairment of rotation appears to be more severe in one line (8) than in other lines (16, 44, 55,66, 71)   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
  • abnormal embryonic tissue morphology
    • crooks in the back are frequently seen in embryos at E14.5 - E19.5   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
    • abnormal neural tube morphology/development
      • at E10.5 - E12.5, cell density in portions of the mantle layer of the hindbrain and cord appears to be reduced   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
      • craniorachischisis
        • at E10 the neural tissue fails to form a tube and is instead a herniated cranial mass with two broad tracts separated by a narrow groove down the back   (MGI Ref ID J:13059)
        • in the last few days before birth the neural tracts are generally fractured across the lumbar region   (MGI Ref ID J:13059)
        • at E14.5 - E19.5, neural tissue from the posterior border of the metencephalon back is a flat plate with a deep median groove   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
        • in some embryos flaps of more posterior tissue overlie the diencephalon and sometimes the cerebral hemispheres   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
        • extends from the midbrain to varying levels of the tail   (MGI Ref ID J:5550)
    • abnormal notochord morphology
      • at E9.5 the notochord is shorter with an increase in the diameter and extent of the posterior thickened portion compared to control littermates   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
    • abnormal somite shape
      • at E9.5 posterior somites are often very small and/or irregular in shape   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
    • abnormal somite size
      • at E9.5 posterior somites are often very small and/or irregular in shape   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
    • fused somites
      • at E10 - 11, apparent fusion of some somites is seen associated with torsion of the body   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
  • abnormal primitive streak morphology
    • at E9 - E9.5, the primitive streak is thicker and longer compared to age-matched control littermates   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
  • decreased embryo size
    • slightly smaller than wild-type or heterozygous littermates   (MGI Ref ID J:13059)
    • markedly smaller at E14.5 - E19.5   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
    • reduction in size is not proportional in all parts of the body with the trunk seeming relatively short and the nervous system relatively large for the body   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
    • in later stages   (MGI Ref ID J:133114)
  • short umbilical cord
    • at E19 - E20, average cord length is decreased compared to wild-type and heterozygous littermates   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
  • skeleton phenotype
  • abnormal rib morphology
    • at E17 ribs are irregular in shape, asymmetrical and frequently bifurcated   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
    • abnormal rib development
      • ossification is somewhat delayed in some embryos and development in all embryos is irregular   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
      • ribs are less likely to show the normal size taper pattern   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
    • decreased rib number
      • otal number of ribs on either side tends to be decreased with the number of ribs per side frequently different and correlated to the direction of torsion of the body (i.e. animals with a right twist have fewer right ribs)   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
    • rib bifurcation
      • bifurcation of about 1/3 of the length of the rib is frequently detected at E17   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
    • rib fusion
      • detectable from the earliest appearance of the ribs (around E12) and correlated with bending or torsion of the body   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
  • abnormal rib-vertebral column attachment
    • vertebral parapophyses fail to form and no good articulation between veterbrae and ribs develops   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
  • abnormal sternum morphology
    • at E13 - 14, the separation between the right and left sternal rudiements is increased and the rudiments are less dense compared to control littermates   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
    • at E16 the omosterna is less well developed   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
    • in newborns the sternum is a single solid asymmetrical bone with variable numbers of lateral extensions and without normal segmentation   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
    • lateral extensions are usually tipped with cartilage and extend towards the tips of the ribs   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
    • abnormal rib-sternum attachment
      • at E13 - 14, ribs fail to contact or just barely contact the mesenchymal sternal bands compared to controls where the ribs appear to be embedded in the sternal bands   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
      • at E16 connection between the ribs and sternal cartilages is absent instead distorted sternal rudiments extend towards the ribs   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
      • at E17 the rib tips are more widely separated from the sternum than in control littermates   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
    • abnormal sternebra morphology
      • absence of sternebra formation at E16   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
      • at E17 only rarely is any separation into sternebrae detected   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
      • in some newborns cases partial segmentation of the sternum is seen but the sternebrae are abnormal in size, shape and number   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
    • abnormal sternum ossification
      • the number and size of ossification centers at E17 is normal but the centers are usually asymmetrical and irregular in shape and sometimes fused   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
    • abnormal xiphoid process morphology
      • at E16 the xiphoid process appears as a mesenchymal condensation and is not chondrified   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
      • the cartilaginous bifurcated section is larger than in newborn wild-type littermates   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
  • abnormal vertebrae morphology
    • extremely misshapen   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
    • abnormal vertebral arch morphology
      • do not form normally   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
      • parapophyses fail to form   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
      • abnormal vertebral arch development
        • neural arches fail to form normally around the open, flat neural tube and are seen to puncture the flattened neural folds   (MGI Ref ID J:133114)
      • fusion of vertebral arches
        • frequently fuse to form longitudinal bars of variable length and shape   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
    • abnormal vertebral body morphology
      • centra are abnormal in size, shape and position and frequently fused   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
    • abnormal vertebral epiphyseal plate morphology
      • ossification centers are usually later to appear and more irregular in size and shape   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
    • vertebral fusion
      • centra are frequently fused   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
      • fusion of vertebral arches
        • frequently fuse to form longitudinal bars of variable length and shape   (MGI Ref ID J:12147)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal brain morphology
    • in some embryos a large flap-like extension of neural tissue overhangs the face   (MGI Ref ID J:133114)
    • abnormal brain development
      • at E9.5 the neural anlage in the region of the floor is shorter compared to control littermates   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
      • the number of mitotic figures is increased in the brain but not in the spinal cord   (MGI Ref ID J:133114)
      • abnormal midbrain development
        • at E10 and E11 in ventricular cells of the tectum, the mitotic index is increased, generation time is increased, and M, G1 and S (on E11 only) phases of the cell cycle are prolonged   (MGI Ref ID J:5550)
    • abnormal forebrain morphology
      • at E10 the lumen is collapsed   (MGI Ref ID J:133114)
      • abnormal cerebrum morphology
        • in some cases the cerebral hemispheres are collapsed at E14.5 - E19.5   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
    • abnormal hindbrain morphology
      • at E10, the ventral midline groove is shallower and cells of the groove are less densely covered with microvilli and bulbous processes   (MGI Ref ID J:5544)
      • at E11 the cells are flattened, lack microvilli and have less prominent bulbous processes   (MGI Ref ID J:5544)
      • at E12 - E14, flattened cells with apparently everted edges and deep depressions spanning multiple cells are present in lateral regions   (MGI Ref ID J:5544)
      • abnormal metencephalon morphology
        • at E10.5, the roof of the metencephalon appears stretched and some cells have pulled apart   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
    • abnormal midbrain morphology
      • at E10, mesencephalic tissue protrudes creating a median dorsal extension   (MGI Ref ID J:133114)
      • at E10 mesencephalon cells lack microvilli but retain a fairly normal cilium   (MGI Ref ID J:5544)
      • at E12 - E14, flattened cells with apparently everted edges and deep depressions spanning multiple cells are present in lateral regions   (MGI Ref ID J:5544)
  • abnormal cochlear inner hair cell morphology
    • inner hair cells are misoriented compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:162640)
  • abnormal cochlear outer hair cell morphology
    • outer hair cells are misoriented compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:162640)
  • abnormal neural tube morphology/development
    • at E10.5 - E12.5, cell density in portions of the mantle layer of the hindbrain and cord appears to be reduced   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
    • craniorachischisis
      • at E10 the neural tissue fails to form a tube and is instead a herniated cranial mass with two broad tracts separated by a narrow groove down the back   (MGI Ref ID J:13059)
      • in the last few days before birth the neural tracts are generally fractured across the lumbar region   (MGI Ref ID J:13059)
      • at E14.5 - E19.5, neural tissue from the posterior border of the metencephalon back is a flat plate with a deep median groove   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
      • in some embryos flaps of more posterior tissue overlie the diencephalon and sometimes the cerebral hemispheres   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
      • extends from the midbrain to varying levels of the tail   (MGI Ref ID J:5550)
  • digestive/alimentary phenotype
  • abnormal digestive system development
    • at E9.5 the gut is shorter compared to control littermates   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
  • growth/size/body phenotype
  • abnormal body wall morphology
    • at E14.5 - E19.5, hernias in which the liver and intestines are found outside the body wall are seen in one line (8) while 5 other inbred lines of this allele lack hernias (16, 44, 55,66, 71)   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
    • abnormal ventral body wall morphology
      • in 2 embryos complete failure of ventral closure is seen with the heart, lungs, liver, and intestines exposed   (MGI Ref ID J:13059)
    • omphalocele
      • in a fair number of embryos small hernias are detected   (MGI Ref ID J:13059)
  • decreased embryo size
    • slightly smaller than wild-type or heterozygous littermates   (MGI Ref ID J:13059)
    • markedly smaller at E14.5 - E19.5   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
    • reduction in size is not proportional in all parts of the body with the trunk seeming relatively short and the nervous system relatively large for the body   (MGI Ref ID J:12992)
    • in later stages   (MGI Ref ID J:133114)
  • craniofacial phenotype
  • abnormal otic pit morphology
    • at E8.5 the otic pit is ill-defined and somewhat misshapen   (MGI Ref ID J:133113)
    • at E9.0 the otic pit is poorly defined, tends to have a deeper slit-like portion, and the cell are flattened, less densely arranged and have microvilli that are disorganized and distorted   (MGI Ref ID J:133113)
    • at E9.5 the otic pit lacks the oval shape seen in control littermates, ventrally the border tends to be flattened and less defined, and the epidermal cells tend to be more irregular in shape with flattened surfaces   (MGI Ref ID J:133113)

Vangl2Lp/Vangl2Lp

        involves: C57BL/6 * CBA/Ca * LPT/LeJ
  • nervous system phenotype
  • craniorachischisis
    • at E9.5 - E10.5, neural tube is open from the hindbrain to the caudal extremity   (MGI Ref ID J:20323)
    • however, initiation of closure of the cranial neural tube at the midbrain/forebrain boundary is similar to wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:20323)
  • embryogenesis phenotype
  • craniorachischisis
    • at E9.5 - E10.5, neural tube is open from the hindbrain to the caudal extremity   (MGI Ref ID J:20323)
    • however, initiation of closure of the cranial neural tube at the midbrain/forebrain boundary is similar to wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:20323)

Vangl2Lp/Vangl2Lp

        B6.A(Cg)-Vangl2Lp
  • reproductive system phenotype
  • male infertility   (MGI Ref ID J:185311)
  • vagina atresia
    • imperforated vagina in some mice   (MGI Ref ID J:185311)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Vangl2Lp related

Cardiovascular Research
Heart Abnormalities

Developmental Biology Research
Neural Tube Defects
Skeletal Defects

Internal/Organ Research
Heart Abnormalities

Neurobiology Research
Neural Tube Defects

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

 
Allele Symbol Vangl2Lp
Allele Name loop tail
Allele Type Spontaneous
Common Name(s) Lp; LtapLp; Vangl2S464N; looptail; lpt;
Strain of OriginA
Gene Symbol and Name Vangl2, vang-like 2 (van gogh, Drosophila)
Chromosome 1
Gene Common Name(s) C530001F03Rik; LPP1; LTAP; Lp; Ltap; RIKEN cDNA C530001F03 gene; STB1; STBM; STBM1; loop tail; loop tail associated protein; loop-tail; mKIAA1215; ska17; skam17Jus; skeletal/axial 17; strabismus;
Molecular Note The mutation in the loop tail mouse is a transition point mutation that alters a G to an A at position 1391. This is predicted to alter serine 464 to asparagine in the encoded protein. [MGI Ref ID J:70272]

Genotyping

Genotyping Information


Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting

References

References provided by MGI

Additional References

Copp AJ; Checiu I; Henson JN. 1994. Developmental basis of severe neural tube defects in the loop-tail (Lp) mutant mouse: use of microsatellite DNA markers to identify embryonic genotype. Dev Biol 165(1):20-9. [PubMed: 8088438]  [MGI Ref ID J:20323]

Henderson DJ; Conway SJ; Greene ND; Gerrelli D; Murdoch JN; Anderson RH; Copp AJ. 2001. Cardiovascular defects associated with abnormalities in midline development in the Loop-tail mouse mutant. Circ Res 89(1):6-12. [PubMed: 11440971]  [MGI Ref ID J:74156]

Kibar Z; Underhill DA; Canonne-Hergaux F; Gauthier S; Justice MJ; Gros P. 2001. Identification of a new chemically induced allele (lp(m1jus)) at the loop-tail locus: morphology, histology, and genetic mapping. Genomics 72(3):331-7. [PubMed: 11401449]  [MGI Ref ID J:68823]

Murdoch JN; Doudney K; Paternotte C; Copp AJ; Stanier P. 2001. Severe neural tube defects in the loop-tail mouse result from mutation of Lpp1, a novel gene involved in floor plate specification. Hum Mol Genet 10(22):2593-601. [PubMed: 11709546]  [MGI Ref ID J:72911]

Rachel RA; Murdoch JN; Beermann F; Copp AJ; Mason CA. 2000. Retinal axon misrouting at the optic chiasm in mice with neural tube closure defects. Genesis 27(1):32-47. [PubMed: 10862153]  [MGI Ref ID J:62635]

Wilson DB; Wyatt DP. 1994. Analysis of neurulation in a mouse model for neural dysraphism. Exp Neurol 127(1):154-8. [PubMed: 8200433]  [MGI Ref ID J:18787]

Vangl2Lp related

Abeelen JH van. 1968. Behavioural ontogeny of looptail mice. Anim Behav 16(1):1-4. [PubMed: 5651230]  [MGI Ref ID J:5070]

Abeelen JH van; Raven SM. 1968. Enlarged ventricles in the cerebrum of loop-tail mice. Experientia 24(2):191-2. [PubMed: 4230658]  [MGI Ref ID J:5061]

Agalliu D; Takada S; Agalliu I; McMahon AP; Jessell TM. 2009. Motor neurons with axial muscle projections specified by Wnt4/5 signaling. Neuron 61(5):708-20. [PubMed: 19285468]  [MGI Ref ID J:155074]

Allache R; Lachance S; Guyot MC; De Marco P; Merello E; Justice MJ; Capra V; Kibar Z. 2014. Novel mutations in Lrp6 orthologs in mouse and human neural tube defects affect a highly dosage-sensitive Wnt non-canonical planar cell polarity pathway. Hum Mol Genet 23(7):1687-99. [PubMed: 24203697]  [MGI Ref ID J:206979]

Antic D; Stubbs JL; Suyama K; Kintner C; Scott MP; Axelrod JD. 2010. Planar cell polarity enables posterior localization of nodal cilia and left-right axis determination during mouse and Xenopus embryogenesis. PLoS One 5(2):e8999. [PubMed: 20126399]  [MGI Ref ID J:157938]

Armstrong A; Ryu YK; Chieco D; Kuruvilla R. 2011. Frizzled3 Is Required for Neurogenesis and Target Innervation during Sympathetic Nervous System Development. J Neurosci 31(7):2371-81. [PubMed: 21325504]  [MGI Ref ID J:169444]

Caddy J; Wilanowski T; Darido C; Dworkin S; Ting SB; Zhao Q; Rank G; Auden A; Srivastava S; Papenfuss TA; Murdoch JN; Humbert PO; Boulos N; Weber T; Zuo J; Cunningham JM; Jane SM. 2010. Epidermal wound repair is regulated by the planar cell polarity signaling pathway. Dev Cell 19(1):138-47. [PubMed: 20643356]  [MGI Ref ID J:162624]

Carroll EA; Gerrelli D; Gasca S; Berg E; Beier DR; Copp AJ; Klingensmith J. 2003. Cordon-bleu is a conserved gene involved in neural tube formation. Dev Biol 262(1):16-31. [PubMed: 14512015]  [MGI Ref ID J:85744]

Cervantes S; Yamaguchi TP; Hebrok M. 2009. Wnt5a is essential for intestinal elongation in mice. Dev Biol 326(2):285-94. [PubMed: 19100728]  [MGI Ref ID J:145166]

Chacon-Heszele MF; Ren D; Reynolds AB; Chi F; Chen P. 2012. Regulation of cochlear convergent extension by the vertebrate planar cell polarity pathway is dependent on p120-catenin. Development 139(5):968-78. [PubMed: 22318628]  [MGI Ref ID J:182748]

Copp AJ; Checiu I; Henson JN. 1994. Developmental basis of severe neural tube defects in the loop-tail (Lp) mutant mouse: use of microsatellite DNA markers to identify embryonic genotype. Dev Biol 165(1):20-9. [PubMed: 8088438]  [MGI Ref ID J:20323]

Das A; Tanigawa S; Karner CM; Xin M; Lum L; Chen C; Olson EN; Perantoni AO; Carroll TJ. 2013. Stromal-epithelial crosstalk regulates kidney progenitor cell differentiation. Nat Cell Biol 15(9):1035-44. [PubMed: 23974041]  [MGI Ref ID J:201586]

Dawe CE; Kooistra MK; Fairbridge NA; Pisio AC; McDermid HE. 2011. Role of chromatin remodeling gene Cecr2 in neurulation and inner ear development. Dev Dyn 240(2):372-83. [PubMed: 21246654]  [MGI Ref ID J:167834]

Delaunay D; Cortay V; Patti D; Knoblauch K; Dehay C. 2014. Mitotic spindle asymmetry: a Wnt/PCP-regulated mechanism generating asymmetrical division in cortical precursors. Cell Rep 6(2):400-14. [PubMed: 24412369]  [MGI Ref ID J:208822]

Deol MS. 1966. Influence of the neural tube on the differentiation of the inner ear in the mammalian embryo. Nature 209(5019):219-20. [PubMed: 5912439]  [MGI Ref ID J:114748]

Devenport D; Fuchs E. 2008. Planar polarization in embryonic epidermis orchestrates global asymmetric morphogenesis of hair follicles. Nat Cell Biol 10(11):1257-68. [PubMed: 18849982]  [MGI Ref ID J:145627]

Devenport D; Oristian D; Heller E; Fuchs E. 2011. Mitotic internalization of planar cell polarity proteins preserves tissue polarity. Nat Cell Biol 13(8):893-902. [PubMed: 21743464]  [MGI Ref ID J:174422]

Escobedo N; Contreras O; Munoz R; Farias M; Carrasco H; Hill C; Tran U; Pryor SE; Wessely O; Copp AJ; Larrain J. 2013. Syndecan 4 interacts genetically with Vangl2 to regulate neural tube closure and planar cell polarity. Development 140(14):3008-17. [PubMed: 23760952]  [MGI Ref ID J:198639]

Etheridge SL; Ray S; Li S; Hamblet NS; Lijam N; Tsang M; Greer J; Kardos N; Wang J; Sussman DJ; Chen P; Wynshaw-Boris A. 2008. Murine dishevelled 3 functions in redundant pathways with dishevelled 1 and 2 in normal cardiac outflow tract, cochlea, and neural tube development. PLoS Genet 4(11):e1000259. [PubMed: 19008950]  [MGI Ref ID J:142392]

Fenstermaker AG; Prasad AA; Bechara A; Adolfs Y; Tissir F; Goffinet A; Zou Y; Pasterkamp RJ. 2010. Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling controls the anterior-posterior organization of monoaminergic axons in the brainstem. J Neurosci 30(47):16053-64. [PubMed: 21106844]  [MGI Ref ID J:166974]

Gao B; Song H; Bishop K; Elliot G; Garrett L; English MA; Andre P; Robinson J; Sood R; Minami Y; Economides AN; Yang Y. 2011. Wnt signaling gradients establish planar cell polarity by inducing Vangl2 phosphorylation through Ror2. Dev Cell 20(2):163-76. [PubMed: 21316585]  [MGI Ref ID J:169766]

Garcia-Garcia MJ; Shibata M; Anderson KV. 2008. Chato, a KRAB zinc-finger protein, regulates convergent extension in the mouse embryo. Development 135(18):3053-62. [PubMed: 18701545]  [MGI Ref ID J:139139]

Gerrelli D; Copp AJ. 1997. Failure of neural tube closure in the loop-tail (Lp) mutant mouse: analysis of the embryonic mechanism. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 102(2):217-24. [PubMed: 9352104]  [MGI Ref ID J:43204]

Greene ND; Gerrelli D; Van Straaten HW; Copp AJ. 1998. Abnormalities of floor plate, notochord and somite differentiation in the loop-tail (Lp) mouse: a model of severe neural tube defects. Mech Dev 73(1):59-72. [PubMed: 9545534]  [MGI Ref ID J:47700]

Grimsley-Myers CM; Sipe CW; Geleoc GS; Lu X. 2009. The small GTPase Rac1 regulates auditory hair cell morphogenesis. J Neurosci 29(50):15859-69. [PubMed: 20016102]  [MGI Ref ID J:157099]

Guyot MC; Bosoi CM; Kharfallah F; Reynolds A; Drapeau P; Justice M; Gros P; Kibar Z. 2011. A novel hypomorphic Looptail allele at the planar cell polarity Vangl2 gene. Dev Dyn 240(4):839-49. [PubMed: 21404367]  [MGI Ref ID J:169664]

Henderson DJ; Conway SJ; Greene ND; Gerrelli D; Murdoch JN; Anderson RH; Copp AJ. 2001. Cardiovascular defects associated with abnormalities in midline development in the Loop-tail mouse mutant. Circ Res 89(1):6-12. [PubMed: 11440971]  [MGI Ref ID J:74156]

Jones C; Roper VC; Foucher I; Qian D; Banizs B; Petit C; Yoder BK; Chen P. 2008. Ciliary proteins link basal body polarization to planar cell polarity regulation. Nat Genet 40(1):69-77. [PubMed: 18066062]  [MGI Ref ID J:131308]

Kibar Z; Underhill DA; Canonne-Hergaux F; Gauthier S; Justice MJ; Gros P. 2001. Identification of a new chemically induced allele (lp(m1jus)) at the loop-tail locus: morphology, histology, and genetic mapping. Genomics 72(3):331-7. [PubMed: 11401449]  [MGI Ref ID J:68823]

Kibar Z; Vogan KJ; Groulx N; Justice MJ; Underhill DA; Gros P. 2001. Ltap, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila Strabismus/Van Gogh, is altered in the mouse neural tube mutant Loop-tail. Nat Genet 28(3):251-5. [PubMed: 11431695]  [MGI Ref ID J:70272]

Lake BB; Sokol SY. 2009. Strabismus regulates asymmetric cell divisions and cell fate determination in the mouse brain. J Cell Biol 185(1):59-66. [PubMed: 19332887]  [MGI Ref ID J:147346]

Lindqvist M; Horn Z; Bryja V; Schulte G; Papachristou P; Ajima R; Dyberg C; Arenas E; Yamaguchi TP; Lagercrantz H; Ringstedt T. 2010. Vang-like protein 2 and Rac1 interact to regulate adherens junctions. J Cell Sci 123(Pt 3):472-83. [PubMed: 20067994]  [MGI Ref ID J:158385]

Lu X; Borchers AG; Jolicoeur C; Rayburn H; Baker JC; Tessier-Lavigne M. 2004. PTK7/CCK-4 is a novel regulator of planar cell polarity in vertebrates. Nature 430(6995):93-8. [PubMed: 15229603]  [MGI Ref ID J:91298]

Macheda ML; Sun WW; Kugathasan K; Hogan BM; Bower NI; Halford MM; Zhang YF; Jacques BE; Lieschke GJ; Dabdoub A; Stacker SA. 2012. The Wnt receptor Ryk plays a role in mammalian planar cell polarity signaling. J Biol Chem 287(35):29312-23. [PubMed: 22773843]  [MGI Ref ID J:190423]

Mahaffey JP; Grego-Bessa J; Liem KF Jr; Anderson KV. 2013. Cofilin and Vangl2 cooperate in the initiation of planar cell polarity in the mouse embryo. Development 140(6):1262-71. [PubMed: 23406901]  [MGI Ref ID J:194042]

Matsuyama M; Aizawa S; Shimono A. 2009. Sfrp controls apicobasal polarity and oriented cell division in developing gut epithelium. PLoS Genet 5(3):e1000427. [PubMed: 19300477]  [MGI Ref ID J:147041]

Merte J; Jensen D; Wright K; Sarsfield S; Wang Y; Schekman R; Ginty DD. 2010. Sec24b selectively sorts Vangl2 to regulate planar cell polarity during neural tube closure. Nat Cell Biol 12(1):41-6; sup pp 1-8. [PubMed: 19966784]  [MGI Ref ID J:158452]

Montcouquiol M; Rachel RA; Lanford PJ; Copeland NG; Jenkins NA; Kelley MW. 2003. Identification of Vangl2 and Scrb1 as planar polarity genes in mammals. Nature 423(6936):173-7. [PubMed: 12724779]  [MGI Ref ID J:83127]

Montcouquiol M; Sans N; Huss D; Kach J; Dickman JD; Forge A; Rachel RA; Copeland NG; Jenkins NA; Bogani D; Murdoch J; Warchol ME; Wenthold RJ; Kelley MW. 2006. Asymmetric localization of Vangl2 and Fz3 indicate novel mechanisms for planar cell polarity in mammals. J Neurosci 26(19):5265-75. [PubMed: 16687519]  [MGI Ref ID J:108647]

Mouse Genome Informatics and the Europhenome Mouse Phenotyping Resource. 2010. Obtaining and Loading Phenotype Annotations from Europhenome Database Release :.  [MGI Ref ID J:165965]

Murdoch JN; Doudney K; Paternotte C; Copp AJ; Stanier P. 2001. Severe neural tube defects in the loop-tail mouse result from mutation of Lpp1, a novel gene involved in floor plate specification. Hum Mol Genet 10(22):2593-601. [PubMed: 11709546]  [MGI Ref ID J:72911]

Murdoch JN; Henderson DJ; Doudney K; Gaston-Massuet C; Phillips HM; Paternotte C; Arkell R; Stanier P; Copp AJ. 2003. Disruption of scribble (Scrb1) causes severe neural tube defects in the circletail mouse. Hum Mol Genet 12(2):87-98. [PubMed: 12499390]  [MGI Ref ID J:81365]

Murdoch JN; Rachel RA; Shah S; Beermann F; Stanier P; Mason CA; Copp AJ. 2001. Circletail, a new mouse mutant with severe neural tube defects: chromosomal localization and interaction with the loop-tail mutation. Genomics 78(1/2):55-63. [PubMed: 11707073]  [MGI Ref ID J:72608]

Paudyal A; Damrau C; Patterson VL; Ermakov A; Formstone C; Lalanne Z; Wells S; Lu X; Norris DP; Dean CH; Henderson DJ; Murdoch JN. 2010. The novel mouse mutant, chuzhoi, has disruption of Ptk7 protein and exhibits defects in neural tube, heart and lung development and abnormal planar cell polarity in the ear. BMC Dev Biol 10:87. [PubMed: 20704721]  [MGI Ref ID J:163834]

Petzold A; Stiefel D; Copp AJ. 2005. Amniotic fluid brain-specific proteins are biomarkers for spinal cord injury in experimental myelomeningocele. J Neurochem 95(2):594-8. [PubMed: 16190875]  [MGI Ref ID J:103589]

Phillips HM; Hildreth V; Peat JD; Murdoch JN; Kobayashi K; Chaudhry B; Henderson DJ. 2008. Non-cell-autonomous roles for the planar cell polarity gene Vangl2 in development of the coronary circulation. Circ Res 102(5):615-23. [PubMed: 18174466]  [MGI Ref ID J:147661]

Phillips HM; Murdoch JN; Chaudhry B; Copp AJ; Henderson DJ. 2005. Vangl2 acts via RhoA signaling to regulate polarized cell movements during development of the proximal outflow tract. Circ Res 96(3):292-9. [PubMed: 15637299]  [MGI Ref ID J:106431]

Phillips HM; Rhee HJ; Murdoch JN; Hildreth V; Peat JD; Anderson RH; Copp AJ; Chaudhry B; Henderson DJ. 2007. Disruption of planar cell polarity signaling results in congenital heart defects and cardiomyopathy attributable to early cardiomyocyte disorganization. Circ Res 101(2):137-45. [PubMed: 17556662]  [MGI Ref ID J:137807]

Qian D; Jones C; Rzadzinska A; Mark S; Zhang X; Steel KP; Dai X; Chen P. 2007. Wnt5a functions in planar cell polarity regulation in mice. Dev Biol 306(1):121-33. [PubMed: 17433286]  [MGI Ref ID J:122585]

Reis JL; Correia-Pinto J; Monteiro MP; Hutchins GM. 2007. In utero topographic analysis of astrocytes and neuronal cells in the spinal cord of mutant mice with myelomeningocele. J Neurosurg 106(6 Suppl):472-9. [PubMed: 17566405]  [MGI Ref ID J:125330]

Ren DD; Kelly M; Kim SM; Grimsley-Myers CM; Chi FL; Chen P. 2013. Testin interacts with vangl2 genetically to regulate inner ear sensory cell orientation and the normal development of the female reproductive tract in mice. Dev Dyn 242(12):1454-65. [PubMed: 23996638]  [MGI Ref ID J:202995]

Ross AJ; May-Simera H; Eichers ER; Kai M; Hill J; Jagger DJ; Leitch CC; Chapple JP; Munro PM; Fisher S; Tan PL; Phillips HM; Leroux MR; Henderson DJ; Murdoch JN; Copp AJ; Eliot MM; Lupski JR; Kemp DT; Dollfus H; Tada M; Katsanis N; Forge A; Beales PL. 2005. Disruption of Bardet-Biedl syndrome ciliary proteins perturbs planar cell polarity in vertebrates. Nat Genet 37(10):1135-40. [PubMed: 16170314]  [MGI Ref ID J:102697]

SMITH LJ; STEIN KF. 1962. Axial elongation in the mouse and its retardation in homozygous looptail mice. J Embryol Exp Morphol 10:73-87. [PubMed: 14039372]  [MGI Ref ID J:12992]

STEIN KF; MACKENSEN JA. 1957. Abnormal development of the thoracic skeleton in mice homozygous for the gene for looped-tail. Am J Anat 100(2):205-23. [PubMed: 13435227]  [MGI Ref ID J:12147]

Saburi S; Hester I; Fischer E; Pontoglio M; Eremina V; Gessler M; Quaggin SE; Harrison R; Mount R; McNeill H. 2008. Loss of Fat4 disrupts PCP signaling and oriented cell division and leads to cystic kidney disease. Nat Genet 40(8):1010-5. [PubMed: 18604206]  [MGI Ref ID J:138247]

Saburi S; Hester I; Goodrich L; McNeill H. 2012. Functional interactions between Fat family cadherins in tissue morphogenesis and planar polarity. Development 139(10):1806-20. [PubMed: 22510986]  [MGI Ref ID J:184005]

Satoh W; Matsuyama M; Takemura H; Aizawa S; Shimono A. 2008. Sfrp1, Sfrp2, and Sfrp5 regulate the Wnt/beta-catenin and the planar cell polarity pathways during early trunk formation in mouse. Genesis 46(2):92-103. [PubMed: 18257070]  [MGI Ref ID J:135313]

Shafer B; Onishi K; Lo C; Colakoglu G; Zou Y. 2011. Vangl2 promotes Wnt/planar cell polarity-like signaling by antagonizing Dvl1-mediated feedback inhibition in growth cone guidance. Dev Cell 20(2):177-91. [PubMed: 21316586]  [MGI Ref ID J:169765]

Sinha T; Wang B; Evans S; Wynshaw-Boris A; Wang J. 2012. Disheveled mediated planar cell polarity signaling is required in the second heart field lineage for outflow tract morphogenesis. Dev Biol 370(1):135-44. [PubMed: 22841628]  [MGI Ref ID J:188039]

Snell GD; Dickie MM; Smith P; Kelton DE. 1954. Linkage of loop-tail, leaden, splotch and fuzzy in the mouse Heredity 8:271-273.  [MGI Ref ID J:120]

Song H; Hu J; Chen W; Elliott G; Andre P; Gao B; Yang Y. 2010. Planar cell polarity breaks bilateral symmetry by controlling ciliary positioning. Nature 466(7304):378-82. [PubMed: 20562861]  [MGI Ref ID J:162640]

Stein KF; Rudin IA. 1953. Development of the mice homozygous for the gene for looptail J Hered 44:59-69.  [MGI Ref ID J:133114]

Stottmann RW; Moran JL; Turbe-Doan A; Driver E; Kelley M; Beier DR. 2011. Focusing Forward Genetics: A Tripartite ENU Screen for Neurodevelopmental Mutations in the Mouse. Genetics 188(3):615-24. [PubMed: 21515572]  [MGI Ref ID J:174027]

Strong LC; Hollander WF. 1949. Hereditary loop-tail in the house mouse accompanied by imperforate vagina and craniorachischisis when homozygous. J Hered 40:329-334.  [MGI Ref ID J:13059]

Suriben R; Kivimae S; Fisher DA; Moon RT; Cheyette BN. 2009. Posterior malformations in Dact1 mutant mice arise through misregulated Vangl2 at the primitive streak. Nat Genet 41(9):977-85. [PubMed: 19701191]  [MGI Ref ID J:152701]

Tang N; Marshall WF; McMahon M; Metzger RJ; Martin GR. 2011. Control of mitotic spindle angle by the RAS-regulated ERK1/2 pathway determines lung tube shape. Science 333(6040):342-5. [PubMed: 21764747]  [MGI Ref ID J:174194]

Tao H; Inoue K; Kiyonari H; Bassuk AG; Axelrod JD; Sasaki H; Aizawa S; Ueno N. 2012. Nuclear localization of Prickle2 is required to establish cell polarity during early mouse embryogenesis. Dev Biol 364(2):138-48. [PubMed: 22333836]  [MGI Ref ID J:183948]

Tao H; Suzuki M; Kiyonari H; Abe T; Sasaoka T; Ueno N. 2009. Mouse prickle1, the homolog of a PCP gene, is essential for epiblast apical-basal polarity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(34):14426-31. [PubMed: 19706528]  [MGI Ref ID J:151993]

Torban E; Patenaude AM; Leclerc S; Rakowiecki S; Gauthier S; Andelfinger G; Epstein DJ; Gros P. 2008. Genetic interaction between members of the Vangl family causes neural tube defects in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(9):3449-54. [PubMed: 18296642]  [MGI Ref ID J:132697]

Torban E; Wang HJ; Patenaude AM; Riccomagno M; Daniels E; Epstein D; Gros P. 2007. Tissue, cellular and sub-cellular localization of the Vangl2 protein during embryonic development: Effect of the Lp mutation. Gene Expr Patterns 7(3):346-54. [PubMed: 16962386]  [MGI Ref ID J:116150]

Vandenberg AL; Sassoon DA. 2009. Non-canonical Wnt signaling regulates cell polarity in female reproductive tract development via van gogh-like 2. Development 136(9):1559-70. [PubMed: 19363157]  [MGI Ref ID J:147958]

Vivancos V; Chen P; Spassky N; Qian D; Dabdoub A; Kelley M; Studer M; Guthrie S. 2009. Wnt activity guides facial branchiomotor neuron migration, and involves the PCP pathway and JNK and ROCK kinases. Neural Dev 4:7. [PubMed: 19210786]  [MGI Ref ID J:160731]

Wang B; Sinha T; Jiao K; Serra R; Wang J. 2011. Disruption of PCP signaling causes limb morphogenesis and skeletal defects and may underlie Robinow syndrome and brachydactyly type B. Hum Mol Genet 20(2):271-85. [PubMed: 20962035]  [MGI Ref ID J:166923]

Wang J; Hamblet NS; Mark S; Dickinson ME; Brinkman BC; Segil N; Fraser SE; Chen P; Wallingford JB; Wynshaw-Boris A. 2006. Dishevelled genes mediate a conserved mammalian PCP pathway to regulate convergent extension during neurulation. Development 133(9):1767-78. [PubMed: 16571627]  [MGI Ref ID J:108512]

Wang J; Mark S; Zhang X; Qian D; Yoo SJ; Radde-Gallwitz K; Zhang Y; Lin X; Collazo A; Wynshaw-Boris A; Chen P. 2005. Regulation of polarized extension and planar cell polarity in the cochlea by the vertebrate PCP pathway. Nat Genet 37(9):980-5. [PubMed: 16116426]  [MGI Ref ID J:100861]

Wang Y; Chang H; Nathans J. 2010. When whorls collide: the development of hair patterns in frizzled 6 mutant mice. Development 137(23):4091-9. [PubMed: 21062866]  [MGI Ref ID J:166889]

Warr N; Siggers P; Bogani D; Brixey R; Pastorelli L; Yates L; Dean CH; Wells S; Satoh W; Shimono A; Greenfield A. 2009. Sfrp1 and Sfrp2 are required for normal male sexual development in mice. Dev Biol 326(2):273-84. [PubMed: 19100252]  [MGI Ref ID J:147206]

Wilson DB. 1985. An ultrastructural analysis of abnormal otic development in exencephalic mutant mice. Arch Otorhinolaryngol 241(2):203-8. [PubMed: 3977771]  [MGI Ref ID J:13370]

Wilson DB. 1983. Early development of the otocyst in an exencephalic mutant of the mouse. Acta Anat (Basel) 117(3):217-24. [PubMed: 6650116]  [MGI Ref ID J:133113]

Wilson DB. 1985. Ultrastructural analysis of basal neuroepithelial cells in dysraphic mice. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol Incl Mol Pathol 48(1):9-17. [PubMed: 2858942]  [MGI Ref ID J:7801]

Wilson DB; Center EM. 1977. Differences in cerebral morphology in 2 stocks of mutant mice heterozygous for the loop-tail (Lp)-gene. Experientia 33(11):1502-3. [PubMed: 923728]  [MGI Ref ID J:5888]

Wilson DB; Center EM. 1974. The neural cell cycle in the looptail (Lp) mutant mouse. J Embryol Exp Morphol 32(3):698-705. [PubMed: 4477997]  [MGI Ref ID J:5550]

Wilson DB; Finta LA. 1980. Early development of the brain and spinal cord in dysraphic mice: a transmission electron microscopic study. J Comp Neurol 190(2):363-71. [PubMed: 6991554]  [MGI Ref ID J:133124]

Wilson DB; Michael SD. 1975. Surface defects in ventricular cells of brains of mouse embryos homozygous for the Loop-tail gene: scanning electron microscopic study. Teratology 11(1):87-98. [PubMed: 1138408]  [MGI Ref ID J:5544]

Wilson DB; Wyatt DP. 1992. Abnormal elevation of the neural folds in the loop-tail mutant mouse. Acta Anat (Basel) 143(2):89-95. [PubMed: 1598821]  [MGI Ref ID J:127]

Wilson DB; Wyatt DP. 1995. Alterations in cranial morphogenesis in the Lp mutant mouse. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol 15(4):182-9. [PubMed: 8719347]  [MGI Ref ID J:31081]

Wilson DB; Wyatt DP. 1994. Analysis of neurulation in a mouse model for neural dysraphism. Exp Neurol 127(1):154-8. [PubMed: 8200433]  [MGI Ref ID J:18787]

Yamamoto S; Nishimura O; Misaki K; Nishita M; Minami Y; Yonemura S; Tarui H; Sasaki H. 2008. Cthrc1 selectively activates the planar cell polarity pathway of Wnt signaling by stabilizing the Wnt-receptor complex. Dev Cell 15(1):23-36. [PubMed: 18606138]  [MGI Ref ID J:140886]

Yang X; Cheyette BN. 2013. SEC14 and spectrin domains 1 (Sestd1) and Dapper antagonist of catenin 1 (Dact1) scaffold proteins cooperatively regulate the Van Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2) four-pass transmembrane protein and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway during embryonic development in mice. J Biol Chem 288(28):20111-20. [PubMed: 23696638]  [MGI Ref ID J:201925]

Yang Z; Chen Y; Lillo C; Chien J; Yu Z; Michaelides M; Klein M; Howes KA; Li Y; Kaminoh Y; Chen H; Zhao C; Chen Y; Al-Sheikh YT; Karan G; Corbeil D; Escher P; Kamaya S; Li C; Johnson S; Frederick JM; Zhao Y; Wang C; Cameron DJ; Huttner WB; Schorderet DF;Munier FL; Moore AT; Birch DG; Baehr W; Hunt DM; Williams DS; Zhang K. 2008. Mutant prominin 1 found in patients with macular degeneration disrupts photoreceptor disk morphogenesis in mice. J Clin Invest 118(8):2908-16. [PubMed: 18654668]  [MGI Ref ID J:140984]

Yates LL; Papakrivopoulou J; Long DA; Goggolidou P; Connolly JO; Woolf AS; Dean CH. 2010. The planar cell polarity gene Vangl2 is required for mammalian kidney-branching morphogenesis and glomerular maturation. Hum Mol Genet 19(23):4663-76. [PubMed: 20843830]  [MGI Ref ID J:166958]

Yates LL; Schnatwinkel C; Murdoch JN; Bogani D; Formstone CJ; Townsend S; Greenfield A; Niswander LA; Dean CH. 2010. The PCP genes Celsr1 and Vangl2 are required for normal lung branching morphogenesis. Hum Mol Genet 19(11):2251-67. [PubMed: 20223754]  [MGI Ref ID J:159690]

Ybot-Gonzalez P; Savery D; Gerrelli D; Signore M; Mitchell CE; Faux CH; Greene ND; Copp AJ. 2007. Convergent extension, planar-cell-polarity signalling and initiation of mouse neural tube closure. Development 134(4):789-99. [PubMed: 17229766]  [MGI Ref ID J:119920]

Yin H; Copley CO; Goodrich LV; Deans MR. 2012. Comparison of phenotypes between different vangl2 mutants demonstrates dominant effects of the Looptail mutation during hair cell development. PLoS One 7(2):e31988. [PubMed: 22363783]  [MGI Ref ID J:185311]

Yu H; Smallwood PM; Wang Y; Vidaltamayo R; Reed R; Nathans J. 2010. Frizzled 1 and frizzled 2 genes function in palate, ventricular septum and neural tube closure: general implications for tissue fusion processes. Development 137(21):3707-17. [PubMed: 20940229]  [MGI Ref ID J:165556]

Yu H; Ye X; Guo N; Nathans J. 2012. Frizzled 2 and frizzled 7 function redundantly in convergent extension and closure of the ventricular septum and palate: evidence for a network of interacting genes. Development 139(23):4383-94. [PubMed: 23095888]  [MGI Ref ID J:189062]

Zhou W; Lin L; Majumdar A; Li X; Zhang X; Liu W; Etheridge L; Shi Y; Martin J; Van de Ven W; Kaartinen V; Wynshaw-Boris A; McMahon AP; Rosenfeld MG; Evans SM. 2007. Modulation of morphogenesis by noncanonical Wnt signaling requires ATF/CREB family-mediated transcriptional activation of TGFbeta2. Nat Genet 39(10):1225-34. [PubMed: 17767158]  [MGI Ref ID J:125640]

van Abeelen JH. 1966. Behavioural profiles of neurological mutant mice. Genetica 37(2):149-58. [PubMed: 5955164]  [MGI Ref ID J:133042]

Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Production of mice from cryopreserved embryos or sperm occurs in a maximum barrier room, G200.

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls


Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Cryopreserved

Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $2525.00
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Frozen Products

Price (US dollars $)
Frozen Embryo $1650.00

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryopreserved Embryos
    Available to most shipping destinations1
    This strain is also available as cryopreserved embryos2. Orders for cryopreserved embryos may be placed with our Customer Service Department. Experienced technicians at The Jackson Laboratory have recovered frozen embryos of this strain successfully. We will provide you enough embryos to perform two embryo transfers. The Jackson Laboratory does not guarantee successful recovery at your facility. For complete information on purchasing embryos, please visit our Cryopreserved Embryos web page.

    1 Shipments cannot be made to Australia due to Australian government import restrictions.
    2 Embryos for most strains are cryopreserved at the two cell stage while some strains are cryopreserved at the eight cell stage. If this information is important to you, please contact Customer Service.
  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We willfulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Cryopreserved

Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $3283.00
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Frozen Products

Price (US dollars $)
Frozen Embryo $2145.00

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryopreserved Embryos
    Available to most shipping destinations1
    This strain is also available as cryopreserved embryos2. Orders for cryopreserved embryos may be placed with our Customer Service Department. Experienced technicians at The Jackson Laboratory have recovered frozen embryos of this strain successfully. We will provide you enough embryos to perform two embryo transfers. The Jackson Laboratory does not guarantee successful recovery at your facility. For complete information on purchasing embryos, please visit our Cryopreserved Embryos web page.

    1 Shipments cannot be made to Australia due to Australian government import restrictions.
    2 Embryos for most strains are cryopreserved at the two cell stage while some strains are cryopreserved at the eight cell stage. If this information is important to you, please contact Customer Service.
  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We willfulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Control Information

  Control
   Wild-type from the colony
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.
 

Payment Terms and Conditions

Terms are granted by individual review and stated on the customer invoice(s) and account statement. These transactions are payable in U.S. currency within the granted terms. Payment for services, products, shipping containers, and shipping costs that are rendered are expected within the payment terms indicated on the invoice or stated by contract. Invoices and account balances in arrears of stated terms may result in The Jackson Laboratory pursuing collection activities including but not limited to outside agencies and court filings.


See Terms of Use tab for General Terms and Conditions


The Jackson Laboratory's Genotype Promise

The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
Ordering Information
JAX® Mice
Surgical and Preconditioning Services
JAX® Services
Customer Services and Support
Tel: 1-800-422-6423 or 1-207-288-5845
Fax: 1-207-288-6150
Technical Support Email Form

Terms of Use

Terms of Use


General Terms and Conditions


Contact information

General inquiries regarding Terms of Use

Contracts Administration

phone:207-288-6470

JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use

"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCTS" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or services provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than the internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE or PRODUCTS from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON's prior written authorization.

No Warranty

MICE, PRODUCTS AND SERVICES ARE PROVIDED “AS IS”. JACKSON EXTENDS NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, WITH RESPECT TO MICE, PRODUCTS OR SERVICES, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR ANY WARRANTY OF NON-INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.

In case of dissatisfaction for a valid reason and claimed in writing by a purchaser within ninety (90) days of receipt of mice, products or services, JACKSON will, at its option, provide credit or replacement for the mice or product received or the services provided.

No Liability

In no event shall JACKSON, its trustees, directors, officers, employees, and affiliates be liable for any causes of action or damages, including any direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages, arising out of the provision of MICE, PRODUCTS or services, including economic damage or injury to property and lost profits, and including any damage arising from acts or negligence on the part of JACKSON, its agents or employees. Unless prohibited by law, in purchasing or receiving MICE, PRODUCTS or services from JACKSON, purchaser or recipient, or any party claiming by or through them, expressly releases and discharges JACKSON from all such causes of action or damages, and further agrees to defend and indemnify JACKSON from any costs or damages arising out of any third party claims.

MICE and PRODUCTS are to be used in a safe manner and in accordance with all applicable governmental rules and regulations.

The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or services. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS or services may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and services by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.

Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or services shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or services by JACKSON.


(6.6)