Strain Name:

B6C3Fe a/a-Cacng2stg/J

Stock Number:


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Mice homozygous for the spontaneous mutation stargazer (Cacng2stg) are characterized by their smaller body size, slightly ataxic gait, and abnormal head movements. Their aberrant brain wave patterns are similar to those seen in human beings with absence epilepsy.


Strain Information

Former Names B6C3Fe-a/a-Cacng2stg/+    (Changed: 15-DEC-04 )
Type Mutant Strain;
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Mating SystemOutcross-Intercross         (Female x Male)   01-MAR-06
TJL Breeding Summary: homozygote x B6C3Fe a/a F1 then heterozygote x heterozygote
Specieslaboratory mouse
GenerationN51 (07-AUG-14)
Generation Definitions

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black, ataxic
Related Genotype: a/a Cacng2stg/Cacng2stg

black, unaffected
Related Genotype: a/a ?/+ or a/a Cacng2stg/+

Mice homozygous for the spontaneous mutation stargazer (Cacng2stg) are first recognizable at 14 days of age by their smaller body size and slightly ataxic gait. Female stargazer homozygous mutant mice are fertile, but most of the males are unable to breed. The mutation is named for the abnormal head movements resembling choreiform head tossing that is characteristic of these mice. The behavioral symptoms progressively worsen with age, but both males and females will live to over one year of age. Electrocorticographical recordings of stargazer mice reveal frequent, prolonged, generalized spike-wave cortical discharges with behavioral arrest. The abnormal brain wave patterns are similar to those seen in human beings with absence epilepsy. Waggler homozygotes (Cacng2stg-wag) manifest a less severe phenotype than stargazer homozygotes, but do display an ataxic gait and occasional seizures. In general, young stargazer mice are more healthy than waggler homozygotes, but if wagglers reach weaning age, they will usually live for 1 to 2 years. Homozygous waggler males and females will breed, and they display no gross neuroanatomical or histopathologic lesions.

Stargazer (Cacng2stg) arose spontaneously in strain A/J at the Jackson Laboratory in 1979. It was carried to N3F1 on the A/J strain and then outcrossed to a B6C3Fe-a/a F1 and continued on that background using the cross intercross system. It was cryopreserved in 1990 by mating heterozygotes at N20. The line that remained on the shelf readhed N40 in 2005.

Control Information

   Untyped from the colony
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Related Strains

Strains carrying   a allele
003879   B10;TFLe-a/a T Itpr3tf/+ Itpr3tf/J
001538   B6 x B6C3Sn a/A-T(1;9)27H/J
000916   B6 x B6C3Sn a/A-T(5;12)31H/J
000602   B6 x B6C3Sn a/A-T(8;16)17H/J
000618   B6 x FSB/GnEi a/a Ctslfs/J
000577   B6 x STOCK a Oca2p Hps5ru2 Ednrbs/J
000601   B6 x STOCK a/a T(7;18)50H/J
000592   B6 x STOCK T(2;4)13H a/J
014608   B6;129S1-a Kitlsl-24J/GrsrJ
000231   B6;C3Fe a/a-Csf1op/J
000785   B6;D2-a Ces1ce/EiJ
000604   B6C3 a/A-T(10;13)199H +/+ Lystbg-J/J or Lystbg-2J/J
001750   B6C3Fe a/a-Eif3cXs-J/J
002807   B6C3Fe a/a-Meox2fla/J
000506   B6C3Fe a/a-Qkqk-v/J
000224   B6C3Fe a/a-Scyl1mdf/J
003020   B6C3Fe a/a-Zdhhc21dep/J
001037   B6C3Fe a/a-Agtpbp1pcd/J
000221   B6C3Fe a/a-Alx4lst-J/J
002062   B6C3Fe a/a-Atp7aMo-8J/J
001815   B6C3Fe a/a-Col1a2oim/J
000209   B6C3Fe a/a-Dh/J
000211   B6C3Fe a/a-Dstdt-J/J
000210   B6C3Fe a/a-Edardl-J/J
000207   B6C3Fe a/a-Edaraddcr/J
000182   B6C3Fe a/a-Eef1a2wst/J
001278   B6C3Fe a/a-Glra1spd/J
000241   B6C3Fe a/a-Glrbspa/J
002875   B6C3Fe a/a-Hoxd13spdh/J
000304   B6C3Fe a/a-Krt71Ca Scn8amed-J/J
000226   B6C3Fe a/a-Largemyd/J
000636   B6C3Fe a/a-Lmx1adr-J/J
001280   B6C3Fe a/a-Lse/J
001573   B6C3Fe a/a-MitfMi/J
001035   B6C3Fe a/a-Napahyh/J
000181   B6C3Fe a/a-Otogtwt/J
000278   B6C3Fe a/a-Papss2bm Hps1ep Hps6ru/J
000205   B6C3Fe a/a-Papss2bm/J
002078   B6C3Fe a/a-Pcdh15av-2J/J
000246   B6C3Fe a/a-Pitpnavb/J
001430   B6C3Fe a/a-Ptch1mes/J
000235   B6C3Fe a/a-Relnrl/J
000237   B6C3Fe a/a-Rorasg/J
000290   B6C3Fe a/a-Sox10Dom/J
000230   B6C3Fe a/a-Tcirg1oc/J
003612   B6C3Fe a/a-Trak1hyrt/J
001512   B6C3Fe a/a-Ttnmdm/J
001607   B6C3Fe a/a-Unc5crcm/J
000005   B6C3Fe a/a-Wc/J
000243   B6C3Fe a/a-Wnt1sw/J
000248   B6C3Fe a/a-Xpl/J
000624   B6C3Fe a/a-anx/J
008044   B6C3Fe a/a-bpck/J
002018   B6C3Fe a/a-din/J
002339   B6C3Fe a/a-nma/J
000240   B6C3Fe a/a-soc/J
000063   B6C3Fe a/a-sy/J
001055   B6C3Fe a/a-tip/J
000245   B6C3Fe a/a-tn/J
000296   B6C3Fe-a/a Hoxa13Hd Mcoln3Va-J/J
000019   B6C3Fe-a/a-Itpr1opt/J
001022   B6C3FeF1/J a/a
006450   B6EiC3 a/A-Vss/GrsrJ
000971   B6EiC3 a/A-Och/J
000551   B6EiC3 a/A-Tbx15de-H/J
000557   B6EiC3-+ a/LnpUl A/J
000503   B6EiC3Sn a/A-Gy/J
001811   B6EiC3Sn a/A-Otcspf-ash/J
002343   B6EiC3Sn a/A-Otcspf/J
000391   B6EiC3Sn a/A-Pax6Sey-Dey/J
001923   B6EiC3Sn a/A-Ts(417)2Lws TimT(4;17)3Lws/J
000225   C3FeLe.B6 a/a-Ptpn6me/J
000198   C3FeLe.B6-a/J
000291   C3FeLe.Cg-a/a Hm KitlSl Krt71Ca-J/J
001886   C3HeB/FeJLe a/a-gnd/J
000584   C57BL/6J-+ T(1;2)5Ca/a +/J
000284   CWD/LeJ
000670   DBA/1J
000671   DBA/2J
001057   HPT/LeJ
000260   JGBF/LeJ
000265   MY/HuLeJ
000308   SSL/LeJ
000994   STOCK a Myo5ad Mregdsu/J
000064   STOCK a Tyrp1b Pmelsi/J
002238   STOCK a Tyrp1b shmy/J
001433   STOCK a skt/J
000579   STOCK a tp/J
000319   STOCK a us/J
002648   STOCK a/a Cln6nclf/J
000302   STOCK a/a MitfMi-wh +/+ Itpr1opt/J
000286   STOCK a/a Myo5ad fd/+ +/J
000281   STOCK a/a Tmem79ma Flgft/J
000206   STOCK a/a Tyrc-h/J
001432   STOCK a/a Tyrp1b Ndc1sks/Tyrp1b +/J
000312   STOCK stb + a/+ Fignfi a/J
000596   STOCK T(2;11)30H/+ x AEJ-a Gdf5bp-H/J or A/J-a Gdf5bp-J/J
000970   STOCK T(2;16)28H A/T(2;16)28H a/J
000590   STOCK T(2;4)1Sn a/J
000594   STOCK T(2;8)26H a/T(2;8)26H a Tyrp1+/Tyrp1b/J
000623   TR/DiEiJ
View Strains carrying   a     (101 strains)

Strains carrying other alleles of Cacng2
008624   B6.C-Cacng2stg-3J/LetJ
001883   B6.MRL-Cacng2stg-wag/J
View Strains carrying other alleles of Cacng2     (2 strains)

Strains carrying other alleles of a
002655   Mus pahari/EiJ
000251   AEJ.Cg-ae +/a Gdf5bp-H/J
000202   AEJ/Gn-bd/J
000199   AEJ/GnLeJ
000433   B10.C-H3c H13? A/(28NX)SnJ
000427   B10.CE-H13b Aw/(30NX)SnJ
000423   B10.KR-H13? A/SnJ
000420   B10.LP-H13b Aw/Sn
000477   B10.PA-Bloc1s6pa H3e at/SnJ
000419   B10.UW-H3b we Pax1un at/SnJ
000593   B6 x B6CBCa Aw-J/A-Grid2Lc T(2;6)7Ca MitfMi-wh/J
000502   B6 x B6CBCa Aw-J/A-Myo5aflr Gnb5flr/J
000599   B6 x B6CBCa Aw-J/A-T(5;13)264Ca KitW-v/J
002083   B6 x B6EiC3 a/A-T(7;16)235Dn/J
000507   B6 x B6EiC3 a/A-Otcspf/J
003759   B6 x B6EiC3Sn a/A-T(10;16)232Dn/J
002071   B6 x B6EiC3Sn a/A-T(11;17)202Dn/J
002113   B6 x B6EiC3Sn a/A-T(11A2;16B3)238Dn/J
002068   B6 x B6EiC3Sn a/A-T(11B1;16B5)233Dn/J
002069   B6 x B6EiC3Sn a/A-T(14E4or5;16B5)225Dn/J
001926   B6 x B6EiC3Sn a/A-T(15;16)198Dn/J
001832   B6 x B6EiC3Sn a/A-T(15E;16B1)60Dn/J
003758   B6 x B6EiC3Sn a/A-T(16C3-4;17A2)65Dn/J
001833   B6 x B6EiC3Sn a/A-T(1C2;16C3)45Dn/J
001903   B6 x B6EiC3Sn a/A-T(6F;18C)57Dn/J
001535   B6 x B6EiC3Sn a/A-T(8A4;12D1)69Dn/J
001831   B6 x B6EiC3Sn a/A-T(8C3;16B5)164Dn/J
002016   B6(Cg)-Aw-J EdaTa-6J Chr YB6-Sxr/EiJ
000600   B6-Gpi1b x B6CBCa Aw-J/A-T(7;15)9H Gpi1a/J
000769   B6.C/(HZ18)By-at-44J/J
000203   B6.C3-Aiy/a/J
000017   B6.C3-Avy/J
001572   B6.C3-am-J/J
000628   B6.CE-A Amy1b Amy2a5b/J
001809   B6.Cg-Aw-J EdaTa-6J +/+ ArTfm/J
000552   B6.Cg-Aw-J EdaTa-6J Sxr
001730   B6.Cg-Aw-J EdaTa-6J Sxrb Hya-/J
000841   B6.Cg-Aw-J EdaTa-By/J
000021   B6.Cg-Ay/J
100409   B6129PF1/J-Aw-J/Aw
004200   B6;CBACa Aw-J/A-Npr2cn-2J/GrsrJ
000505   B6C3 Aw-J/A-Bloc1s5mu/J
000604   B6C3 a/A-T(10;13)199H +/+ Lystbg-J/J or Lystbg-2J/J
000065   B6C3Fe a/a-we Pax1un at/J
003301   B6C3FeF1 a/A-Eya1bor/J
000314   B6CBACa Aw-J/A-EdaTa/J-XO
000501   B6CBACa Aw-J/A-Aifm1Hq/J
001046   B6CBACa Aw-J/A-Grid2Lc/J
000500   B6CBACa Aw-J/A-Gs/J
002703   B6CBACa Aw-J/A-Hydinhy3/J
000247   B6CBACa Aw-J/A-Kcnj6wv/J
000287   B6CBACa Aw-J/A-Plp1jp EdaTa/J
000515   B6CBACa Aw-J/A-SfnEr/J
000242   B6CBACa Aw-J/A-spc/J
000288   B6CBACa Aw-J/A-we a Mafbkr/J
001201   B6CBACaF1/J-Aw-J/A
006450   B6EiC3 a/A-Vss/GrsrJ
000557   B6EiC3-+ a/LnpUl A/J
000504   B6EiC3Sn a/A-Cacnb4lh/J
000553   B6EiC3Sn a/A-Egfrwa2 Wnt3avt/J
001811   B6EiC3Sn a/A-Otcspf-ash/J
002343   B6EiC3Sn a/A-Otcspf/J
001923   B6EiC3Sn a/A-Ts(417)2Lws TimT(4;17)3Lws/J
001875   B6EiC3SnF1/J
000638   C3FeB6 A/Aw-J-Sptbn4qv-J/J
000200   C3FeB6 A/Aw-J-Ankank/J
001203   C3FeB6F1/J A/Aw-J
001272   C3H/HeSnJ-Ahvy/J
000099   C3HeB/FeJ-Avy/J
000338   C57BL/6J Aw-J-EdaTa-6J/J
000258   C57BL/6J-Ai/a/J
000774   C57BL/6J-Asy/a/J
000569   C57BL/6J-Aw-J-EdaTa +/+ ArTfm/J
000051   C57BL/6J-Aw-J/J
000055   C57BL/6J-at-33J/J
000070   C57BL/6J-atd/J
002468   KK.Cg-Ay/J
000262   LS/LeJ
000283   LT.CAST-A/J
001759   STOCK A Tyrc Sha/J
001427   STOCK Aw us/J
001145   WSB/EiJ
View Strains carrying other alleles of a     (82 strains)

Additional Web Information

JAX® NOTES, Spring 2005, 497. Supression of Absence Epilepsy Seizures Dependent on Complex Balance of Proteins.


Phenotype Information

View Related Disease (OMIM) Terms

Related Disease (OMIM) Terms provided by MGI
- Potential model based on gene homology relationships. Phenotypic similarity to the human disease has not been tested.
Mental Retardation, Autosomal Dominant 10; MRD10   (CACNG2)
View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype


        B6C3Fe a/a-Cacng2stg/J
  • behavior/neurological phenotype
  • decreased startle reflex
    • mutants lack the acoustic startle reflex (ASR), but startle reflex to somatic sensory stimuli such as air puffs is intact   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
  • decreased vertical activity   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
  • hyperactivity
    • in photocell activity chambers, mutants display 3-4-fold higher activity compared to control mice while vestibular toxin-treated controls have 10-fold increased activity   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
  • impaired coordination
    • mutants can only stay on the grid for 60 seconds, coinciding with the turn to 90 degrees, in a cling test; control mice can hang on to the grid for ~180 seconds, including complete inversion of the grid   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
    • in the rotarod test, mutants and drug-treated control mice fall off the rod immediately, often before it begins to move, whereas normal controls can walk for ~the full 5 minute test period   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
  • impaired righting response
    • when mice are dropped supine from height of 50 cm, mutants show poor air-righting performance, whereas control mice land on their feet ~100% of the time and toxin-treated normal controls land feet-first on ~50% of tests   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
    • when placed inside a tube and inverted to supine position, mutants remain inverted for duration (60 s) of test whereas controls right themselves within a few seconds   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
    • after 30 minutes of intermittent horizontal rotation, control mice display a significant decrease in spontaneous movement, but mutants do not show a decrease   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
  • impaired swimming
    • mutants cannot keep their heads above water during swimming and rapidly begin a spiraling motion underwater and drown if not rescued   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
  • stereotypic behavior
    • stereotypic behaviors like circling or abnormal head movements, are evident in all mutants at 2-3 weeks of age, and persist throughout observation period (>1 year)   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
    • circling
      • in open field test, mice exhibit circling to the left or right; controls do not while in vestibular toxin-treated normal controls, circling is exacerbated compared to mutants   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
    • head bobbing
      • in open field tests, mutants display rapid vertical bobbing head movements   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
    • head shaking
      • mice show rapid sideways wagging movements of the head during open field tests   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
    • head tossing
      • mice show occasional episodes of exaggerated and sustained, elevation of the head, resembling retrocollis, during open field observations   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
  • hearing/vestibular/ear phenotype
  • abnormal crista ampullaris morphology
    • crista show a reduction density of hair cells compared to controls   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
  • abnormal vestibular hair cell morphology
    • vacuole-like defects measuring 15-25 um are seen in the vestibular epithelium   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
    • cells are disorganized in sensory epithelium; some supporting cell nuclei lose contact with the basement membrane and occupy locations higher in the epithelium   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
    • abnormal type I vestibular cell
      • afferent nerve calyces surrounding type I hair cells lack the fullness and rich mitochondrial content seen in controls; large vacuole-like defects appear to be localized inside afferent calyces   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
      • these vacuoles are surrounded by normal but small and crowded mitochondria and contain scanty debris like cytosol or mitochondria   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
  • increased or absent threshold for auditory brainstem response
    • ABR thresholds for click as a stimulus are normal, with a trend toward increased thresholds for 8 and 16 kHz tone stimuli in mutants (not reaching significance, though)   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal CNS synapse formation
    • synaptic size appears smaller   (MGI Ref ID J:116541)
    • decreased CNS synapse formation
      • mutants have lower synaptic density in the cerebellar cortex; there are 25% fewer synapses compared to wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:116541)
  • abnormal Purkinje cell innervation
    • there are more parallel fiber- Purkinje spine synapses with smaller presynsaptic terminal compared to the postsynaptic spine   (MGI Ref ID J:116541)
    • there is a 43% reduction in the mean area of the presynaptic terminals in mutants   (MGI Ref ID J:116541)
    • synaptic profile in wild-type shows >80% of synapses having larger parallel fiber varicosities than postsynaptic Purkinje cell spines, while in mutants there is ~equal distribution of synapses with larger parallel fiber area than postsynaptic Purkinje cell spine, those with equal pre- and postsynaptic areas, or with smaller parallel fiber varicosity than the postsynaptic Purkinje cell spine   (MGI Ref ID J:116541)
  • abnormal brain wave pattern
    • saline-treated mutants display frequent abnormal polyspike discharges in the EEG; however, these do not correlate temporally with dyskinetic behaviors   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
    • after nifedipine treatment, polyspike discharges are increased while reducing dyskinesia scores in mutants; an inverse relationship is observed   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
  • abnormal synaptic vesicle morphology
    • presynaptic vesicles are less dense compared to wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:116541)
    • abnormal synaptic vesicle number
      • presynaptic vesicles are reduced in number   (MGI Ref ID J:116541)
      • there are fewer docked vesicles and fewer vesicles adjacent to the active zone ready to dock in mutants than in wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:116541)
  • abnormal vestibular hair cell morphology
    • vacuole-like defects measuring 15-25 um are seen in the vestibular epithelium   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
    • cells are disorganized in sensory epithelium; some supporting cell nuclei lose contact with the basement membrane and occupy locations higher in the epithelium   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
    • abnormal type I vestibular cell
      • afferent nerve calyces surrounding type I hair cells lack the fullness and rich mitochondrial content seen in controls; large vacuole-like defects appear to be localized inside afferent calyces   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)
      • these vacuoles are surrounded by normal but small and crowded mitochondria and contain scanty debris like cytosol or mitochondria   (MGI Ref ID J:91987)


        B6C3Fe a/a-Cacng2stg
  • growth/size/body phenotype
  • decreased body size
    • at 14 days, mutants are smaller than wild-type littermates   (MGI Ref ID J:11008)
  • behavior/neurological phenotype
  • absence seizures
    • adults exhibit spontaneous spike-wave seizures; seizures do not appear to increase in mean duration or mean incidence with age   (MGI Ref ID J:15527)
  • ataxia
    • homozygotes can be identified at 14 days by mildly ataxic gait   (MGI Ref ID J:11008)
    • males are usually more severely affected than females   (MGI Ref ID J:11008)
  • head tossing
    • at 1 month of age, mice display abnormal head movements both at rest and during activity; frequency of movements increase progressively with age   (MGI Ref ID J:11008)
    • movement resembles choreiform head tossing; mice elevate heads vertically and maintain an upward gaze for several seconds   (MGI Ref ID J:11008)
    • males are usually more severely affected than females   (MGI Ref ID J:11008)
  • impaired swimming
    • mice show severe disturbances in righting reflex during swimming, with wild underwater tumbling motions   (MGI Ref ID J:11008)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal CNS synapse formation
    • the ectopic terminals that are seen do not appear to form synapses with dendrites of basket or granule cells   (MGI Ref ID J:15527)
  • abnormal brain wave pattern
    • electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings from young adults display prolonged high-amplitue (500uV-1mV), bilaterally symmetrical discharges from neocortex, accompanied by behavioral immobility for the duration of the discharge   (MGI Ref ID J:11008)
    • paroxysmal spike bursts show 6-7 spikes/second frequencies, with discharge durations of 1-66 seconds; mean rate or discharge activity is 125/hr   (MGI Ref ID J:11008)
    • adults show highly reproducible pattern of spontaneous bilaterally symmetrical 6-7/second spike-wave discharges in cortical and hippocampal regions   (MGI Ref ID J:15527)
    • seizure rate ranges from 43-209 discharges/hour with durations ranging from 1-66 seconds with a mean of 4-6 seconds   (MGI Ref ID J:15527)
    • patterned spike-wave synchronous discharges represent ~20% of total EEG activity in adult mice   (MGI Ref ID J:15527)
    • no spike-wave discharges are recorded in P15 mice but are always present by P18; discharges in immature animals can display slightly slower spike frequency (4-5/sec) but are identical to those seen in adults   (MGI Ref ID J:15527)
  • abnormal hippocampal mossy fiber morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:15527)
  • abnormal innervation
    • mutants show dense mossy fiber staining along the full extent of the dentate gyrus inner molecular layer whereas wild-type show no staining; this is consistently observed in mutants compared to wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:15527)
    • a 48% increase in density of staining is seen within the inner molecular layer-granular cell layer of adult mutants   (MGI Ref ID J:15527)
    • no mossy fiber sprouting is observed prior to seizure onset (at P15), but progressively increasing staining specific for mossy fibers is observed from P30-6 months of age   (MGI Ref ID J:15527)
  • abnormal neuron differentiation
    • sprouting of mossy fibers in inner molecular layer and granular cell layer of dentate gyrus increases in mutants compared to wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:15527)
  • absence seizures
    • adults exhibit spontaneous spike-wave seizures; seizures do not appear to increase in mean duration or mean incidence with age   (MGI Ref ID J:15527)
  • loss of hippocampal neurons
    • neuronal density of hilar neurons in hippocampus is reduced by 16% in adult mutants compared to wild-type; this difference only becomes apparent after onset of seizure activity (P17<)   (MGI Ref ID J:15527)
  • reproductive system phenotype
  • male infertility
    • males are infertile   (MGI Ref ID J:11008)
  • cellular phenotype
  • abnormal neuron differentiation
    • sprouting of mossy fibers in inner molecular layer and granular cell layer of dentate gyrus increases in mutants compared to wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:15527)

The following phenotype information is associated with a similar, but not exact match to this JAX® Mice strain.


        involves: A/J * C3HeB/FeJ * C57BL/6J
  • nervous system phenotype
  • *normal* nervous system phenotype
    • synaptic electrophysiology including neurotransmitter release and end plate potentials, as well as responses to channel inhibitors is not different from wild-type NMJs   (MGI Ref ID J:121463)
    • abnormal CNS synaptic transmission
      • peak current densities of low voltage-activated (LVA) calcium channels in thalamocortical neurons at membrane potential of -50 mV are increased by 45% compared to control   (MGI Ref ID J:106959)
      • peak current densities of high voltage calcium channels (HVA) in TC neurons are increased compared to wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:106959)
    • abnormal motor neuron morphology
      • fiber diameter at diaphragm NMJs (14.2 um) is slightly reduced compared with wild-type (15.8 um)   (MGI Ref ID J:121463)
    • abnormal neuromuscular synapse morphology
      • neuromuscular junction area (area staining for acetylcholine receptors) in ~25% smaller relative to wild-type mice (333 um2 vs 446 um2)   (MGI Ref ID J:121463)


        involves: A/J
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal AMPA-mediated synaptic currents
    • mice lack the AMPA receptor component of the excitatory postsynaptic currents   (MGI Ref ID J:163184)
  • abnormal miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents
    • mice lack miniature excitatory postsynaptic current amplitudes   (MGI Ref ID J:163184)
  • behavior/neurological phenotype
  • ataxia   (MGI Ref ID J:138791)
  • growth/size/body phenotype
  • decreased body weight
    • about 75% the weight of control littermates at P14   (MGI Ref ID J:138791)


        Background Not Specified
  • nervous system phenotype
  • reduced AMPA-mediated synaptic currents
    • AMPAR mediated miniature excitatory post synaptic currents (mEPSC) in inhibitory nucleus reticularis (nRT) neurons are significantly reduced in frequency and amplitude in P14-17 mice   (MGI Ref ID J:140010)
    • amplitude, but not frequency, is decreased in older P21-23 mice although there are fewer events   (MGI Ref ID J:140010)
    • AMPAR mediated EPSCs frequency and amplitude are not significantly altered in excitatory relay neurons, with the exception that frequency is decreased in older mice   (MGI Ref ID J:140010)
    • ratio of AMPA to NMDA EPSCs is reduced by 50% in nRT neurons   (MGI Ref ID J:140010)
    • Purkinje cell climbing and parallel fiber synapses both exhibit a decrease in the ratio of stimulation intensity in AMPA to kainite receptor and mGlur-induced EPSCs(70% and 50% respectively)   (MGI Ref ID J:140010)
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Research Applications
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Cacng2stg related

Cell Biology Research
Channel and Transporter Defects

Neurobiology Research
Ataxia (Movement) Defects
Cerebellar Defects
Channel and Transporter Defects
Vestibular Defects

Sensorineural Research
Vestibular Defects

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

Allele Symbol Cacng2stg
Allele Name stargazer
Allele Type Spontaneous
Common Name(s) gamma2stg; stg; stg-;
Strain of OriginA/J
Gene Symbol and Name Cacng2, calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 2
Chromosome 15
Gene Common Name(s) AW060990; B230105C07Rik; B930041E13Rik; Ipr328; MRD10; RIKEN cDNA B230105C07 gene; RIKEN cDNA B930041E13 gene; TARP gamma 2; expressed sequence AW060990; stargazer; stargazin; stg; wag; waggler;
Molecular Note The phenotype of the stargazer mouse has been attributed to an early transposon (ETn) insertion into intron 2 of the Cacng2 gene. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that in addition to aberrant transcripts generated by the insertion, some normally spliced mRNA was detected, suggesting that this mutation does not represent a complete null allele. [MGI Ref ID J:48966]
Allele Symbol a
Allele Name nonagouti
Allele Type Spontaneous
Strain of Originold mutant of the mouse fancy
Gene Symbol and Name a, nonagouti
Chromosome 2
Gene Common Name(s) ASP; As; agouti; agouti signal protein; agouti suppressor;
General Note Phenotypic Similarity to Human Syndrome: Metabolic Syndrome in mice homozygous for Apoetm1Unc and heterozygous for Ay and a (J:177084)
Molecular Note Characterization of this allele shows an insertion of DNA comprised of a 5.5kb virus-like element, VL30, into the first intron of the agouti gene. The VL30 element itself contains an additional 5.5 kb sequence, flanked by 526 bp of direct repeats. The host integration site is the same as for at-2Gso and Aw-38J and includes a duplication of four nucleotides of host DNA and a deletion of 2 bp from the end of each repeat. Northern analysis of mRNA from skin of homozygotes shows a smaller agouti message and levels 8 fold lower than found in wild-type. [MGI Ref ID J:16984] [MGI Ref ID J:24934]


Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

Cacng2stg, Standard PCR

Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting


References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Letts VA; Felix R; Biddlecome GH; Arikkath J; Mahaffey CL; Valenzuela A ; Bartlett FS 2nd ; Mori Y ; Campbell KP ; Frankel WN. 1998. The mouse stargazer gene encodes a neuronal Ca2+-channel gamma subunit [see comments] Nat Genet 19(4):340-7. [PubMed: 9697694]  [MGI Ref ID J:48966]

Noebels JL; Qiao X; Bronson RT; Spencer C; Davisson MT. 1990. Stargazer: a new neurological mutant on chromosome 15 in the mouse with prolonged cortical seizures [published erratum appears in Epilepsy Res 1992 Mar;11(1):72] Epilepsy Res 7(2):129-35. [PubMed: 2289471]  [MGI Ref ID J:11008]

Additional References

Khan Z; Carey J; Park HJ; Lehar M; Lasker D; Jinnah HA. 2004. Abnormal motor behavior and vestibular dysfunction in the stargazer mouse mutant. Neuroscience 127(3):785-96. [PubMed: 15283975]  [MGI Ref ID J:91987]

Letts VA; Valenzuela A; Kirley JP; Sweet HO; Davisson MT; Frankel WN. 1997. Genetic and physical maps of the stargazer locus on mouse chromosome 15. Genomics 43(1):62-8. [PubMed: 9226373]  [MGI Ref ID J:38767]

Cacng2stg related

Aizawa M; Ito Y; Fukuda H. 1997. Pharmacological profiles of generalized absence seizures in lethargic, stargazer and gamma-hydroxybutyrate-treated model mice. Neurosci Res 29(1):17-25. [PubMed: 9293489]  [MGI Ref ID J:43226]

Ayata C; Shimizu-Sasamata M; Lo EH; Noebels JL; Moskowitz MA. 2000. Impaired neurotransmitter release and elevated threshold for cortical spreading depression in mice with mutations in the alpha1A subunit of P/Q type calcium channels Neuroscience 95(3):639-45. [PubMed: 10670432]  [MGI Ref ID J:60492]

Barad Z; Shevtsova O; Arbuthnott GW; Leitch B. 2012. Selective loss of AMPA receptors at corticothalamic synapses in the epileptic stargazer mouse. Neuroscience 217:19-31. [PubMed: 22609941]  [MGI Ref ID J:192431]

Bats C; Soto D; Studniarczyk D; Farrant M; Cull-Candy SG. 2012. Channel properties reveal differential expression of TARPed and TARPless AMPARs in stargazer neurons. Nat Neurosci 15(6):853-61. [PubMed: 22581185]  [MGI Ref ID J:191364]

Chen L; Chetkovich DM; Petralia RS; Sweeney NT; Kawasaki Y; Wenthold RJ; Bredt DS; Nicoll RA. 2000. Stargazing regulates synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors by two distinct mechanisms. Nature 408(6815):936-43. [PubMed: 11140673]  [MGI Ref ID J:66410]

Cho CH; St-Gelais F; Zhang W; Tomita S; Howe JR. 2007. Two families of TARP isoforms that have distinct effects on the kinetic properties of AMPA receptors and synaptic currents. Neuron 55(6):890-904. [PubMed: 17880893]  [MGI Ref ID J:132139]

Cope DW; Di Giovanni G; Fyson SJ; Orban G; Errington AC; Lorincz ML; Gould TM; Carter DA; Crunelli V. 2009. Enhanced tonic GABAA inhibition in typical absence epilepsy. Nat Med 15(12):1392-8. [PubMed: 19966779]  [MGI Ref ID J:155872]

Di Pasquale E; Keegan KD; Noebels JL. 1997. Increased excitability and inward rectification in layer V cortical pyramidal neurons in the epileptic mutant mouse Stargazer. J Neurophysiol 77(2):621-31. [PubMed: 9065835]  [MGI Ref ID J:40687]

Gill MB; Kato AS; Roberts MF; Yu H; Wang H; Tomita S; Bredt DS. 2011. Cornichon-2 modulates AMPA receptor-transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein assembly to dictate gating and pharmacology. J Neurosci 31(18):6928-38. [PubMed: 21543622]  [MGI Ref ID J:171902]

Hashimoto K; Fukaya M; Qiao X; Sakimura K; Watanabe M; Kano M. 1999. Impairment of AMPA receptor function in cerebellar granule cells of ataxic mutant mouse stargazer. J Neurosci 19(14):6027-36. [PubMed: 10407040]  [MGI Ref ID J:56282]

Jackson AC; Nicoll RA. 2011. Stargazin (TARP {gamma}-2) Is Required for Compartment-Specific AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Synaptic Plasticity in Cerebellar Stellate Cells. J Neurosci 31(11):3939-52. [PubMed: 21411637]  [MGI Ref ID J:170457]

Joiner ML; Lise MF; Yuen EY; Kam AY; Zhang M; Hall DD; Malik ZA; Qian H; Chen Y; Ulrich JD; Burette AC; Weinberg RJ; Law PY; El-Husseini A; Yan Z; Hell JW. 2010. Assembly of a beta2-adrenergic receptor--GluR1 signalling complex for localized cAMP signalling. EMBO J 29(2):482-95. [PubMed: 19942860]  [MGI Ref ID J:156383]

Kaja S; Todorov B; van de Ven RC; Ferrari MD; Frants RR; van den Maagdenberg AM; Plomp JJ. 2007. Redundancy of Cav2.1 channel accessory subunits in transmitter release at the mouse neuromuscular junction. Brain Res 1143:92-101. [PubMed: 17320843]  [MGI Ref ID J:121463]

Khan Z; Carey J; Park HJ; Lehar M; Lasker D; Jinnah HA. 2004. Abnormal motor behavior and vestibular dysfunction in the stargazer mouse mutant. Neuroscience 127(3):785-96. [PubMed: 15283975]  [MGI Ref ID J:91987]

Leitch B; Shevtsova O; Guevremont D; Williams J. 2009. Loss of calcium channels in the cerebellum of the ataxic and epileptic stargazer mutant mouse. Brain Res 1279:156-67. [PubMed: 19422811]  [MGI Ref ID J:156573]

Letts VA; Kang MG; Mahaffey CL; Beyer B; Tenbrink H; Campbell KP; Frankel WN. 2003. Phenotypic heterogeneity in the stargazin allelic series. Mamm Genome 14(8):506-13. [PubMed: 12925883]  [MGI Ref ID J:84624]

Letts VA; Mahaffey CL; Beyer B; Frankel WN. 2005. A targeted mutation in Cacng4 exacerbates spike-wave seizures in stargazer (Cacng2) mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(6):2123-8. [PubMed: 15677329]  [MGI Ref ID J:96506]

Louros SR; Hooks BM; Litvina L; Carvalho AL; Chen C. 2014. A role for stargazin in experience-dependent plasticity. Cell Rep 7(5):1614-25. [PubMed: 24882000]  [MGI Ref ID J:211786]

Meng H; Gao R; Dai Q; Qiao X. 2007. Differential regulation of glutamate receptor-mediated BDNF mRNA expression in the cerebellum and its defects in stargazer mice. Neuropharmacology 53(1):81-91. [PubMed: 17544459]  [MGI Ref ID J:129857]

Meng H; Larson SK; Gao R; Qiao X. 2007. BDNF transgene improves ataxic and motor behaviors in stargazer mice. Brain Res 1160:47-57. [PubMed: 17588548]  [MGI Ref ID J:123328]

Meng H; Walker N; Su Y; Qiao X. 2006. Stargazin mutation impairs cerebellar synaptogenesis, synaptic maturation and synaptic protein distribution. Brain Res 1124(1):197-207. [PubMed: 17070505]  [MGI Ref ID J:116541]

Menuz K; Kerchner GA; O'Brien JL; Nicoll RA. 2009. Critical role for TARPs in early development despite broad functional redundancy. Neuropharmacology 56(1):22-9. [PubMed: 18634809]  [MGI Ref ID J:179419]

Menuz K; Nicoll RA. 2008. Loss of inhibitory neuron AMPA receptors contributes to ataxia and epilepsy in stargazer mice. J Neurosci 28(42):10599-603. [PubMed: 18923036]  [MGI Ref ID J:140010]

Menuz K; O'Brien JL; Karmizadegan S; Bredt DS; Nicoll RA. 2008. TARP redundancy is critical for maintaining AMPA receptor function. J Neurosci 28(35):8740-6. [PubMed: 18753375]  [MGI Ref ID J:138791]

Milstein AD; Nicoll RA. 2009. TARP modulation of synaptic AMPA receptor trafficking and gating depends on multiple intracellular domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(27):11348-51. [PubMed: 19549880]  [MGI Ref ID J:150819]

Milstein AD; Zhou W; Karimzadegan S; Bredt DS; Nicoll RA. 2007. TARP subtypes differentially and dose-dependently control synaptic AMPA receptor gating. Neuron 55(6):905-18. [PubMed: 17880894]  [MGI Ref ID J:175164]

Nahm WK; Noebels JL. 1998. Nonobligate role of early or sustained expression of immediate-early gene proteins c-fos, c-jun, and Zif/268 in hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting. J Neurosci 18(22):9245-55. [PubMed: 9801364]  [MGI Ref ID J:106958]

Nissenbaum J; Devor M; Seltzer Z; Gebauer M; Michaelis M; Tal M; Dorfman R; Abitbul-Yarkoni M; Lu Y; Elahipanah T; delCanho S; Minert A; Fried K; Persson AK; Shpigler H; Shabo E; Yakir B; Pisante A; Darvasi A. 2010. Susceptibility to chronic pain following nerve injury is genetically affected by CACNG2. Genome Res 20(9):1180-90. [PubMed: 20688780]  [MGI Ref ID J:164901]

Payne HL; Connelly WM; Ives JH; Lehner R; Furtmuller B; Sieghart W; Tiwari P; Lucocq JM; Lees G; Thompson CL. 2007. GABAA {alpha}6-Containing Receptors Are Selectively Compromised in Cerebellar Granule Cells of the Ataxic Mouse, Stargazer. J Biol Chem 282(40):29130-43. [PubMed: 17646167]  [MGI Ref ID J:125350]

Payne HL; Donoghue PS; Connelly WM; Hinterreiter S; Tiwari P; Ives JH; Hann V; Sieghart W; Lees G; Thompson CL. 2006. Aberrant GABA(A) receptor expression in the dentate gyrus of the epileptic mutant mouse stargazer. J Neurosci 26(33):8600-8. [PubMed: 16914686]  [MGI Ref ID J:111655]

Qiao X; Chen L; Gao H; Bao S; Hefti F; Thompson RF; Knusel B. 1998. Cerebellar brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB defect associated with impairment of eyeblink conditioning in Stargazer mutant mice. J Neurosci 18(17):6990-9. [PubMed: 9712667]  [MGI Ref ID J:49719]

Qiao X; Hefti F; Knusel B; Noebels JL. 1996. Selective failure of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in the cerebellum of stargazer, a mutant mouse with ataxia. J Neurosci 16(2):640-8. [PubMed: 8551348]  [MGI Ref ID J:30652]

Qiao X; Noebels JL. 1993. Developmental analysis of hippocampal mossy fiber outgrowth in a mutant mouse with inherited spike-wave seizures. J Neurosci 13(11):4622-35. [PubMed: 8229188]  [MGI Ref ID J:15527]

Richardson CA; Leitch B. 2002. Cerebellar Golgi, Purkinje, and basket cells have reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid immunoreactivity in stargazer mutant mice. J Comp Neurol 453(1):85-99. [PubMed: 12357434]  [MGI Ref ID J:79428]

Richardson CA; Leitch B. 2005. Phenotype of cerebellar glutamatergic neurons is altered in stargazer mutant mice lacking brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression. J Comp Neurol 481(2):145-59. [PubMed: 15562504]  [MGI Ref ID J:94530]

Ryu MJ; Lee C; Kim J; Shin HS; Yu MH. 2008. Proteomic analysis of stargazer mutant mouse neuronal proteins involved in absence seizure. J Neurochem 104(5):1260-70. [PubMed: 17973978]  [MGI Ref ID J:131784]

Sharp AH; Black JL 3rd; Dubel SJ; Sundarraj S; Shen JP; Yunker AM; Copeland TD; McEnery MW. 2001. Biochemical and anatomical evidence for specialized voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma isoform expression in the epileptic and ataxic mouse, stargazer. Neuroscience 105(3):599-617. [PubMed: 11516827]  [MGI Ref ID J:126681]

Shevtsova O; Leitch B. 2012. Selective loss of AMPA receptor subunits at inhibitory neuron synapses in the cerebellum of the ataxic stargazer mouse. Brain Res 1427:54-64. [PubMed: 22055455]  [MGI Ref ID J:179008]

Shi Y; Suh YH; Milstein AD; Isozaki K; Schmid SM; Roche KW; Nicoll RA. 2010. Functional comparison of the effects of TARPs and cornichons on AMPA receptor trafficking and gating. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(37):16315-9. [PubMed: 20805473]  [MGI Ref ID J:164372]

Song I; Kim D; Choi S; Sun M; Kim Y; Shin HS. 2004. Role of the alpha1G T-type calcium channel in spontaneous absence seizures in mutant mice. J Neurosci 24(22):5249-57. [PubMed: 15175395]  [MGI Ref ID J:96913]

Studniarczyk D; Coombs I; Cull-Candy SG; Farrant M. 2013. TARP gamma-7 selectively enhances synaptic expression of calcium-permeable AMPARs. Nat Neurosci 16(9):1266-74. [PubMed: 23872597]  [MGI Ref ID J:203892]

Sumioka A; Brown TE; Kato AS; Bredt DS; Kauer JA; Tomita S. 2011. PDZ binding of TARPgamma-8 controls synaptic transmission but not synaptic plasticity. Nat Neurosci 14(11):1410-2. [PubMed: 22002768]  [MGI Ref ID J:179775]

Sumioka A; Yan D; Tomita S. 2010. TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptors through lipid bilayers. Neuron 66(5):755-67. [PubMed: 20547132]  [MGI Ref ID J:163184]

Thompson CL; Tehrani MHJ; Barnes EM Jr; Stephenson FA. 1998. Decreased expression of GABAA receptor alpha6 and beta3 subunits in stargazer mutant mice: a possible role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the regulation of cerebellar GABAA receptor expression? Brain Res Mol Brain Res 60(2):282-90. [PubMed: 9757064]  [MGI Ref ID J:50701]

Yan D; Yamasaki M; Straub C; Watanabe M; Tomita S. 2013. Homeostatic control of synaptic transmission by distinct glutamate receptors. Neuron 78(4):687-99. [PubMed: 23719165]  [MGI Ref ID J:201543]

Zhang Y; Mori M; Burgess DL; Noebels JL. 2002. Mutations in high-voltage-activated calcium channel genes stimulate low-voltage-activated currents in mouse thalamic relay neurons. J Neurosci 22(15):6362-71. [PubMed: 12151514]  [MGI Ref ID J:106959]

Zhang Y; Vilaythong AP; Yoshor D; Noebels JL. 2004. Elevated thalamic low-voltage-activated currents precede the onset of absence epilepsy in the SNAP25-deficient mouse mutant coloboma. J Neurosci 24(22):5239-48. [PubMed: 15175394]  [MGI Ref ID J:96914]

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Loosli R. 1963. Tanoid--a new agouti mutant in the mouse. J Hered 54:26-29.  [MGI Ref ID J:13082]

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Martin NM; Houston PA; Patterson M; Sajedi A; Carmignac DF; Ghatei MA; Bloom SR; Small CJ. 2006. Abnormalities of the somatotrophic axis in the obese agouti mouse. Int J Obes (Lond) 30(3):430-8. [PubMed: 16172617]  [MGI Ref ID J:151302]

Martinez HG; Quinones MP; Jimenez F; Estrada CA; Clark K; Muscogiuri G; Sorice G; Musi N; Reddick RL; Ahuja SS. 2011. Critical role of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) in the KKAy + Apoe -/- mouse model of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetologia 54(10):2660-8. [PubMed: 21779871]  [MGI Ref ID J:177084]

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Miller MW; Duhl DM; Vrieling H; Cordes SP; Ollmann MM; Winkes BM; Barsh GS. 1993. Cloning of the mouse agouti gene predicts a secreted protein ubiquitously expressed in mice carrying the lethal yellow mutation. Genes Dev 7(3):454-67. [PubMed: 8449404]  [MGI Ref ID J:4186]

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Novak EK; Gautam R; Reddington M; Collinson LM; Copeland NG; Jenkins NA; McGarry MP; Swank RT. 2002. The regulation of platelet-dense granules by Rab27a in the ashen mouse, a model of Hermansky-Pudlak and Griscelli syndromes, is granule-specific and dependent on genetic background. Blood 100(1):128-35. [PubMed: 12070017]  [MGI Ref ID J:77395]

Novak EK; Wieland F; Jahreis GP; Swank RT. 1980. Altered secretion of kidney lysosomal enzymes in the mouse pigment mutants ruby-eye, ruby-eye-2-J, and maroon. Biochem Genet 18(5-6):549-61. [PubMed: 6776948]  [MGI Ref ID J:6422]

Nuotio-Antar AM; Hachey DL; Hasty AH. 2007. Carbenoxolone treatment attenuates symptoms of metabolic syndrome and atherogenesis in obese, hyperlipidemic mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293(6):E1517-28. [PubMed: 17878220]  [MGI Ref ID J:145108]

Papacleovoulou G; Abu-Hayyeh S; Nikolopoulou E; Briz O; Owen BM; Nikolova V; Ovadia C; Huang X; Vaarasmaki M; Baumann M; Jansen E; Albrecht C; Jarvelin MR; Marin JJ; Knisely AS; Williamson C. 2013. Maternal cholestasis during pregnancy programs metabolic disease in offspring. J Clin Invest 123(7):3172-81. [PubMed: 23934127]  [MGI Ref ID J:201610]

Pettitt SJ; Liang Q; Rairdan XY; Moran JL; Prosser HM; Beier DR; Lloyd KC; Bradley A; Skarnes WC. 2009. Agouti C57BL/6N embryonic stem cells for mouse genetic resources. Nat Methods :1-3. [PubMed: 19525957]  [MGI Ref ID J:149352]

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Rakyan VK; Chong S; Champ ME; Cuthbert PC; Morgan HD; Luu KV; Whitelaw E. 2003. Transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic states at the murine Axin(Fu) allele occurs after maternal and paternal transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(5):2538-43. [PubMed: 12601169]  [MGI Ref ID J:82396]

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Rosenfeld CS; Sieli PT; Warzak DA; Ellersieck MR; Pennington KA; Roberts RM. 2013. Maternal exposure to bisphenol A and genistein has minimal effect on A(vy)/a offspring coat color but favors birth of agouti over nonagouti mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(2):537-42. [PubMed: 23267115]  [MGI Ref ID J:193279]

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Russell ES. 1946. A Quantitative Histological Study of the Pigment Found in the Coat-Color Mutants of the House Mouse. I. Variable Attributes of the Pigment Granules. Genetics 31(3):327-46. [PubMed: 17247200]  [MGI Ref ID J:148463]

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Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Room Number           FGB27

Colony Maintenance

Mating SystemOutcross-Intercross         (Female x Male)   01-MAR-06
TJL Breeding Summary: homozygote x B6C3Fe a/a F1 then heterozygote x heterozygote
Diet Information LabDiet® 5K52/5K67

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls

Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $239.00Female or MaleHeterozygous for Cacng2stg  
$239.00Female or MaleHomozygous for Cacng2stg  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$478.00Heterozygous for Cacng2stg x Heterozygous for Cacng2stg  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $310.70Female or MaleHeterozygous for Cacng2stg  
$310.70Female or MaleHomozygous for Cacng2stg  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$621.40Heterozygous for Cacng2stg x Heterozygous for Cacng2stg  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

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  • View the complete collection of spontaneous mutants in the Mouse Mutant Resource.

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The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use

"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCTS" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or services provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than the internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE or PRODUCTS from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON's prior written authorization.

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The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or services. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS or services may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and services by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.

Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or services shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or services by JACKSON.