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Level 1

      Cell Line: BALB/cJ-PRX-BALB/cJ #9 mES cells
      Cell Line: BALB/cJ-line I mES cells

Common Names: BALBc;     C;    
BALB/cJ is a commonly used inbred. Key traits include a susceptibility to developing the demyelinating disease upon infection with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. The BALB/cJ substrain is susceptible to Listeria, all species of Leishmania, and several species of Trypanosoma, but is resistant to experimental allergic orchitis (EAO).


Strain Information

Type Inbred Strain;
Additional information on Inbred Strains.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Mating SystemSibling x Sibling         (Female x Male)   01-MAR-06
Breeding Considerations This strain is a challenging breeder.
Specieslaboratory mouse
H2 Haplotyped
GenerationF243 (05-AUG-14)
Generation Definitions

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Related Genotype: A/A Tyrp1b/Tyrp1b Tyrc/Tyrc

BALB/c mice are particularly well known for the production of plasmacytomas following injection with mineral oil forming the basis for the production of monoclonal antibodies. Although not all BALB/c substrains have been examined for plasmacytoma induction, substrains derived from the Andervont (An) lineage (which includes BALB/cByJ) typically are susceptible, while those descended from BALB/cJ are resistant (see: Potter M, 1985). Mammary tumor incidence is normally low but infection with mammary tumor virus by fostering to MMTV+ C3H mice dramatically increases tumor number and age of onset. BALB/c mice develop other cancers later in life including reticular neoplasms, primary lung tumors, and renal tumors. Rare spontaneous myoepitheliomas arising from myoepithelial cells of various exocrine glands have been observed in both BALB/cJ and BALB/cByJ substrains.

White et al. reported a variation in thioglycolate medium-induced peritoneal leukocyte recruitment in 4 analyzed strains. The response of total leukocyte recruitment, from greatest to least, was C57BL/6J>BALB/c>CD1>129X1/SvJ. Variations were also found in the timeline of response and cell types most impacted.

BALB/c mice immunized with PLP180-199 develop an atypical form of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in which susceptibility is determined by location. In the spinal cord 60-70% mice develop pathological lesions and in the brain and cerebellum 100% of mice develop sever lesions.

Dorso-ventral vaginal septa is observed in some BALB/cJ females, and may contribute to non-productive females in this strain. (Cunliffe-Beamer T, Lab Anim Sci, 1976)

Related Strains

BALB Strains
000650   BALB/cBy
001026   BALB/cByJ
001905   BALB/cGaJ
000921   BALB/cGrRkJ
001311   BALB/cWtEiJ
View BALB Strains     (5 strains)

Strains carrying   Hld allele
001026   BALB/cByJ
000351   CXB1/ByJ
000353   CXB3/ByJ
000354   CXB4/ByJ
000355   CXB5/ByJ
000357   CXB7/ByJ
View Strains carrying   Hld     (6 strains)

Strains carrying   Micrln allele
000646   A/J
000009   BXH14/TyJ
000038   BXH6/TyJ
000014   BXH7/TyJ
000665   C57BL/10J
000664   C57BL/6J
000669   C58/J
View Strains carrying   Micrln     (7 strains)

Strains carrying other alleles of Micrl
000032   BXH10/TyJ
000033   BXH19/TyJ
000011   BXH4/TyJ
000076   BXH8/TyJ
000008   BXH9/TyJ
000260   JGBF/LeJ
000072   JGBF/LeTyJ
View Strains carrying other alleles of Micrl     (7 strains)

Additional Web Information

JAX® NOTES, April 1988; 433. H-2 Haplotypes of Mice from Jackson Laboratory Production Colonies.
JAX® NOTES, Fall 1990; 443. A Brief History of the Two Substrains of BALB/c, BALB/cJ, and BALB/cByJ Available from Animal Resources.
JAX® NOTES, Fall 1990; 443. Ulcerative Blepharitis and Periorbital Abscesses in BALB/cJ and BALB/cByJ Mice.
JAX® NOTES, January 1988; 432. Arthritis Models in the Mouse.
JAX® NOTES, July 1987; 430. BALB/cJ vs. BALB/cByJ.
JAX® NOTES, Spring 1990; 441. Imperforate Vagina and Mucometra in Mice.
JAX® NOTES, Spring 2003; 489. Malocclusion in the Laboratory Mouse.
JAX® NOTES, Summer 1992; 450. Myoepitheliomas in Inbred Laboratory Mice.
JAX® NOTES, Summer 2003; 490. Hydrocephalus in Laboratory Mice.
JAX® NOTES, Winter 2002; 488. Colony Expansions Completed for JAX® Mice Strains C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ.
JAX® NOTES, Winter 2006; 504. JAX® Mice: the Gold Standard Just Got Better.
Mouse Phenome Database / SNP Facility
Sequence data is available from the Mouse Genomes Project at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute


Phenotype Information

View Phenotypic Data

Phenotypic Data

Body Weight Information - JAX® Mice Strain BALB/cJ (000651)

(This chart reflects the typical correlation between body weight and age for mice maintained in production colonies at The Jackson Laboratory.)
Mouse Phenome Database
Festing Inbred Strain Characteristics: BALB/c
JAX® Physiological Data Summary [pdf]
JAX® Physiological Data Protocol [pdf]
View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype


        either: BALB/cByJ or BALB/cJ
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal dendrite morphology
    • abnormally positioned by being late-generated   (MGI Ref ID J:12029)
    • cell bodies are located below the intrapyramidal mossy fiber layer   (MGI Ref ID J:12029)
  • abnormal hippocampus morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:13989)
    • abnormal hippocampal mossy fiber morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:12029)
    • abnormal hippocampus CA3 region morphology
      • there is abnormal lamination of this cell layer resulting in superficial early generated neurons and deep late-generated neurons   (MGI Ref ID J:12029)
    • abnormal hippocampus layer morphology
      • the anomaly is also seen in BALB/cByJ, F1 mice involving BALB sublines noted, and some CXB RI lines; C57BL/6J is considered wild-type for this feature   (MGI Ref ID J:13989)
      • this is secondary to a defect in neuronal migration   (MGI Ref ID J:13989)
      • ectopic hippocampus pyramidal cells
        • located below the intrapyramidal layer; some of the ectopic cells have short, fine-caliber dendritic branches arising near the points of contact of the intrapyramidal mossy fibers   (MGI Ref ID J:12029)
  • abnormal neuronal migration   (MGI Ref ID J:13989)
  • cellular phenotype
  • abnormal neuronal migration   (MGI Ref ID J:13989)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Cancer Research
Increased Tumor Incidence
      Mammary Gland Tumors
      Mammary Gland Tumors: late onset

Cardiovascular Research
Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis
      Relatively Resistant

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
      experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE)

Neurobiology Research
Behavioral and Learning Defects
      high anxiety
Neurodevelopmental Defects
      callosal agenesis, incomplete penetrance

Research Tools
Cancer Research
      monoclonal antibodies, myeloma and hybridoma production
General Purpose
Infectious Disease
      Tuberculosis (TB)

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

Allele Symbol Hld
Allele Name hippocampal lamination defect
Allele Type Spontaneous
Strain of OriginBALB/cJ
Gene Symbol and Name Hld, hippocampal lamination defect
Chromosome UN
Allele Symbol Micrln
Allele Name non-responder
Allele Type QTL
Strain of Originmultiple strains
Gene Symbol and Name Micrl, microwave induced increase in complement receptor B cells
Chromosome 5
General Note The following inbred strains are homozygous for the recessive QTL, Micrl, and do not respond to microwave exposure by increasing splenic C3 receptor-bearing B cells: A/J, BALB/cJ, C3HeB/FeN, C57BL/6J, C57BL/10J (inferred from the response of two congenic lines "B10.BR", "B10.D2", "B10.D2"),C58/J, AK.B6-H2b, and B6.AK-H2k. These recombinant inbred strains are also non-responding: BXH2/Ty, BXH6/Ty, BXH7/Ty, BXH12/Ty, and BXH14/Ty.


Genotyping Information

Inbred mouse strains are maintained through sibling (sister x brother) matings; no genotyping required.

Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting


References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Bentvelzen P; Daams JH; Hageman P; Calafat J. 1970. Genetic transmission of viruses that incite mammary tumor in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 67(1):377-84. [PubMed: 4318784]  [MGI Ref ID J:24803]

Heston WE; Vlahakis G. 1971. Mammary tumors, plaques, and hyperplastic alveolar nodules in various combinations of mouse inbred strains and the different lines of the mammary tumor virus. Int J Cancer 7(1):141-8. [PubMed: 4322934]  [MGI Ref ID J:24674]

Petkov PM; Cassell MA; Sargent EE; Donnelly CJ; Robinson P; Crew V; Asquith S; Haar RV; Wiles MV. 2004. Development of a SNP genotyping panel for genetic monitoring of the laboratory mouse. Genomics 83(5):902-11. [PubMed: 15081119]  [MGI Ref ID J:89298]

Additional References

Belzung C; Griebel G. 2001. Measuring normal and pathological anxiety-like behaviour in mice: a review. Behav Brain Res 125(1-2):141-9. [PubMed: 11682105]  [MGI Ref ID J:72742]

Chang B; Hawes NL; Hurd RE; Davisson MT; Nusinowitz S; Heckenlively JR. 2002. Retinal degeneration mutants in the mouse. Vision Res 42(4):517-25. [PubMed: 11853768]  [MGI Ref ID J:75095]

Cunliffe-Beamer TL; Feldman DB. 1976. Vaginal septa in mice: incidence, inheritance, and effect on reproductive, performance. Lab Anim Sci 26(6 Pt 1):895-8. [PubMed: 1018474]  [MGI Ref ID J:24296]

Ebbesen P. 1971. Reticulosarcoma and amyloid development in BALB/c mice inoculated with syngeneic cells from young and old donors. J Natl Cancer Inst 47(6):1241-5. [PubMed: 4941118]  [MGI Ref ID J:24297]

Ewart SL; Kuperman D; Schadt E; Tankersley C; Grupe A; Shubitowski DM; Peltz G; Wills-Karp M. 2000. Quantitative trait loci controlling allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in inbred mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 23(4):537-45. [PubMed: 11017920]  [MGI Ref ID J:66641]

Fairless AH; Dow HC; Toledo MM; Malkus KA; Edelmann M; Li H; Talbot K; Arnold SE; Abel T; Brodkin ES. 2008. Low sociability is associated with reduced size of the corpus callosum in the BALB/cJ inbred mouse strain. Brain Res 1230:211-7. [PubMed: 18662677]  [MGI Ref ID J:138841]

Fichtner-Feigl S; Fuss IJ; Preiss JC; Strober W; Kitani A. 2005. Treatment of murine Th1- and Th2-mediated inflammatory bowel disease with NF-kappa B decoy oligonucleotides. J Clin Invest 115(11):3057-71. [PubMed: 16239967]  [MGI Ref ID J:145688]

International Nomenclature Committee. 1952. COMMITTEE on Standardized Nomenclature for Inbred Strains of Mice Cancer Res 12(8):602-13. [PubMed: 14945054]  [MGI Ref ID J:166288]

Nowakowski RS. 1984. Hippocampal lamination defect = Hld. Mouse News Lett 71:35.  [MGI Ref ID J:13989]

Nowakowski RS. 1984. The mode of inheritance of a defect in lamination in the hippocampus of BALB/c mice. J Neurogenet 1(3):249-58. [PubMed: 6536729]  [MGI Ref ID J:7947]

Nygaard UC; Aase A; Lovik M. 2005. The allergy adjuvant effect of particles - genetic factors influence antibody and cytokine responses. BMC Immunol 6:11. [PubMed: 15967044]  [MGI Ref ID J:149209]

Orian JM; Keating P; Downs LL; Hale MW; Jiang X; Pham H; LaFlamme AC. 2014. Deletion of IL-4Ralpha in the BALB/c mouse is associated with altered lesion topography and susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Autoimmunity :1-14. [PubMed: 25427822]  [MGI Ref ID J:220802]

Paigen B; Ishida BY; Verstuyft J; Winters RB; Albee D. 1990. Atherosclerosis susceptibility differences among progenitors of recombinant inbred strains of mice. Arteriosclerosis 10(2):316-23. [PubMed: 2317166]  [MGI Ref ID J:22615]

Roberts JE; Watters JW; Ballard JD; Dietrich WF. 1998. Ltx1, a mouse locus that influences the susceptibility of macrophages to cytolysis caused by intoxication with Bacillus anthracis lethal factor, maps to chromosome 11. Mol Microbiol 29(2):581-91. [PubMed: 9720874]  [MGI Ref ID J:49726]

Roderick TH; Langley SH; Leiter EH. 1985. Some unusual genetic characteristics of BALB/c and evidence for genetic variation among BALB/c substrains. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 122:9-18. [PubMed: 3899524]  [MGI Ref ID J:24307]

Sass B; Peters RL; Kelloff GJ. 1976. Differences in tumor incidence in two substrains of Claude BALB/c (BALB/cfCd) mice, emphasizing renal, mammary, pancreatic, and synovial tumors. Lab Anim Sci 26(5):736-41. [PubMed: 185454]  [MGI Ref ID J:24705]

Schlagel CJ; Ahmed A. 1982. Evidence for genetic control of microwave-induced augmentation of complement receptor-bearing B lymphocytes. J Immunol 129(4):1530-3. [PubMed: 6980940]  [MGI Ref ID J:6835]

Sundberg JP; Hanson CA; Roop DR; Brown KS; Bedigian HG. 1991. Myoepitheliomas in inbred laboratory mice. Vet Pathol 28(4):313-23. [PubMed: 1719689]  [MGI Ref ID J:22767]

Tang X; Orchard SM; Sanford LD. 2002. Home cage activity and behavioral performance in inbred and hybrid mice. Behav Brain Res 136(2):555-69. [PubMed: 12429418]  [MGI Ref ID J:80398]

Teuscher C; Blankenhorn EP; Hickey WF. 1987. Differential susceptibility to actively induced experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and experimental allergic orchitis among BALB/c substrains. Cell Immunol 110(2):294-304. [PubMed: 2446778]  [MGI Ref ID J:149656]

Wahlsten D. 1989. Deficiency of the corpus callosum: incomplete penetrance and substrain differentiation in BALB/c mice. J Neurogenet 5(1):61-76. [PubMed: 2703941]  [MGI Ref ID J:138843]

Welkos SL; Keener TJ; Gibbs PH. 1986. Differences in susceptibility of inbred mice to Bacillus anthracis. Infect Immun 51(3):795-800. [PubMed: 3081444]  [MGI Ref ID J:8197]

Whitehead GS; Walker JK; Berman KG; Foster WM; Schwartz DA. 2003. Allergen-induced airway disease is mouse strain dependent. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 285(1):L32-42. [PubMed: 12626335]  [MGI Ref ID J:84265]

Zhu W; Gilmour MI. 2009. Comparison of allergic lung disease in three mouse strains after systemic or mucosal sensitization with ovalbumin antigen. Immunogenetics 61(3):199-207. [PubMed: 19224206]  [MGI Ref ID J:146790]

Hld related

Barber RP; Vaughn JE; Wimer RE; Wimer CC. 1974. Genetically-associated variations in the distribution of dentate granule cell synapses upon the pyramidal cell dendrites in mouse hippocampus. J Comp Neurol 156(4):417-34. [PubMed: 4137683]  [MGI Ref ID J:5486]

Nowakowski RS. 1984. Hippocampal lamination defect = Hld. Mouse News Lett 71:35.  [MGI Ref ID J:13989]

Nowakowski RS. 1984. The mode of inheritance of a defect in lamination in the hippocampus of BALB/c mice. J Neurogenet 1(3):249-58. [PubMed: 6536729]  [MGI Ref ID J:7947]

Nowakowski RS; Davis TL. 1985. Dendritic arbors and dendritic excrescences of abnormally positioned neurons in area CA3c of mice carrying the mutation hippocampal lamination defect. J Comp Neurol 239(3):267-75. [PubMed: 4044940]  [MGI Ref ID J:12029]

Vaughn JE; Matthews DA; Barber RP; Wimer CC; Wimer RE. 1977. Genetically-associated variations in the development of hippocampal pyramidal neurons may produce differences in mossy fiber connectivity. J Comp Neurol 173(1):41-51. [PubMed: 845286]  [MGI Ref ID J:5787]

Micrln related

Schlagel CJ; Ahmed A. 1982. Evidence for genetic control of microwave-induced augmentation of complement receptor-bearing B lymphocytes. J Immunol 129(4):1530-3. [PubMed: 6980940]  [MGI Ref ID J:6835]

Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Room Number           AX5
Room Number           MP13
Room Number           MP14
Room Number           MP16
Room Number           MP23
Room Number           RB09
Room Number           RB10
Room Number           RB11

Colony Maintenance

Mating SystemSibling x Sibling         (Female x Male)   01-MAR-06
Breeding Considerations This strain is a challenging breeder.
Diet Information LabDiet® 5K52/5K67

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls

Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Live Mice

Weeks of AgePrice per mouse (US dollars $)Gender
3 weeks $20.40Female  
4 weeks $20.96Female  
5 weeks $22.56Female  
6 weeks $23.01Female  
7 weeks $25.50Female  
8 weeks $25.76Female  
9 weeks $26.99Female  
10 weeks $31.16Female  
11 weeks $31.62Female  
12 weeks $33.28Female  
13 weeks $35.05Female  
14 weeks $36.66Female  
15 weeks $38.22Female  

Standard Supply

JAX Ready Strain®. Most popular strains. Readily available in any quantity you need.

Supply Notes

JAX® Cells, Tissues & Products

Select the cell line of interest to go to the cell line data sheet
BALB/cJ-PRX-BALB/cJ #9 mES cells
BALB/cJ-line I mES cells
Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Live Mice

Weeks of AgePrice per mouse (US dollars $)Gender
3 weeks $26.60Female  
4 weeks $27.30Female  
5 weeks $29.40Female  
6 weeks $30.00Female  
7 weeks $33.20Female  
8 weeks $33.50Female  
9 weeks $35.10Female  
10 weeks $40.60Female  
11 weeks $41.20Female  
12 weeks $43.30Female  
13 weeks $45.60Female  
14 weeks $47.70Female  
15 weeks $49.70Female  

Standard Supply

JAX Ready Strain®. Most popular strains. Readily available in any quantity you need.

Supply Notes

  • Males not available after ten weeks of age.
  • Shipped at a specific age in weeks. Mice at a precise age in days, littermates and retired breeders are also available.
  • This strain is available from some international Charles River (CR) breeding facilities in Japan and/or Europe. For more information, see the Worldwide Distributor List for JAX® Mice.

JAX® Cells, Tissues & Products

Select the cell line of interest to go to the cell line data sheet
BALB/cJ-PRX-BALB/cJ #9 mES cells
BALB/cJ-line I mES cells
View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

JAX Ready Strain®. Most popular strains. Readily available in any quantity you need.

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The Jackson Laboratory's Genotype Promise

The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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