Strain Name:

C57BL/6-Prf1tm1Sdz/J

Stock Number:

002407

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Level 4

Homozygous mutant mice have normal numbers of CD8+ T cells and NK cells. CTL and NK cells are unable to lyse virus-infected or allogeneic fibroblasts in vitro. Homozygotes fail to clear lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Fibrosarcoma tumor cells are eliminated with reduced efficiency.

Description

Strain Information

Former Names C57BL/6-Pfptm1Sdz    (Changed: 15-DEC-04 )
Type Mutant Strain; Targeted Mutation;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
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Mating SystemHomozygote x Homozygote         (Female x Male)   01-MAR-06
Breeding Considerations This strain is a good breeder.
Specieslaboratory mouse
GenerationF?+N3F35 (14-AUG-14)
Generation Definitions
 
Donating InvestigatorDr. Hans Hengartner,   University Hospital Zurich

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Related Genotype: a/a

Description
Mice homozygous for the targeted mutation are viable and fertile. Homozygous mutant mice have normal numbers of CD8+ T cells and NK cells. CTL and NK cells are unable to lyse virus-infected or allogeneic fibroblasts in vitro. Homozygotes fail to clear lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Fibrosarcoma tumor cells are eliminated with reduced efficiency. Also known as perforin.

Development
A replacement vector was used containing the neo gene and which resulted in the disruption of exon 3 of the perforin gene without deletion of coding sequence. No fully function perforin mRNA was detected by reverse transcription PCR. The targeting construct was introduced into BL/6-III ES cells, which are derived from C57BL/6 male mice.

Control Information

  Control
   000664 C57BL/6J
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Related Strains

Strains carrying   Prf1tm1Sdz allele
007079   CByJ.B6-Prf1tm1Sdz/J
003505   NOD.B6-Prf1tm1Sdz/J
008659   NOD.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Ins2Akita Prf1tm1Sdz/SzJ
004848   NOD.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Prf1tm1Sdz/SzJ
View Strains carrying   Prf1tm1Sdz     (4 strains)

Additional Web Information

JAX® NOTES, Spring 2003; 489. Role of NK and NKT Cells in Immunity and Disease.

Phenotype

Phenotype Information

View Related Disease (OMIM) Terms

Related Disease (OMIM) Terms provided by MGI
- Model with phenotypic similarity to human disease where etiologies involve orthologs. Human genes are associated with this disease. Orthologs of those genes appear in the mouse genotype(s).
Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis, Familial, 2; FHL2
- Model with phenotypic similarity to human disease where etiologies are distinct. Human genes are associated with this disease. Orthologs of these genes do not appear in the mouse genotype(s).
Multiple Sclerosis, Susceptibility To; MS
- Potential model based on gene homology relationships. Phenotypic similarity to the human disease has not been tested.
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin, Familial   (PRF1)
View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

Prf1tm1Sdz/Prf1tm1Sdz

        C57BL/6-Prf1tm1Sdz
  • mortality/aging
  • increased sensitivity to induced morbidity/mortality
    • all mice die between 40 and 60 days after injection of 10^7 MHC class-I deficient B cell lymphoma cells, while all wild-type mice survive   (MGI Ref ID J:113213)
  • premature death
    • in mice on a C57BL/6 background compared to mice on a BALB/c background   (MGI Ref ID J:77491)
  • immune system phenotype
  • abnormal inflammatory response
    • fail to develop footpad swelling upon lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus injection into the footpad   (MGI Ref ID J:17986)
  • abnormal leukocyte physiology   (MGI Ref ID J:17986)
    • abnormal NK cell physiology
      • impaired ability to clear injected MHC class-I deficient B cell lymphoma cells resulting in increased mortality   (MGI Ref ID J:113213)
      • impaired natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
        • NK-cell-mediated lysis is not evident in the spleen cells after viral infection   (MGI Ref ID J:17986)
    • defective cytotoxic T cell cytolysis
      • CD8+ T cells cannot lyse in vitro virus-infected, peptide-coated or allogeneic target cells of epithelial, neuroectodermal or mesodermal orgin, however activation and expansion of CD8+ T cells occurs normally   (MGI Ref ID J:17986)
  • increased interleukin-10 secretion
    • following infection with a monocytotropic Ehrlichia bacteria from Ixodes ovatrus ticks (IOE), IL-10 production is increased relative to infected wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:123934)
  • increased susceptibility to infection   (MGI Ref ID J:17986)
    • increased susceptibility to bacterial infection
      • following infection with a monocytotropic Ehrlichia bacteria from Ixodes ovatrus ticks (IOE), mice have a higher burden of bacteria in the liver and lungs but not spleens, develop extensive partially confluent foci of apoptosis or necrosis of contiguous hepatocytes with mild to moderate liver injury, and more macrophage-rich inflammatory infiltrates compared to infected wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:123934)
      • following infection with IOE, IL-10 production is increased relative to infected wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:123934)
    • increased susceptibility to parasitic infection
      • decreased clearance and survival after infection with Trypanosoma cruzi   (MGI Ref ID J:81397)
    • increased susceptibility to viral infection
      • unable to eliminate lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus 12 days after intravenous infection as in controls, with infection eventually leading to weight loss and death between days 13 and 16   (MGI Ref ID J:17986)
  • reproductive system phenotype
  • abnormal female reproductive system physiology
    • alpha-galactosylceramide induced abortion does not occur   (MGI Ref ID J:59892)
  • tumorigenesis
  • decreased tumor latency
    • in mice on a C57BL/6 background compared to mice on a BALB/c background   (MGI Ref ID J:77491)
  • increased lymphoma incidence
    • develop aggressive disseminated lymphomas that affect the spleen, liver and lymph nodes from 300 days of age onwards   (MGI Ref ID J:77491)
    • most lymphomas are diffuse large cell lymphomas   (MGI Ref ID J:77491)
    • increased B cell derived lymphoma incidence
      • lymphomas are of a B cell origin or plasmocytomas   (MGI Ref ID J:77491)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • abnormal leukocyte physiology   (MGI Ref ID J:17986)
    • abnormal NK cell physiology
      • impaired ability to clear injected MHC class-I deficient B cell lymphoma cells resulting in increased mortality   (MGI Ref ID J:113213)
      • impaired natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
        • NK-cell-mediated lysis is not evident in the spleen cells after viral infection   (MGI Ref ID J:17986)
    • defective cytotoxic T cell cytolysis
      • CD8+ T cells cannot lyse in vitro virus-infected, peptide-coated or allogeneic target cells of epithelial, neuroectodermal or mesodermal orgin, however activation and expansion of CD8+ T cells occurs normally   (MGI Ref ID J:17986)

Prf1tm1Sdz/Prf1tm1Sdz

        C57BL/6-Prf1tm1Sdz/J
  • mortality/aging
  • increased susceptibility to viral infection induced morbidity/mortality
    • mutants die within 2 weeks of lymphocytic choriomeningitic virus (LCMV) infection unlike wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • mutants depleted of CD8+ cells (by administration of antibodies against CD8+ cells) survive LCMV infection, however those depleted of CD4+ or NK cells do not survive   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • neutralizing multiple cytokines, including TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-18, M-CSF, and GM-CSF, with neutralizing antibodies has no effect on survival   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • mutants treated with neutralizing antibodies against IFN-gamma survive LCMV infection, do not develop histocytic infiltrates or peripheral blood cytopenias   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • mice die 2 weeks after LCMV infection   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • CNS inflammation
    • by 7 days after TMEV infection, inflammation is present in the meninges and gray matter of spinal cords in controls as well   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
    • by 21 days, inflammation with macrophage infiltration persists in the gray matter in mutants but not in controls   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
    • brain inflammation
      • by 7 days after TMEV infection, inflammation is present, decreasing slightly by 21 days, but widespread tissue damage is present, similar to controls (B6)   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
      • by 45 days, inflammation with parenchymal disease is seen in hippocampus, striatum, and corpus callosum in some mice   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
      • persistent inflammation is found in the brainstem of mutants   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
      • at 180 days, brain pathology is still present   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
      • 30 days after LCMV infection, the meninges show prominent mononuclear infiltrates along the dura   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
  • abnormal brain meninges morphology
    • 30 days after LCMV infection, the meninges show prominent mononuclear infiltrates along the dura   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
  • demyelination
    • at 45 days after infection, foci of demyelination are observed in spinal cord (in 11% of 537 quadrants examined)   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
    • lesions are located mainly in the anterior and anterolateral white matter of the spinal cord; demyelination is chronic and progressive (16% of quadrants at 90 days and 20% of quadrants at 180 days)   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
    • demyelinated axons in close proximity to inflammatory cells and macrophages with intracytoplasmic vacuoles containing myelin debris are seen in mutants, but not in control or other null mice   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
  • immune system phenotype
  • *normal* immune system phenotype
    • delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction elicited in the ear by intradermal injection of inactive virus is comparable to that of controls   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
    • CNS inflammation
      • by 7 days after TMEV infection, inflammation is present in the meninges and gray matter of spinal cords in controls as well   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
      • by 21 days, inflammation with macrophage infiltration persists in the gray matter in mutants but not in controls   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
      • brain inflammation
        • by 7 days after TMEV infection, inflammation is present, decreasing slightly by 21 days, but widespread tissue damage is present, similar to controls (B6)   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
        • by 45 days, inflammation with parenchymal disease is seen in hippocampus, striatum, and corpus callosum in some mice   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
        • persistent inflammation is found in the brainstem of mutants   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
        • at 180 days, brain pathology is still present   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
        • 30 days after LCMV infection, the meninges show prominent mononuclear infiltrates along the dura   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • abnormal circulating cytokine level   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
      • increased circulating interferon-alpha level
        • mutants exhibit elevated serum levels of IFN-alpha at 6-8 days after LCMV infection unlike wild-type mice which show peak IFN-alpha levels at day 3 of infection and undetectable levels by 4-5 days of infection   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
      • increased circulating interferon-gamma level
        • mutants exhibit elevated (10- to 100-fold) and prolonged serum levels of IFN-gamma following LCMV infection compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
        • mutants treated with neutralizing antibodies against IFN-gamma survive LCMV infection, do not develop histocytic infiltrates or peripheral blood cytopenias   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
        • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
      • increased circulating interleukin-1 beta level
        • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
      • increased circulating interleukin-10 level
        • increased at 12 days after LCMV infection compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
      • increased circulating interleukin-18 level
        • increased at 12 days after LCMV infection compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
      • increased circulating interleukin-6 level
        • increased at 12 days after LCMV infection compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
        • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
      • increased circulating tumor necrosis factor level
        • increased at 12 days after LCMV infection compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
        • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
    • abnormal circulating fibrinogen level
      • 8-10 days after LCMV infection, mutants develop hypofibrinogenemia compared to wild-type controls   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • abnormal lymph node morphology
      • by 10-12 days after LCMV infection, lymph node architecture is deranged with disorganized macrophage and activated lymphocyte infiltrates replacing the normal follicular structure of lymph nodes and some lymph nodes exhibit necrotic changes compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • abnormal lymphocyte physiology
      • CNS-infiltrating mononuclear cells have impaired lytic activity LP- and VP2-transfected target cells in vitro (TMEV leader peptide and VP2 capsid protein), in contrast to effective lysis demonstrated by control cells   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
      • abnormal T cell activation
        • mutants exhibit an elevation of antigen-specific CD8+ T and CD4+ T cells in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen following LCMV infection compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
      • abnormal cytotoxic T cell physiology
        • impaired CD8+ T cell degranulation   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
        • however, priming is normal   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
        • defective cytotoxic T cell cytolysis
      • decreased NK cell degranulation
        • in the presence of recombinant IL15 alone or in combination with IL2   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
    • abnormal macrophage activation involved in immune response
      • hemophagocytic macrophages are seen in lymph node, spleen, liver and bone marrow tissues of LCMV infected mutants unlike in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • abnormal spleen white pulp morphology
      • by 10-12 days after LCMV infection, the white pulp appears chaotic with a prominent infiltrate of macrophages and activated lymphocytes when compared to wild-type spleen   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • decreased interferon-gamma secretion
      • IFN-gamma production by CD8+ T cells is less on a per-cell basis in response to both peptide and anti-CD3 stimulation after LCMV infection compared with wild-type mice, however the number of spontaneously IFN-gamma producing (without stimulation) CD8+ T cells is increased, indicating that ongoing antigenic stimulation results in the increased cytokine secretion   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • decreased leukocyte cell number
      • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
      • decreased neutrophil cell number
        • lack of neutrophilia in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
    • increased spleen red pulp amount
      • by 10-12 days after LCMV infection, red pulp is expanded when compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • increased susceptibility to viral infection
      • inflammation and tissue damage in the brain are greater than in control, resistant mice at 45 and 180 days   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
      • at 45 days, viral mRNA is still detected in spinal cords of mutants but not in controls or Fas and Fasl mutants   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
      • mutants cannot clear lymphocytic choriomeningitic virus (LCMV) infection like wild-type mice can   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
      • LMCV-infected mice develop clinical features of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis including weight loss, body temperature drop, hunched posture, lethargy, pancytopenia, lack of neutrophilia, increased circulating aspartate transaminase level, increased circulating lactate dehydrogenase level, increased serum levels of IFN-gamma, IL1b, TNF-alpha and IL6, increased viral load and worsening condition compared with wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
      • LMCV-infected mice develop more severe hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis than in Rab27aash and Stx11tm1.2Ics homozygotes despite similar viral loads   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
      • increased susceptibility to viral infection induced morbidity/mortality
        • mutants die within 2 weeks of lymphocytic choriomeningitic virus (LCMV) infection unlike wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
        • mutants depleted of CD8+ cells (by administration of antibodies against CD8+ cells) survive LCMV infection, however those depleted of CD4+ or NK cells do not survive   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
        • neutralizing multiple cytokines, including TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-18, M-CSF, and GM-CSF, with neutralizing antibodies has no effect on survival   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
        • mutants treated with neutralizing antibodies against IFN-gamma survive LCMV infection, do not develop histocytic infiltrates or peripheral blood cytopenias   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
        • mice die 2 weeks after LCMV infection   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
    • liver inflammation
      • by 10-12 days after LCMV infection, livers show prominent periportal infiltrates   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • lymph node inflammation
      • by 10-12 days after LCMV infection, lymph node architecture is deranged with disorganized macrophage and activated lymphocyte infiltrates replacing the normal follicular structure   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
  • behavior/neurological phenotype
  • *normal* behavior/neurological phenotype
    • mice infected with TMEV and monitored daily do not show clinical signs of TMEV infecion, including unkempt appearance, decreased spontaneous movement and hind-limb paralysis, at 45 days and 90 days, whereas 12% of susceptible SJL mice show clinical disease at 90 days and 64% by 180 days   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
    • abnormal behavior
      • some chronically infected mice demonstrate minor alterations in stride with normal activity levels, despite presence of demyelination   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
      • hunched posture
        • mutants infected with LCMV display hunched posture 10 days after infection unlike wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
        • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
      • hypoactivity
        • mutants infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitic virus (LCMV) display decreased activity 10 days after infection compared with wild-type controls   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
      • lethargy
        • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • abnormal lymphocyte physiology
    • CNS-infiltrating mononuclear cells have impaired lytic activity LP- and VP2-transfected target cells in vitro (TMEV leader peptide and VP2 capsid protein), in contrast to effective lysis demonstrated by control cells   (MGI Ref ID J:120427)
    • abnormal T cell activation
      • mutants exhibit an elevation of antigen-specific CD8+ T and CD4+ T cells in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen following LCMV infection compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • abnormal cytotoxic T cell physiology
      • impaired CD8+ T cell degranulation   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
      • however, priming is normal   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
      • defective cytotoxic T cell cytolysis
    • decreased NK cell degranulation
      • in the presence of recombinant IL15 alone or in combination with IL2   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
  • abnormal macrophage activation involved in immune response
    • hemophagocytic macrophages are seen in lymph node, spleen, liver and bone marrow tissues of LCMV infected mutants unlike in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
  • abnormal spleen white pulp morphology
    • by 10-12 days after LCMV infection, the white pulp appears chaotic with a prominent infiltrate of macrophages and activated lymphocytes when compared to wild-type spleen   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
  • decreased bone marrow cell number
    • bone marrow shows severe hypoplasia by 10-12 days after LCMV infection when compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
  • decreased erythrocyte cell number
    • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
  • decreased leukocyte cell number
    • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
    • decreased neutrophil cell number
      • lack of neutrophilia in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
  • decreased platelet cell number
    • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
  • increased spleen red pulp amount
    • by 10-12 days after LCMV infection, red pulp is expanded when compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
  • pancytopenia
    • unlike wild-type mice, mutants become pancytopenic by 10 days after LCMV infection   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • abnormal body temperature homeostasis
    • while wild-type mice infected with LCMV develop a brief febrile response early after infection, mutants exhibit a prolonged temperature elevation that is still seen at 10 days after infection   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
  • abnormal circulating cytokine level   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • increased circulating interferon-alpha level
      • mutants exhibit elevated serum levels of IFN-alpha at 6-8 days after LCMV infection unlike wild-type mice which show peak IFN-alpha levels at day 3 of infection and undetectable levels by 4-5 days of infection   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • increased circulating interferon-gamma level
      • mutants exhibit elevated (10- to 100-fold) and prolonged serum levels of IFN-gamma following LCMV infection compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
      • mutants treated with neutralizing antibodies against IFN-gamma survive LCMV infection, do not develop histocytic infiltrates or peripheral blood cytopenias   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
      • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
    • increased circulating interleukin-1 beta level
      • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
    • increased circulating interleukin-10 level
      • increased at 12 days after LCMV infection compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • increased circulating interleukin-18 level
      • increased at 12 days after LCMV infection compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
    • increased circulating interleukin-6 level
      • increased at 12 days after LCMV infection compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
      • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
    • increased circulating tumor necrosis factor level
      • increased at 12 days after LCMV infection compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
      • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
  • abnormal circulating fibrinogen level
    • 8-10 days after LCMV infection, mutants develop hypofibrinogenemia compared to wild-type controls   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
  • decreased body temperature
    • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
  • increased circulating aspartate transaminase level
    • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
  • increased circulating lactate dehydrogenase level
    • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)
  • increased circulating triglyceride level
    • 8-10 days after LCMV infection, mutants develop hypertriglyceridemia compared to wild-type controls   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
  • integument phenotype
  • ruffled hair
    • mutants infected with LCMV display ruffled fur 10 days after infection when compared with wild-type controls   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
  • liver/biliary system phenotype
  • liver inflammation
    • by 10-12 days after LCMV infection, livers show prominent periportal infiltrates   (MGI Ref ID J:92260)
  • growth/size/body phenotype
  • weight loss
    • in LMCV-infected mice   (MGI Ref ID J:193137)

The following phenotype information is associated with a similar, but not exact match to this JAX® Mice strain.

Prf1tm1Sdz/Prf1+

        A.B6-Prf1tm1Sdz
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • impaired natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
    • A cytotoxicity assay based on flow cytometric analysis of the number of doubly-labeled NK cell-sensitive Yac-1 target cells that had been labeled with CFSE before and with 7-ADD after incubation with fresh spleen cells demonstrated significantly reduced cytolysis by heterozygous mutant vs. wild-type A/J NK cells (n = 3/genotype; P = 0.0046. Student's t test.)   (MGI Ref ID J:211842)
  • immune system phenotype
  • impaired natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
    • A cytotoxicity assay based on flow cytometric analysis of the number of doubly-labeled NK cell-sensitive Yac-1 target cells that had been labeled with CFSE before and with 7-ADD after incubation with fresh spleen cells demonstrated significantly reduced cytolysis by heterozygous mutant vs. wild-type A/J NK cells (n = 3/genotype; P = 0.0046. Student's t test.)   (MGI Ref ID J:211842)
  • tumorigenesis
  • increased incidence of induced tumors
    • heterozygous mutant female A/J mice treated at 6 weeks of age with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NKK) had developed a significantly greater number of lung adenomas/adenocarcinomas 22 weeks later than NKK-treated wild-type A/J mice (wt n= 17, heterozygous n = 42; P = 0.031. Mann-Whitney U test.)   (MGI Ref ID J:211842)
    • a significantly greater tumor volume was observed in the NKK-treated heterozygous mutant mice than in the NKK-treated wild-type control mice (P = 0.034)   (MGI Ref ID J:211842)

Prf1tm1Sdz/Prf1tm1Sdz

        involves: BALB/c * C57BL/6
  • immune system phenotype
  • impaired natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
    • activated splenic NK cells are unable to kill 4T1 or Renca tumor target cells   (MGI Ref ID J:73948)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • impaired natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
    • activated splenic NK cells are unable to kill 4T1 or Renca tumor target cells   (MGI Ref ID J:73948)

Prf1tm1Sdz/Prf1tm1Sdz

        C.B6-Prf1tm1Sdz
  • tumorigenesis
  • altered tumor morphology
    • some lymphomas have an unusual histiocytic appearance with a pale eosinophilic cytoplasm   (MGI Ref ID J:77491)
  • increased lung adenocarcinoma incidence
    • in a few mice, with a very late onset   (MGI Ref ID J:77491)
    • all are well differentiated papillary adenocarcinomas   (MGI Ref ID J:77491)
  • increased lymphoma incidence
    • some mice develop disseminated lymphomas   (MGI Ref ID J:77491)
    • increased T cell derived lymphoma incidence
      • in a few mice   (MGI Ref ID J:77491)
  • increased sarcoma incidence
    • in a few mice   (MGI Ref ID J:77491)
  • increased tumor latency
    • in mice on a BALB/c background compared to mice on a C57BL/6 background   (MGI Ref ID J:77491)

Prf1tm1Sdz/Prf1tm1Sdz

        A.B6-Prf1tm1Sdz
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • impaired natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
    • A cytotoxicity assay based on flow cytometric analysis of the number of doubly-labeled NK cell-sensitive Yac-1 target cells that had been labeled with CFSE before and with 7-ADD after incubation with fresh spleen cells demonstrated significantly reduced cytolysis by homozygous mutant vs. wild-type A/J NK cells. (n = 3/genotype; P = 0.0031. Student's t test.)   (MGI Ref ID J:211842)
  • immune system phenotype
  • impaired natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
    • A cytotoxicity assay based on flow cytometric analysis of the number of doubly-labeled NK cell-sensitive Yac-1 target cells that had been labeled with CFSE before and with 7-ADD after incubation with fresh spleen cells demonstrated significantly reduced cytolysis by homozygous mutant vs. wild-type A/J NK cells. (n = 3/genotype; P = 0.0031. Student's t test.)   (MGI Ref ID J:211842)
  • tumorigenesis
  • increased incidence of induced tumors
    • homozygous mutant female A/J mice treated at 6 weeks of age with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NKK) had developed a significantly greater number of lung adenomas/adenocarcinomas 22 weeks later than had NKK-treated wild-type female A/J mice (wt n= 17, homozygous n = 26; P = 0.036. Mann-Whitney U test.)   (MGI Ref ID J:211842)
    • although a significantly greater tumor volume was observed in NKK-treated heterozygous mutant female mice than in wild-type mice (P = 0.034), the volume of tumors in homozygous mutant mice did not differ significantly from that in wild-type controls (P = 0.16)   (MGI Ref ID J:211842)
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Immunodeficiency Associated with Other Defects

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

 
Allele Symbol Prf1tm1Sdz
Allele Name targeted mutation 1, Sandoz Pharmaceuticals
Allele Type Targeted (Null/Knockout)
Common Name(s) P0; Pfn-; Pfptm1Sdz; Prf1-; Prf1tm/Sdz; Prf-; perf-; perforin 0; perforin-; pfp-; pfpKO; pko; prf1tm1;
Mutation Made ByDr. Birgit Lederman,   University of Zurich
Strain of OriginC57BL/6J
ES Cell Line NameBL/6-III
ES Cell Line StrainC57BL/6J
Gene Symbol and Name Prf1, perforin 1 (pore forming protein)
Chromosome 10
Gene Common Name(s) Cyta; FLH2; HPLH2; P1; PFN1; PFP; Pfn; Pfp; Prf-1; RATCYTA; perforin; perforin 1; pore forming protein;
General Note Phenotypic Similarity to Human Syndrome: hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in mutants infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitic virus (J:92260)
Molecular Note A neomycin selection cassette was inserted into exon 3. RT-PCR analysis on RNA derived from homozygous mice demonstrated that an abnormal transcript was produced from this allele. However, immunocytochemistry experiments on activated spleen cells derived from homozygous mice confirmed that no detectable protein was made from this allele. [MGI Ref ID J:17986] [MGI Ref ID J:96542]

Genotyping

Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

NntC57BL/6J,

Separated MCA


Prf1tm1Sdz, Standard PCR
Prf1tm1Sdz, Melt Curve Analysis


Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting

References

References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Kagi D; Ledermann B; Burki K; Seiler P; Odermatt B; Olsen KJ; Podack ER; Zinkernagel RM; Hengartner H. 1994. Cytotoxicity mediated by T cells and natural killer cells is greatly impaired in perforin-deficient mice [see comments] Nature 369(6475):31-7. [PubMed: 8164737]  [MGI Ref ID J:17986]

Additional References

Chang E; Galle L; Maggs D; Estes DM; Mitchell WJ. 2000. Pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus type 1-induced corneal inflammation in perforin-deficient mice J Virol 74(24):11832-40. [PubMed: 11090183]  [MGI Ref ID J:65895]

Choy JC; Kerjner A; Wong BW; McManus BM; Granville DJ. 2004. Perforin mediates endothelial cell death and resultant transplant vascular disease in cardiac allografts. Am J Pathol 165(1):127-33. [PubMed: 15215168]  [MGI Ref ID J:91236]

Christensen JE; Wodarz D; Christensen JP; Thomsen AR. 2004. Perforin and IFN-gamma do not significantly regulate the virus-specific CD8+ T cell response in the absence of antiviral effector activity. Eur J Immunol 34(5):1389-94. [PubMed: 15114672]  [MGI Ref ID J:89390]

Ledermann B; Burki K. 1991. Establishment of a germ-line competent C57BL/6 embryonic stem cell line. Exp Cell Res 197(2):254-8. [PubMed: 1959560]  [MGI Ref ID J:2753]

Majlessi L; Bordenave G. 2001. Role of CD40 in a T cell-mediated negative regulation of Ig production. J Immunol 166(2):841-7. [PubMed: 11145658]  [MGI Ref ID J:88840]

Murphy EA; Sathiyaseelan J; Parent MA; Zou B; Baldwin CL. 2001. Interferon-gamma is crucial for surviving a Brucella abortus infection in both resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Immunology 103(4):511-8. [PubMed: 11529943]  [MGI Ref ID J:71148]

Takeda K; Hayakawa Y; Van Kaer L; Matsuda H; Yagita H; Okumura K. 2000. Critical contribution of liver natural killer T cells to a murine model of hepatitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(10):5498-503. [PubMed: 10792025]  [MGI Ref ID J:62215]

Zhou P; Freidag BL; Caldwell CC; Seder RA. 2001. Perforin is required for primary immunity to Histoplasma capsulatum. J Immunol 166(3):1968-74. [PubMed: 11160245]  [MGI Ref ID J:67094]

Prf1tm1Sdz related

Abdool K; Cretney E; Brooks AD; Kelly JM; Swann J; Shanker A; Bere EW Jr; Yokoyama WM; Ortaldo JR; Smyth MJ; Sayers TJ. 2006. NK cells use NKG2D to recognize a mouse renal cancer (Renca), yet require intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on the tumor cells for optimal perforin-dependent effector function. J Immunol 177(4):2575-83. [PubMed: 16888019]  [MGI Ref ID J:138353]

Afshar-Sterle S; Zotos D; Bernard NJ; Scherger AK; Rodling L; Alsop AE; Walker J; Masson F; Belz GT; Corcoran LM; O'Reilly LA; Strasser A; Smyth MJ; Johnstone R; Tarlinton DM; Nutt SL; Kallies A. 2014. Fas ligand-mediated immune surveillance by T cells is essential for the control of spontaneous B cell lymphomas. Nat Med 20(3):283-90. [PubMed: 24487434]  [MGI Ref ID J:208773]

Alsharifi M; Lobigs M; Simon MM; Kersten A; Muller K; Koskinen A; Lee E; Mullbacher A. 2006. NK cell-mediated immunopathology during an acute viral infection of the CNS. Eur J Immunol 36(4):887-96. [PubMed: 16541469]  [MGI Ref ID J:114787]

Alves B; Leong J; Tamang DL; Elliott V; Lowe M; Hudig D. 2009. Hydrolysis of tumor cell lipids after CTL-mediated death. Int Immunol 21(5):543-53. [PubMed: 19325035]  [MGI Ref ID J:148103]

Alves BN; Leong J; Tamang DL; Elliott V; Edelnant J; Redelman D; Singer CA; Kuhn AR; Miller R; Lowe ME; Hudig D. 2009. Pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2) induction by IL-4 in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and reevaluation of the negative effects of its gene ablation on cytotoxicity. J Leukoc Biol 86(3):701-12. [PubMed: 19451396]  [MGI Ref ID J:152431]

Anthony DA; Andrews DM; Chow M; Watt SV; House C; Akira S; Bird PI; Trapani JA; Smyth MJ. 2010. A role for granzyme M in TLR4-driven inflammation and endotoxicosis. J Immunol 185(3):1794-803. [PubMed: 20585036]  [MGI Ref ID J:162467]

Ataera H; Simkins HM; Hyde E; Yang J; Hermans IF; Petersen TR; Ronchese F. 2013. The control of CD8+ T cell responses is preserved in perforin-deficient mice and released by depletion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. J Leukoc Biol 94(4):825-33. [PubMed: 23883515]  [MGI Ref ID J:205311]

Baker MB; Altman NH; Podack ER; Levy RB. 1996. The role of cell-mediated cytotoxicity in acute GVHD after MHC-matched allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice. J Exp Med 183(6):2645-56. [PubMed: 8676085]  [MGI Ref ID J:33612]

Balkow S; Kersten A; Tran TT; Stehle T; Grosse P; Museteanu C; Utermohlen O; Pircher H; von Weizsacker F; Wallich R; Mullbacher A; Simon MM. 2001. Concerted action of the FasL/Fas and perforin/granzyme A and B pathways is mandatory for the development of early viral hepatitis but not for recovery from viral infection. J Virol 75(18):8781-91. [PubMed: 11507223]  [MGI Ref ID J:71217]

Ballas ZK; Buchta CM; Rosean TR; Heusel JW; Shey MR. 2013. Role of NK cell subsets in organ-specific murine melanoma metastasis. PLoS One 8(6):e65599. [PubMed: 23776508]  [MGI Ref ID J:204234]

Banuelos SJ; Shultz LD; Greiner DL; Burzenski LM; Gott B; Lyons BL; Rossini AA; Appel MC. 2004. Rejection of human islets and human HLA-A2.1 transgenic mouse islets by alloreactive human lymphocytes in immunodeficient NOD-scid and NOD-Rag1(null)Prf1(null) mice. Clin Immunol 112(3):273-83. [PubMed: 15308121]  [MGI Ref ID J:91764]

Beilke JN; Kuhl NR; Van Kaer L; Gill RG. 2005. NK cells promote islet allograft tolerance via a perforin-dependent mechanism. Nat Med 11(10):1059-65. [PubMed: 16155578]  [MGI Ref ID J:101693]

Bitsaktsis C; Winslow G. 2006. Fatal recall responses mediated by CD8 T cells during intracellular bacterial challenge infection. J Immunol 177(7):4644-51. [PubMed: 16982903]  [MGI Ref ID J:139316]

Blazar BR; Carreno BM; Panoskaltsis-Mortari A; Carter L; Iwai Y; Yagita H; Nishimura H; Taylor PA. 2003. Blockade of programmed death-1 engagement accelerates graft-versus-host disease lethality by an IFN-gamma-dependent mechanism. J Immunol 171(3):1272-7. [PubMed: 12874215]  [MGI Ref ID J:120213]

Blazar BR; Lees CJ; Martin PJ; Noelle RJ; Kwon B; Murphy W; Taylor PA. 2000. Host T cells resist graft-versus-host disease mediated by donor leukocyte infusions. J Immunol 165(9):4901-9. [PubMed: 11046015]  [MGI Ref ID J:118027]

Blohm U; Potthoff D; van der Kogel AJ; Pircher H. 2006. Solid tumors 'melt' from the inside after successful CD8 T cell attack. Eur J Immunol 36(2):468-77. [PubMed: 16385625]  [MGI Ref ID J:113858]

Bokhari SM; Kim KJ; Pinson DM; Slusser J; Yeh HW; Parmely MJ. 2008. NK cells and gamma interferon coordinate the formation and function of hepatic granulomas in mice infected with the Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain. Infect Immun 76(4):1379-89. [PubMed: 18227174]  [MGI Ref ID J:133531]

Bolitho P; Street SE; Westwood JA; Edelmann W; Macgregor D; Waring P; Murray WK; Godfrey DI; Trapani JA; Johnstone RW; Smyth MJ. 2009. Perforin-mediated suppression of B-cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(8):2723-8. [PubMed: 19196996]  [MGI Ref ID J:146488]

Bour-Jordan H; Thompson HL; Bluestone JA. 2005. Distinct effector mechanisms in the development of autoimmune neuropathy versus diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol 175(9):5649-55. [PubMed: 16237054]  [MGI Ref ID J:119359]

Brien JD; Uhrlaub JL; Nikolich-Zugich J. 2008. West nile virus-specific CD4 T cells exhibit direct antiviral cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity and are sufficient for antiviral protection. J Immunol 181(12):8568-75. [PubMed: 19050276]  [MGI Ref ID J:142059]

Bucher C; Koch L; Vogtenhuber C; Goren E; Munger M; Panoskaltsis-Mortari A; Sivakumar P; Blazar BR. 2009. IL-21 blockade reduces graft-versus-host disease mortality by supporting inducible T regulatory cell generation. Blood 114(26):5375-84. [PubMed: 19843883]  [MGI Ref ID J:155701]

Capitini CM; Nasholm NM; Duncan BB; Guimond M; Fry TJ. 2013. Graft-versus-host disease impairs vaccine responses through decreased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation and increased perforin-mediated CD8+ T cell apoptosis. J Immunol 190(3):1351-9. [PubMed: 23275602]  [MGI Ref ID J:193034]

Chamberlain CM; Ang LS; Boivin WA; Cooper DM; Williams SJ; Zhao H; Hendel A; Folkesson M; Swedenborg J; Allard MF; McManus BM; Granville DJ. 2010. Perforin-independent extracellular granzyme B activity contributes to abdominal aortic aneurysm. Am J Pathol 176(2):1038-49. [PubMed: 20035050]  [MGI Ref ID J:156606]

Chan CJ; Andrews DM; McLaughlin NM; Yagita H; Gilfillan S; Colonna M; Smyth MJ. 2010. DNAM-1/CD155 interactions promote cytokine and NK cell-mediated suppression of poorly immunogenic melanoma metastases. J Immunol 184(2):902-11. [PubMed: 20008292]  [MGI Ref ID J:159408]

Chang E; Galle L; Maggs D; Estes DM; Mitchell WJ. 2000. Pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus type 1-induced corneal inflammation in perforin-deficient mice J Virol 74(24):11832-40. [PubMed: 11090183]  [MGI Ref ID J:65895]

Chen L; Woo M; Hakem R; Miller RG. 2003. Perforin-dependent activation-induced cell death acts through caspase 3 but not through caspases 8 or 9. Eur J Immunol 33(3):769-78. [PubMed: 12616497]  [MGI Ref ID J:82433]

Chen M; Felix K; Wang J. 2012. Critical role for perforin and Fas-dependent killing of dendritic cells in the control of inflammation. Blood 119(1):127-36. [PubMed: 22042696]  [MGI Ref ID J:181665]

Chen M; Felix K; Wang J. 2011. Immune regulation through mitochondrion-dependent dendritic cell death induced by T regulatory cells. J Immunol 187(11):5684-92. [PubMed: 22031758]  [MGI Ref ID J:179762]

Chen M; Wang YH; Wang Y; Huang L; Sandoval H; Liu YJ; Wang J. 2006. Dendritic cell apoptosis in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Science 311(5764):1160-4. [PubMed: 16497935]  [MGI Ref ID J:105747]

Chiarle R; Martinengo C; Mastini C; Ambrogio C; D'Escamard V; Forni G; Inghirami G. 2008. The anaplastic lymphoma kinase is an effective oncoantigen for lymphoma vaccination. Nat Med 14(6):676-80. [PubMed: 18469826]  [MGI Ref ID J:136968]

Cho HI; Celis E. 2009. Optimized peptide vaccines eliciting extensive CD8 T-cell responses with therapeutic antitumor effects. Cancer Res 69(23):9012-9. [PubMed: 19903852]  [MGI Ref ID J:155054]

Choi J; Ritchey J; Prior JL; Holt M; Shannon WD; Deych E; Piwnica-Worms DR; DiPersio JF. 2010. In vivo administration of hypomethylating agents mitigate graft-versus-host disease without sacrificing graft-versus-leukemia. Blood 116(1):129-39. [PubMed: 20424188]  [MGI Ref ID J:162801]

Chong SZ; Tan KW; Wong FH; Chua YL; Tang Y; Ng LG; Angeli V; Kemeny DM. 2014. CD8 T Cells Regulate Allergic Contact Dermatitis by Modulating CCR2-Dependent TNF/iNOS-Expressing Ly6C(+)CD11b(+) Monocytic Cells. J Invest Dermatol 134(3):666-76. [PubMed: 24061165]  [MGI Ref ID J:206039]

Choy JC; Kerjner A; Wong BW; McManus BM; Granville DJ. 2004. Perforin mediates endothelial cell death and resultant transplant vascular disease in cardiac allografts. Am J Pathol 165(1):127-33. [PubMed: 15215168]  [MGI Ref ID J:91236]

Christensen JE; Wodarz D; Christensen JP; Thomsen AR. 2004. Perforin and IFN-gamma do not significantly regulate the virus-specific CD8+ T cell response in the absence of antiviral effector activity. Eur J Immunol 34(5):1389-94. [PubMed: 15114672]  [MGI Ref ID J:89390]

Chrobak P; Gress RE. 2001. Veto activity of activated bone marrow does not require perforin and Fas ligand. Cell Immunol 208(2):80-7. [PubMed: 11333140]  [MGI Ref ID J:127838]

Ciurea A; Hunziker L; Martinic MM; Oxenius A; Hengartner H; Zinkernagel RM. 2001. CD4+ T-cell-epitope escape mutant virus selected in vivo. Nat Med 7(7):795-800. [PubMed: 11433343]  [MGI Ref ID J:134010]

Cretney E; Degli-Esposti MA; Densley EH; Farrell HE; Davis-Poynter NJ; Smyth MJ. 1999. m144, a murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)-encoded major histocompatibility complex class I homologue, confers tumor resistance to natural killer cell-mediated rejection. J Exp Med 190(3):435-44. [PubMed: 10430631]  [MGI Ref ID J:56787]

Cretney E; Takeda K; Yagita H; Glaccum M; Peschon JJ; Smyth MJ. 2002. Increased susceptibility to tumor initiation and metastasis in TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-deficient mice. J Immunol 168(3):1356-61. [PubMed: 11801676]  [MGI Ref ID J:73948]

Deb C; Lafrance-Corey RG; Schmalstieg WF; Sauer BM; Wang H; German CL; Windebank AJ; Rodriguez M; Howe CL. 2010. CD8+ T cells cause disability and axon loss in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. PLoS One 5(8):. [PubMed: 20814579]  [MGI Ref ID J:163992]

Deb C; Lafrance-Corey RG; Zoecklein L; Papke L; Rodriguez M; Howe CL. 2009. Demyelinated axons and motor function are protected by genetic deletion of perforin in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 68(9):1037-48. [PubMed: 19680139]  [MGI Ref ID J:164174]

Decaluwe H; Taillardet M; Corcuff E; Munitic I; Law HK; Rocha B; Riviere Y; Di Santo JP. 2010. {gamma}c deficiency precludes CD8+ T cell memory despite formation of potent T cell effectors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(20):9311-6. [PubMed: 20439728]  [MGI Ref ID J:160570]

Deguine J; Breart B; Lemaitre F; Di Santo JP; Bousso P. 2010. Intravital Imaging Reveals Distinct Dynamics for Natural Killer and CD8(+) T Cells during Tumor Regression. Immunity 33(4):632-44. [PubMed: 20951068]  [MGI Ref ID J:165485]

Doloff JC; Waxman DJ. 2012. VEGF receptor inhibitors block the ability of metronomically dosed cyclophosphamide to activate innate immunity-induced tumor regression. Cancer Res 72(5):1103-15. [PubMed: 22237627]  [MGI Ref ID J:181494]

Dudek NL; Thomas HE; Mariana L; Sutherland RM; Allison J; Estella E; Angstetra E; Trapani JA; Santamaria P; Lew AM; Kay TW. 2006. Cytotoxic T-cells from T-cell receptor transgenic NOD8.3 mice destroy beta-cells via the perforin and Fas pathways. Diabetes 55(9):2412-8. [PubMed: 16936188]  [MGI Ref ID J:116592]

Duthie MS; Kahn SJ. 2006. During acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection highly susceptible mice deficient in natural killer cells are protected by a single alpha-galactosylceramide treatment. Immunology 119(3):355-61. [PubMed: 16879622]  [MGI Ref ID J:118525]

Dyer CM; Zhan Y; Brady JL; Carbone FR; Smyth MJ; Lew AM. 2004. Unexpectedly, induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes enhances the humoral response after DNA immunization. Blood 103(8):3073-5. [PubMed: 15070687]  [MGI Ref ID J:115473]

Edinger M; Hoffmann P; Ermann J; Drago K; Fathman CG; Strober S; Negrin RS. 2003. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells preserve graft-versus-tumor activity while inhibiting graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation. Nat Med 9(9):1144-50. [PubMed: 12925844]  [MGI Ref ID J:126172]

Ehl S; Hombach J; Aichele P; Rulicke T; Odermatt B; Hengartner H; Zinkernagel R; Pircher H. 1998. Viral and bacterial infections interfere with peripheral tolerance induction and activate CD8+ T cells to cause immunopathology. J Exp Med 187(5):763-74. [PubMed: 9480986]  [MGI Ref ID J:132027]

Eisenring M; vom Berg J; Kristiansen G; Saller E; Becher B. 2010. IL-12 initiates tumor rejection via lymphoid tissue-inducer cells bearing the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp46. Nat Immunol 11(11):1030-8. [PubMed: 20935648]  [MGI Ref ID J:166535]

Enomoto N; Hyde E; Ma JZ; Yang J; Forbes-Blom E; Delahunt B; Le Gros G; Ronchese F. 2012. Allergen-specific CTL require perforin expression to suppress allergic airway inflammation. J Immunol 188(4):1734-41. [PubMed: 22250087]  [MGI Ref ID J:181169]

Epardaud M; Elpek KG; Rubinstein MP; Yonekura AR; Bellemare-Pelletier A; Bronson R; Hamerman JA; Goldrath AW; Turley SJ. 2008. Interleukin-15/interleukin-15R alpha complexes promote destruction of established tumors by reviving tumor-resident CD8+ T cells. Cancer Res 68(8):2972-83. [PubMed: 18413767]  [MGI Ref ID J:133960]

Fang R; Ismail N; Walker DH. 2012. Contribution of NK cells to the innate phase of host protection against an intracellular bacterium targeting systemic endothelium. Am J Pathol 181(1):185-95. [PubMed: 22617213]  [MGI Ref ID J:185539]

Fehniger TA; Cai SF; Cao X; Bredemeyer AJ; Presti RM; French AR; Ley TJ. 2007. Acquisition of murine NK cell cytotoxicity requires the translation of a pre-existing pool of granzyme B and perforin mRNAs. Immunity 26(6):798-811. [PubMed: 17540585]  [MGI Ref ID J:123588]

Feng HM; Walker DH. 2004. Mechanisms of immunity to Ehrlichia muris: a model of monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. Infect Immun 72(2):966-71. [PubMed: 14742542]  [MGI Ref ID J:87862]

Fraszczak J; Trad M; Janikashvili N; Cathelin D; Lakomy D; Granci V; Morizot A; Audia S; Micheau O; Lagrost L; Katsanis E; Solary E; Larmonier N; Bonnotte B. 2010. Peroxynitrite-dependent killing of cancer cells and presentation of released tumor antigens by activated dendritic cells. J Immunol 184(4):1876-84. [PubMed: 20089706]  [MGI Ref ID J:159469]

Frebel H; Nindl V; Schuepbach RA; Braunschweiler T; Richter K; Vogel J; Wagner CA; Loffing-Cueni D; Kurrer M; Ludewig B; Oxenius A. 2012. Programmed death 1 protects from fatal circulatory failure during systemic virus infection of mice. J Exp Med 209(13):2485-99. [PubMed: 23230000]  [MGI Ref ID J:194617]

Fujiwara D; Wei B; Presley LL; Brewer S; McPherson M; Lewinski MA; Borneman J; Braun J. 2008. Systemic Control of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells by CD8+ T Cells and Commensal Microbiota. J Immunol 180(9):5843-52. [PubMed: 18424703]  [MGI Ref ID J:134320]

Fullerton AM; Roth RA; Ganey PE. 2013. 2,3,7,8-TCDD enhances the sensitivity of mice to concanavalin A immune-mediated liver injury. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 266(2):317-27. [PubMed: 23164664]  [MGI Ref ID J:193201]

Furmanov K; Elnekave M; Lehmann D; Clausen BE; Kotton DN; Hovav AH. 2010. The role of skin-derived dendritic cells in CD8(+) T cell priming following immunization with lentivectors. J Immunol 184(9):4889-97. [PubMed: 20357252]  [MGI Ref ID J:160457]

Ge MQ; Ho AW; Tang Y; Wong KH; Chua BY; Gasser S; Kemeny DM. 2012. NK cells regulate CD8+ T cell priming and dendritic cell migration during influenza A infection by IFN-gamma and perforin-dependent mechanisms. J Immunol 189(5):2099-109. [PubMed: 22869906]  [MGI Ref ID J:189840]

Getachew Y; Stout-Delgado H; Miller BC; Thiele DL. 2008. Granzyme C supports efficient CTL-mediated killing late in primary alloimmune responses. J Immunol 181(11):7810-7. [PubMed: 19017970]  [MGI Ref ID J:142385]

Gondek DC; Lu LF; Quezada SA; Sakaguchi S; Noelle RJ. 2005. Cutting edge: contact-mediated suppression by CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells involves a granzyme B-dependent, perforin-independent mechanism. J Immunol 174(4):1783-6. [PubMed: 15699103]  [MGI Ref ID J:96542]

Grayson MH; Cheung D; Rohlfing MM; Kitchens R; Spiegel DE; Tucker J; Battaile JT; Alevy Y; Yan L; Agapov E; Kim EY; Holtzman MJ. 2007. Induction of high-affinity IgE receptor on lung dendritic cells during viral infection leads to mucous cell metaplasia. J Exp Med 204(11):2759-69. [PubMed: 17954569]  [MGI Ref ID J:126124]

Gregg RK; Nichols L; Chen Y; Lu B; Engelhard VH. 2010. Mechanisms of spatial and temporal development of autoimmune vitiligo in tyrosinase-specific TCR transgenic mice. J Immunol 184(4):1909-17. [PubMed: 20083666]  [MGI Ref ID J:159480]

Gupta M; Greer P; Mahanty S; Shieh WJ; Zaki SR; Ahmed R; Rollin PE. 2005. CD8-mediated protection against Ebola virus infection is perforin dependent. J Immunol 174(7):4198-202. [PubMed: 15778381]  [MGI Ref ID J:97965]

Hashimoto W; Osaki T; Okamura H; Robbins PD; Kurimoto M; Nagata S; Lotze MT; Tahara H. 1999. Differential antitumor effects of administration of recombinant IL-18 or recombinant IL-12 are mediated primarily by Fas-Fas ligand- and perforin-induced tumor apoptosis, respectively. J Immunol 163(2):583-9. [PubMed: 10395644]  [MGI Ref ID J:56128]

Hayakawa Y; Screpanti V; Yagita H; Grandien A; Ljunggren HG; Smyth MJ; Chambers BJ. 2004. NK cell TRAIL eliminates immature dendritic cells in vivo and limits dendritic cell vaccination efficacy. J Immunol 172(1):123-9. [PubMed: 14688317]  [MGI Ref ID J:87568]

He KM; Ma Y; Wang S; Min WP; Zhong R; Jevnikar A; Zhang ZX. 2007. Donor double-negative Treg promote allogeneic mixed chimerism and tolerance. Eur J Immunol 37(12):3455-66. [PubMed: 18000953]  [MGI Ref ID J:128537]

He W; Hao J; Dong S; Gao Y; Tao J; Chi H; Flavell R; O'Brien RL; Born WK; Craft J; Han J; Wang P; Zhao L; Wu J; Yin Z. 2010. Naturally activated Vgamma4 gammadelta T cells play a protective role in tumor immunity through expression of eomesodermin. J Immunol 185(1):126-33. [PubMed: 20525896]  [MGI Ref ID J:161612]

Hegde S; Niederkorn JY. 2000. The role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in corneal allograft rejection. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41(11):3341-7. [PubMed: 11006223]  [MGI Ref ID J:115389]

Herz J; Pardo J; Kashkar H; Schramm M; Kuzmenkina E; Bos E; Wiegmann K; Wallich R; Peters PJ; Herzig S; Schmelzer E; Kronke M; Simon MM; Utermohlen O. 2009. Acid sphingomyelinase is a key regulator of cytotoxic granule secretion by primary T lymphocytes. Nat Immunol 10(7):761-8. [PubMed: 19525969]  [MGI Ref ID J:150131]

Hiebert PR; Boivin WA; Zhao H; McManus BM; Granville DJ. 2013. Perforin and granzyme B have separate and distinct roles during atherosclerotic plaque development in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. PLoS One 8(10):e78939. [PubMed: 24205352]  [MGI Ref ID J:209223]

Hollenbaugh JA; Reome J; Dobrzanski M; Dutton RW. 2004. The rate of the CD8-dependent initial reduction in tumor volume is not limited by contact-dependent perforin, Fas ligand, or TNF-mediated cytolysis. J Immunol 173(3):1738-43. [PubMed: 15265903]  [MGI Ref ID J:92134]

Holst PJ; Christensen JP; Thomsen AR. 2011. Vaccination against Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infection in MHC Class II-Deficient Mice. J Immunol 186(7):3997-4007. [PubMed: 21357263]  [MGI Ref ID J:170697]

Howe CL; Adelson JD; Rodriguez M. 2007. Absence of perforin expression confers axonal protection despite demyelination. Neurobiol Dis 25(2):354-9. [PubMed: 17112732]  [MGI Ref ID J:119009]

Hunter CA; Yu D; Gee M; Ngo CV; Sevignani C; Goldschmidt M; Golovkina TV; Evans S; Lee WF; Thomas-Tikhonenko A. 2001. Cutting edge: systemic inhibition of angiogenesis underlies resistance to tumors during acute toxoplasmosis. J Immunol 166(10):5878-81. [PubMed: 11342601]  [MGI Ref ID J:124573]

Imai T; Shen J; Chou B; Duan X; Tu L; Tetsutani K; Moriya C; Ishida H; Hamano S; Shimokawa C; Hisaeda H; Himeno K. 2010. Involvement of CD8+ T cells in protective immunity against murine blood-stage infection with Plasmodium yoelii 17XL strain. Eur J Immunol 40(4):1053-61. [PubMed: 20101613]  [MGI Ref ID J:159116]

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Quezada SA; Simpson TR; Peggs KS; Merghoub T; Vider J; Fan X; Blasberg R; Yagita H; Muranski P; Antony PA; Restifo NP; Allison JP. 2010. Tumor-reactive CD4(+) T cells develop cytotoxic activity and eradicate large established melanoma after transfer into lymphopenic hosts. J Exp Med 207(3):637-50. [PubMed: 20156971]  [MGI Ref ID J:158560]

Ramirez-Montagut T; Chow A; Hirschhorn-Cymerman D; Terwey TH; Kochman AA; Lu S; Miles RC; Sakaguchi S; Houghton AN; van den Brink MR. 2006. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor family related gene activation overcomes tolerance/ignorance to melanoma differentiation antigens and enhances antitumor immunity. J Immunol 176(11):6434-42. [PubMed: 16709800]  [MGI Ref ID J:131776]

Regner M; Pavlinovic L; Young N; Mullbacher A. 2011. In vivo elimination of MHC-I-deficient lymphocytes by activated natural killer cells is independent of granzymes A and B. PLoS One 6(8):e23252. [PubMed: 21853094]  [MGI Ref ID J:176509]

Richter K; Hausmann J; Staeheli P. 2009. Interferon-gamma prevents death of bystander neurons during CD8 T cell responses in the brain. Am J Pathol 174(5):1799-807. [PubMed: 19359516]  [MGI Ref ID J:147967]

Riera L; Gariglio M; Pagano M; Gaiola O; Simon MM; Landolfo S. 2001. Control of murine cytomegalovirus replication in salivary glands during acute infection is independent of the Fas ligand/Fas system. New Microbiol 24(3):231-8. [PubMed: 11497079]  [MGI Ref ID J:109866]

Riera L; Gariglio M; Valente G; Mullbacher A; Museteanu C; Landolfo S; Simon MM. 2000. Murine cytomegalovirus replication in salivary glands is controlled by both perforin and granzymes during acute infection. Eur J Immunol 30(5):1350-5. [PubMed: 10820381]  [MGI Ref ID J:62197]

Rottenberg ME; Gigliotti Rothfuchs A; Gigliotti D; Ceausu M; Une C; Levitsky V; Wigzell H. 2000. Regulation and role of IFN-gamma in the innate resistance to infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. J Immunol 164(9):4812-8. [PubMed: 10779789]  [MGI Ref ID J:124531]

Rottenberg ME; Gigliotti Rothfuchs AC; Gigliotti D; Svanholm C; Bandholtz L; Wigzell H. 1999. Role of innate and adaptive immunity in the outcome of primary infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, as analyzed in genetically modified mice. J Immunol 162(5):2829-36. [PubMed: 10072530]  [MGI Ref ID J:124536]

Russell MS; Dudani R; Krishnan L; Sad S. 2009. IFN-gamma expressed by T cells regulates the persistence of antigen presentation by limiting the survival of dendritic cells. J Immunol 183(12):7710-8. [PubMed: 19923462]  [MGI Ref ID J:157498]

Sad S; Krishnan L. 1999. Cytokine deprivation of naive CD8+ T cells promotes minimal cell cycling but maximal cytokine synthesis and autonomous proliferation subsequently: a mechanism of self-regulation. J Immunol 163(5):2443-51. [PubMed: 10452979]  [MGI Ref ID J:118912]

Sagiv A; Biran A; Yon M; Simon J; Lowe SW; Krizhanovsky V. 2013. Granule exocytosis mediates immune surveillance of senescent cells. Oncogene 32(15):1971-7. [PubMed: 22751116]  [MGI Ref ID J:197226]

Saini RV; Wilson C; Finn MW; Wang T; Krensky AM; Clayberger C. 2011. Granulysin delivered by cytotoxic cells damages endoplasmic reticulum and activates caspase-7 in target cells. J Immunol 186(6):3497-504. [PubMed: 21296981]  [MGI Ref ID J:169773]

Salti SM; Hammelev EM; Grewal JL; Reddy ST; Zemple SJ; Grossman WJ; Grayson MH; Verbsky JW. 2011. Granzyme B regulates antiviral CD8+ T cell responses. J Immunol 187(12):6301-9. [PubMed: 22084442]  [MGI Ref ID J:180386]

Sanapala S; Yu JJ; Murthy AK; Li W; Guentzel MN; Chambers JP; Klose KE; Arulanandam BP. 2012. Perforin- and granzyme-mediated cytotoxic effector functions are essential for protection against Francisella tularensis following vaccination by the defined F. tularensis subsp. novicida DeltafopC vaccine strain. Infect Immun 80(6):2177-85. [PubMed: 22493083]  [MGI Ref ID J:186522]

Sarcon AK; Desierto MJ; Zhou W; Visconte V; Gibellini F; Chen J; Young NS. 2009. Role of perforin-mediated cell apoptosis in murine models of infusion-induced bone marrow failure. Exp Hematol 37(4):477-86. [PubMed: 19216020]  [MGI Ref ID J:146840]

Schiller NK; Boisvert WA; Curtiss LK. 2002. Inflammation in atherosclerosis: lesion formation in LDL receptor-deficient mice with perforin and Lyst(beige) mutations. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 22(8):1341-6. [PubMed: 12171798]  [MGI Ref ID J:103214]

Schmidt NW; Khanolkar A; Hancox L; Heusel JW; Harty JT. 2012. Perforin plays an unexpected role in regulating T-cell contraction during prolonged Listeria monocytogenes infection. Eur J Immunol 42(3):629-40. [PubMed: 22161269]  [MGI Ref ID J:187790]

Seki N; Brooks AD; Carter CR; Back TC; Parsoneault EM; Smyth MJ; Wiltrout RH; Sayers TJ. 2002. Tumor-specific CTL kill murine renal cancer cells using both perforin and Fas ligand-mediated lysis in vitro, but cause tumor regression in vivo in the absence of perforin. J Immunol 168(7):3484-92. [PubMed: 11907109]  [MGI Ref ID J:75575]

Seki N; Hayakawa Y; Brooks AD; Wine J; Wiltrout RH; Yagita H; Tanner JE; Smyth MJ; Sayers TJ. 2003. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-mediated apoptosis is an important endogenous mechanism for resistance to liver metastases in murine renal cancer. Cancer Res 63(1):207-13. [PubMed: 12517799]  [MGI Ref ID J:81226]

Sepulveda FE; Debeurme F; Menasche G; Kurowska M; Cote M; Pachlopnik Schmid J; Fischer A; de Saint Basile G. 2013. Distinct severity of HLH in both human and murine mutants with complete loss of cytotoxic effector PRF1, RAB27A, and STX11. Blood 121(4):595-603. [PubMed: 23160464]  [MGI Ref ID J:193137]

Sharma V; Delgado M; Ganea D. 2006. Granzyme B, a new player in activation-induced cell death, is down-regulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide in Th2 but not Th1 effectors. J Immunol 176(1):97-110. [PubMed: 16365400]  [MGI Ref ID J:126251]

Sharron M; Hoptay CE; Wiles AA; Garvin LM; Geha M; Benton AS; Nagaraju K; Freishtat RJ. 2012. Platelets induce apoptosis during sepsis in a contact-dependent manner that is inhibited by GPIIb/IIIa blockade. PLoS One 7(7):e41549. [PubMed: 22844498]  [MGI Ref ID J:189717]

Shimamura K; Kawamura H; Nagura T; Kato T; Naito T; Kameyama H; Hatakeyama K; Abo T. 2005. Association of NKT cells and granulocytes with liver injury after reperfusion of the portal vein. Cell Immunol 234(1):31-8. [PubMed: 15963482]  [MGI Ref ID J:100654]

Shultz LD; Banuelos S; Lyons B; Samuels R; Burzenski L; Gott B; Lang P; Leif J; Appel M; Rossini A; Greiner DL. 2003. NOD/LtSz-Rag1nullPfpnull mice: a new model system with increased levels of human peripheral leukocyte and hematopoietic stem-cell engraftment. Transplantation 76(7):1036-42. [PubMed: 14557749]  [MGI Ref ID J:109843]

Shultz LD; Ishikawa F; Greiner DL. 2007. Humanized mice in translational biomedical research. Nat Rev Immunol 7(2):118-30. [PubMed: 17259968]  [MGI Ref ID J:142414]

Shulz M; Schuurman HJ; Joergensen J; Steiner C; Meerloo T; Kagi D; Hengartner H; Schreier MH; Burki K; Ledermann B. 1995. Acute rejection of vascular heart allografts by perforin- deficient mice. Eur J Immunol 25(2):474-480. [PubMed: 7533086]  [MGI Ref ID J:23268]

Simkins HM; Hyde E; Farrand KJ; Ong ML; Degli-Esposti MA; Hermans IF; Ronchese F. 2011. Administration of {alpha}-galactosylceramide impairs the survival of dendritic cell subpopulations in vivo. J Leukoc Biol 89(5):753-62. [PubMed: 21297009]  [MGI Ref ID J:172098]

Smith DJ; McGuire MJ; Tocci MJ; Thiele DL. 1997. IL-1 beta convertase (ICE) does not play a requisite role in apoptosis induced in T lymphoblasts by Fas-dependent or Fas-independent CTL effector mechanisms. J Immunol 158(1):163-70. [PubMed: 8977187]  [MGI Ref ID J:110640]

Smyth MJ; Johnstone RW; Cretney E; Haynes NM; Sedgwick JD; Korner H ; Poulton LD ; Baxter AG. 1999. Multiple deficiencies underlie NK cell inactivity in lymphotoxin-alpha gene-targeted mice. J Immunol 163(3):1350-3. [PubMed: 10415034]  [MGI Ref ID J:56397]

Smyth MJ; Snook MB. 1999. Perforin-dependent cytolytic responses in beta2-microglobulin-deficient mice. Cell Immunol 196(1):51-9. [PubMed: 10486155]  [MGI Ref ID J:57956]

Smyth MJ; Street SE; Trapani JA. 2003. Cutting edge: granzymes A and B are not essential for perforin-mediated tumor rejection. J Immunol 171(2):515-8. [PubMed: 12847210]  [MGI Ref ID J:123462]

Smyth MJ; Swann J; Cretney E; Zerafa N; Yokoyama WM; Hayakawa Y. 2005. NKG2D function protects the host from tumor initiation. J Exp Med 202(5):583-8. [PubMed: 16129707]  [MGI Ref ID J:100684]

Smyth MJ; Thia KY; Cretney E; Kelly JM; Snook MB; Forbes CA; Scalzo AA. 1999. Perforin is a major contributor to NK cell control of tumor metastasis. J Immunol 162(11):6658-62. [PubMed: 10352283]  [MGI Ref ID J:55335]

Smyth MJ; Thia KY; Street SE; Cretney E; Trapani JA; Taniguchi M; Kawano T; Pelikan SB; Crowe NY; Godfrey DI. 2000. Differential tumor surveillance by natural killer (NK) and NKT cells. J Exp Med 191(4):661-8. [PubMed: 10684858]  [MGI Ref ID J:124663]

Smyth MJ; Wallace ME; Nutt SL; Yagita H; Godfrey DI; Hayakawa Y. 2005. Sequential activation of NKT cells and NK cells provides effective innate immunotherapy of cancer. J Exp Med 201(12):1973-85. [PubMed: 15967825]  [MGI Ref ID J:99284]

Spaner D; Raju K; Rabinovich B; Miller RG. 1999. A role for perforin in activation-induced T cell death in vivo: increased expansion of allogeneic perforin-deficient T cells in SCID mice. J Immunol 162(2):1192-9. [PubMed: 9916752]  [MGI Ref ID J:124760]

Spielman J; Lee RK; Podack ER. 1998. Perforin/Fas-ligand double deficiency is associated with macrophage expansion and severe pancreatitis. J Immunol 161(12):7063-70. [PubMed: 9862744]  [MGI Ref ID J:112121]

Storm P; Bartholdy C; Sorensen MR; Christensen JP; Thomsen AR. 2006. Perforin-deficient CD8+ T cells mediate fatal lymphocytic choriomeningitis despite impaired cytokine production. J Virol 80(3):1222-30. [PubMed: 16414999]  [MGI Ref ID J:153336]

Strbo N; Oizumi S; Sotosek-Tokmadzic V; Podack ER. 2003. Perforin is required for innate and adaptive immunity induced by heat shock protein gp96. Immunity 18(3):381-90. [PubMed: 12648455]  [MGI Ref ID J:82494]

Street SE; Cretney E; Smyth MJ. 2001. Perforin and interferon-gamma activities independently control tumor initiation, growth, and metastasis. Blood 97(1):192-7. [PubMed: 11133760]  [MGI Ref ID J:68550]

Street SE; Hayakawa Y; Zhan Y; Lew AM; MacGregor D; Jamieson AM; Diefenbach A; Yagita H; Godfrey DI; Smyth MJ. 2004. Innate Immune Surveillance of Spontaneous B Cell Lymphomas by Natural Killer Cells and {gamma}{delta} T Cells. J Exp Med 199(6):879-884. [PubMed: 15007091]  [MGI Ref ID J:90480]

Street SE; Trapani JA; MacGregor D; Smyth MJ. 2002. Suppression of lymphoma and epithelial malignancies effected by interferon gamma. J Exp Med 196(1):129-34. [PubMed: 12093877]  [MGI Ref ID J:77491]

Street SE; Zerafa N; Iezzi M; Westwood JA; Stagg J; Musiani P; Smyth MJ. 2007. Host perforin reduces tumor number but does not increase survival in oncogene-driven mammary adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res 67(11):5454-60. [PubMed: 17545627]  [MGI Ref ID J:122174]

Suidan GL; Dickerson JW; Chen Y; McDole JR; Tripathi P; Pirko I; Seroogy KB; Johnson AJ. 2010. CD8 T cell-initiated vascular endothelial growth factor expression promotes central nervous system vascular permeability under neuroinflammatory conditions. J Immunol 184(2):1031-40. [PubMed: 20008293]  [MGI Ref ID J:159407]

Takeda K; Cretney E; Hayakawa Y; Ota T; Akiba H; Ogasawara K; Yagita H; Kinoshita K; Okumura K; Smyth MJ. 2005. TRAIL identifies immature natural killer cells in newborn mice and adult mouse liver. Blood 105(5):2082-9. [PubMed: 15536146]  [MGI Ref ID J:98142]

Takeda K; Nakayama M; Sakaki M; Hayakawa Y; Imawari M; Ogasawara K; Okumura K; Smyth MJ. 2011. IFN-gamma production by lung NK cells is critical for the natural resistance to pulmonary metastasis of B16 melanoma in mice. J Leukoc Biol 90(4):777-85. [PubMed: 21712396]  [MGI Ref ID J:177544]

Taniguchi RT; Guzior D; Kumar V. 2007. 2B4 inhibits NK-cell fratricide. Blood 110(6):2020-3. [PubMed: 17537992]  [MGI Ref ID J:146407]

Tatum AM; Mylin LM; Bender SJ; Fischer MA; Vigliotti BA; Tevethia MJ; Tevethia SS; Schell TD. 2008. CD8+ T cells targeting a single immunodominant epitope are sufficient for elimination of established SV40 T antigen-induced brain tumors. J Immunol 181(6):4406-17. [PubMed: 18768900]  [MGI Ref ID J:142961]

Teng MW; Andrews DM; McLaughlin N; von Scheidt B; Ngiow SF; Moller A; Hill GR; Iwakura Y; Oft M; Smyth MJ. 2010. IL-23 suppresses innate immune response independently of IL-17A during carcinogenesis and metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(18):8328-33. [PubMed: 20404142]  [MGI Ref ID J:160332]

Teng MW; von Scheidt B; Duret H; Towne JE; Smyth MJ. 2011. Anti-IL-23 Monoclonal Antibody Synergizes in Combination with Targeted Therapies or IL-2 to Suppress Tumor Growth and Metastases. Cancer Res 71(6):2077-86. [PubMed: 21282337]  [MGI Ref ID J:170103]

Terrell CE; Jordan MB. 2013. Perforin deficiency impairs a critical immunoregulatory loop involving murine CD8(+) T cells and dendritic cells. Blood 121(26):5184-91. [PubMed: 23660960]  [MGI Ref ID J:200959]

Urbieta M; Barao I; Jones M; Jurecic R; Panoskaltsis-Mortari A; Blazar BR; Murphy WJ; Levy RB. 2010. Hematopoietic progenitor cell regulation by CD4+CD25+ T cells. Blood 115(23):4934-43. [PubMed: 20200356]  [MGI Ref ID J:161563]

VanLith ML; Kohlgraf KG; Sivinski CL; Tempero RM; Hollingsworth MA. 2002. MUC1-specific anti-tumor responses: molecular requirements for CD4-mediated responses. Int Immunol 14(8):873-82. [PubMed: 12147624]  [MGI Ref ID J:113544]

Varanasi V; Avanesyan L; Schumann DM; Chervonsky AV. 2012. Cytotoxic mechanisms employed by mouse t cells to destroy pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes 61(11):2862-70. [PubMed: 22773667]  [MGI Ref ID J:190161]

Waggoner SN; Cornberg M; Selin LK; Welsh RM. 2012. Natural killer cells act as rheostats modulating antiviral T cells. Nature 481(7381):394-8. [PubMed: 22101430]  [MGI Ref ID J:180370]

Waggoner SN; Taniguchi RT; Mathew PA; Kumar V; Welsh RM. 2010. Absence of mouse 2B4 promotes NK cell-mediated killing of activated CD8+ T cells, leading to prolonged viral persistence and altered pathogenesis. J Clin Invest 120(6):1925-38. [PubMed: 20440077]  [MGI Ref ID J:161455]

Wang Y; Lobigs M; Lee E; Mullbacher A. 2004. Exocytosis and Fas mediated cytolytic mechanisms exert protection from West Nile virus induced encephalitis in mice. Immunol Cell Biol 82(2):170-3. [PubMed: 15061770]  [MGI Ref ID J:90852]

Waring P; Mullbacher A. 2001. Cell death mediated by alloreactive cytotoxic T cells via the granule exocytosis or the Fas pathway is independent of p34cdc2 kinase: Fas dependent killing of cells arrested in the cell cycle. Immunol Cell Biol 79(3):264-73. [PubMed: 11380680]  [MGI Ref ID J:110426]

Weber SE; Tian H; Pirofski LA. 2011. CD8+ cells enhance resistance to pulmonary serotype 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. J Immunol 186(1):432-42. [PubMed: 21135172]  [MGI Ref ID J:168003]

Wei B; Su TT; Dalwadi H; Stephan RP; Fujiwara D; Huang TT; Brewer S; Chen L; Arditi M; Borneman J; Rawlings DJ; Braun J. 2008. Resident enteric microbiota and CD8(+) T cells shape the abundance of marginal zone B cells. Eur J Immunol 38(12):3411-3425. [PubMed: 19009526]  [MGI Ref ID J:141389]

Wei B; Wingender G; Fujiwara D; Chen DY; McPherson M; Brewer S; Borneman J; Kronenberg M; Braun J. 2010. Commensal microbiota and CD8+ T cells shape the formation of invariant NKT cells. J Immunol 184(3):1218-26. [PubMed: 20048124]  [MGI Ref ID J:159495]

Wingender G; Krebs P; Beutler B; Kronenberg M. 2010. Antigen-specific cytotoxicity by invariant NKT cells in vivo is CD95/CD178-dependent and is correlated with antigenic potency. J Immunol 185(5):2721-9. [PubMed: 20660713]  [MGI Ref ID J:163266]

Woodworth JS; Wu Y; Behar SM. 2008. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD8+ T cells require perforin to kill target cells and provide protection in vivo. J Immunol 181(12):8595-603. [PubMed: 19050279]  [MGI Ref ID J:142057]

Yang J; Huck SP; McHugh RS; Hermans IF; Ronchese F. 2006. Perforin-dependent elimination of dendritic cells regulates the expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(1):147-52. [PubMed: 16373503]  [MGI Ref ID J:104557]

Yang PL; Althage A; Chung J; Maier H; Wieland S; Isogawa M; Chisari FV. 2010. Immune effectors required for hepatitis B virus clearance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(2):798-802. [PubMed: 20080755]  [MGI Ref ID J:156523]

Yao Y; Han W; Liang J; Ji J; Wang J; Cantor H; Lu L. 2013. Glatiramer acetate ameliorates inflammatory bowel disease in mice through the induction of Qa-1-restricted CD8(+) regulatory cells. Eur J Immunol 43(1):125-36. [PubMed: 23002042]  [MGI Ref ID J:191109]

Yui MA; Feng N; Zhang JA; Liaw CY; Rothenberg EV; Longmate JA. 2013. Loss of T cell progenitor checkpoint control underlies leukemia initiation in rag1-deficient nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol 190(7):3276-88. [PubMed: 23440410]  [MGI Ref ID J:194740]

Zeiser R; Youssef S; Baker J; Kambham N; Steinman L; Negrin RS. 2007. Preemptive HMG-CoA reductase inhibition provides graft-versus-host disease protection by Th-2 polarization while sparing graft-versus-leukemia activity. Blood 110(13):4588-98. [PubMed: 17827390]  [MGI Ref ID J:149097]

Zelinskyy G; Balkow S; Schimmer S; Schepers K; Simon MM; Dittmer U. 2004. Independent roles of perforin, granzymes, and Fas in the control of Friend retrovirus infection. Virology 330(2):365-74. [PubMed: 15567431]  [MGI Ref ID J:95485]

Zhang T; Sentman CL. 2013. Mouse Tumor Vasculature Expresses NKG2D Ligands and Can Be Targeted by Chimeric NKG2D-Modified T Cells. J Immunol 190(5):2455-63. [PubMed: 23355740]  [MGI Ref ID J:193469]

Zhang T; Wu MR; Sentman CL. 2012. An NKp30-based chimeric antigen receptor promotes T cell effector functions and antitumor efficacy in vivo. J Immunol 189(5):2290-9. [PubMed: 22851709]  [MGI Ref ID J:189856]

Zhao DM; Thornton AM; DiPaolo RJ; Shevach EM. 2006. Activated CD4+CD25+ T cells selectively kill B lymphocytes. Blood 107(10):3925-32. [PubMed: 16418326]  [MGI Ref ID J:132735]

Zhou HF; Yan H; Cannon JL; Springer LE; Green JM; Pham CT. 2013. CD43-mediated IFN-gamma production by CD8+ T cells promotes abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice. J Immunol 190(10):5078-85. [PubMed: 23585675]  [MGI Ref ID J:202563]

Zhou P; Freidag BL; Caldwell CC; Seder RA. 2001. Perforin is required for primary immunity to Histoplasma capsulatum. J Immunol 166(3):1968-74. [PubMed: 11160245]  [MGI Ref ID J:67094]

Zoller EE; Lykens JE; Terrell CE; Aliberti J; Filipovich AH; Henson PM; Jordan MB. 2011. Hemophagocytosis causes a consumptive anemia of inflammation. J Exp Med 208(6):1203-14. [PubMed: 21624938]  [MGI Ref ID J:176823]

van Dommelen SL; Sumaria N; Schreiber RD; Scalzo AA; Smyth MJ; Degli-Esposti MA. 2006. Perforin and granzymes have distinct roles in defensive immunity and immunopathology. Immunity 25(5):835-48. [PubMed: 17088087]  [MGI Ref ID J:116116]

van den Broek ME; Kagi D; Ossendorp F; Toes R; Vamvakas S; Lutz WK ; Melief CJ ; Zinkernagel RM ; Hengartner H. 1996. Decreased tumor surveillance in perforin-deficient mice. J Exp Med 184(5):1781-90. [PubMed: 8920866]  [MGI Ref ID J:36584]

Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Room Number           AX30

Colony Maintenance

Breeding & HusbandryThis colony is maintained by breeding homozygous siblings, reproduction performance is similar to C57LB/6J. Young mutants are susceptible to mouse hepatitis virus, but after reaching about 8 weeks of age, they survive well conventional animal housing conditions. Expected coat color from breeding:Black
Mating SystemHomozygote x Homozygote         (Female x Male)   01-MAR-06
Breeding Considerations This strain is a good breeder.
Diet Information LabDiet® 5K52/5K67

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls


Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Live Mice

Weeks of AgePrice per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
3 weeks $110.00Female or MaleHomozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
4 weeks $110.00Female or MaleHomozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
5 weeks $110.00Female or MaleHomozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
6 weeks $115.45Female or MaleHomozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
7 weeks $120.90Female or MaleHomozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
8 weeks $126.35Female or MaleHomozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$230.90Homozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz x Homozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  

Standard Supply

Level 4. Up to 10 mice. Larger quantities or custom orders arranged upon request. Expected delivery up to one to three months.

Supply Notes

  • Pair Pricing: Price may vary depending on the age of the males and females available for shipment. The price displayed is for a male and female at six weeks of age.
  • Shipped at a specific age in weeks. Mice at a precise age in days, littermates and retired breeders are also available.
Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Live Mice

Weeks of AgePrice per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
3 weeks $143.00Female or MaleHomozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
4 weeks $143.00Female or MaleHomozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
5 weeks $143.00Female or MaleHomozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
6 weeks $150.10Female or MaleHomozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
7 weeks $157.20Female or MaleHomozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
8 weeks $164.30Female or MaleHomozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$300.20Homozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz x Homozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  

Standard Supply

Level 4. Up to 10 mice. Larger quantities or custom orders arranged upon request. Expected delivery up to one to three months.

Supply Notes

  • Pair Pricing: Price may vary depending on the age of the males and females available for shipment. The price displayed is for a male and female at six weeks of age.
  • Shipped at a specific age in weeks. Mice at a precise age in days, littermates and retired breeders are also available.
View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Level 4. Up to 10 mice. Larger quantities or custom orders arranged upon request. Expected delivery up to one to three months.

Control Information

  Control
   000664 C57BL/6J
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.
 

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The Jackson Laboratory's Genotype Promise

The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use

"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCTS" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or services provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than the internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE or PRODUCTS from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON's prior written authorization.

No Warranty

MICE, PRODUCTS AND SERVICES ARE PROVIDED “AS IS”. JACKSON EXTENDS NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, WITH RESPECT TO MICE, PRODUCTS OR SERVICES, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR ANY WARRANTY OF NON-INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.

In case of dissatisfaction for a valid reason and claimed in writing by a purchaser within ninety (90) days of receipt of mice, products or services, JACKSON will, at its option, provide credit or replacement for the mice or product received or the services provided.

No Liability

In no event shall JACKSON, its trustees, directors, officers, employees, and affiliates be liable for any causes of action or damages, including any direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages, arising out of the provision of MICE, PRODUCTS or services, including economic damage or injury to property and lost profits, and including any damage arising from acts or negligence on the part of JACKSON, its agents or employees. Unless prohibited by law, in purchasing or receiving MICE, PRODUCTS or services from JACKSON, purchaser or recipient, or any party claiming by or through them, expressly releases and discharges JACKSON from all such causes of action or damages, and further agrees to defend and indemnify JACKSON from any costs or damages arising out of any third party claims.

MICE and PRODUCTS are to be used in a safe manner and in accordance with all applicable governmental rules and regulations.

The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or services. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS or services may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and services by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.

Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or services shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or services by JACKSON.


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