Strain Name:

MRL.Cg-B2mtm1Unc Faslpr

Stock Number:


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The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Strain Information

Former Names MRL-Faslpr.129P2(B6)-B2mtm1Unc    (Changed: 26-MAR-12 )
MRL-Tnfrsf6lpr.129P2(B6)-B2mtm1Unc    (Changed: 26-JAN-05 )
Type Congenic; Targeted Mutation;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Additional information on Congenic nomenclature.
Specieslaboratory mouse
Background Strain MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/J
Donor Strain B6;129P-B2mtm1Unc (129P2 derived E14TG2a ES cell line)
Donating InvestigatorDr. Derry Roopenian,   The Jackson Laboratory

B2m: albino
Related Genotype: a/a Tyrc/Tyrc

Faslpr: albino, affected
Related Genotype: a/a B2mtm1Unc/B2mtm1Unc Tyrc/Tyrc Faslpr/Faslpr

Mice homozygous for both the lymphoproliferation spontaneous mutation (Faslpr) and the B2mtm1Unc targeted mutation are viable and fertile. Class I molecule-deficient B2mtm1Unc mice were backcrossed to MRL/MpJ-Faslpr to study the role of MHC class I molecules in the development of systemic autoimmune disease. Double homozygous mutant mice demonstrated a substantial reduction in CD4-CD8- T cells and a diminution of autoimmune disease. Specifically, hypergammaglobulinemia; autoantibodies including anti-DNA, anti-Smith antigen, and rheumatoid factor; and glomerulonephritis were significantly reduced compared to MRL/MpJ-Faslpr homozygous mice. Moreover, the pattern of hypergammaglobulinemia suggests that the requirement for MHC class I proteins is restricted temporally to later stages of the disease.

The B2mtm1Unc mutant strain was developed in the laboratory of Dr. Beverly Koller and Dr. Oliver Smithies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. It was generated by a targeted disruption of the B2m gene. The 129-derived E14TG2a ES cell line was used. The MRL-Faslpr .129P2(B6)-B2mtm1Unc strain was produced in the laboratory of Dr. Derry Roopenian at The Jackson Laboratory by backcrossing the B2mtm1Unc mutation 10 times to MRL/MpJ-Faslpr inbred mice.

Control Information

   000485 MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/J
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Related Strains

View Strains carrying   B2mtm1Unc     (21 strains)

Strains carrying   Faslpr allele
000482   B6.MRL-Faslpr/J
000480   C3.MRL-Faslpr/J
022350   MRL.Cg-Nos2tm1Lau Faslpr/J
022760   MRL.Cg-Nos3tm1Unc Faslpr/J
003896   MRL/MpJ Faslpr-Foxq1sa-J/J
006825   MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/2J
000485   MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/J
004519   NOD.MRL(C3)-Faslpr/DoiJ
004922   NOD.MRL-Faslpr/Dvs
View Strains carrying   Faslpr     (9 strains)

Strains carrying other alleles of B2m
000422   B10.LP-H3b H13b/(36NS)Sn
000421   B10.LP-H3b/Sn
002571   NOD.Cg Prkdcscid-B2mb/Dvs
008542   NOD.Cg-B2mtm1Unc Tg(GFAP-B2m)9Mdos/J
View Strains carrying other alleles of B2m     (4 strains)

Strains carrying other alleles of Fas
003233   B6.129P2-Fastm1Osa/J
026643   B6.Cg-Fastm1.1(ALPP)Chnd/J
007895   C57BL/6-Fastm1Cgn/J
001876   CBA/KlJms-Faslpr-cg/J
003234   MRL.129P2(B6)-Fastm1Osa/J
002983   MRL.CBAJms-Faslpr-cg/J
View Strains carrying other alleles of Fas     (6 strains)


Phenotype Information

View Related Disease (OMIM) Terms

Related Disease (OMIM) Terms provided by MGI
- Potential model based on gene homology relationships. Phenotypic similarity to the human disease has not been tested.
Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; ALPS   (FAS)
Hypoproteinemia, Hypercatabolic   (B2M)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

B2mtm1Unc related

Hematological Research
Anemia, Iron Deficiency and Transport Defects

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
      MHC class I deficiency

Internal/Organ Research
Liver Defects

Metabolism Research
      iron metabolism defects

Research Tools
Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
      MHC class I deficiency

Faslpr related

Apoptosis Research
Death Receptors

Cancer Research
Genes Regulating Growth and Proliferation

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
      lupus erythematosus
      lupus erythematosus: rheumatoid arthritis
      rheumatoid arthritis

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

Allele Symbol B2mtm1Unc
Allele Name targeted mutation 1, University of North Carolina
Allele Type Targeted (Null/Knockout)
Common Name(s) I0; MHC-I-; b2mnull; beta2-m-KO; beta2M-; beta2MKO; beta2m0; beta2mnull; beta2mo; beta2mtm1Unc;
Mutation Made ByDr. Oliver Smithies,   University of North Carolina
Strain of Origin129P2/OlaHsd
ES Cell Line NameE14TG2a
ES Cell Line Strain129P2/OlaHsd
Gene Symbol and Name B2m, beta-2 microglobulin
Chromosome 2
Gene Common Name(s) Ly-m11; beta 2 microglobulin; beta2-m; lymphocyte antigen m11;
General Note Phenotypic Similarity to Human Syndrome: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (J:51450)
Molecular Note Insertion of a neomycin-resistance gene into the second exon. [MGI Ref ID J:65612]
Allele Symbol Faslpr
Allele Name lymphoproliferation
Allele Type Spontaneous (Hypomorph)
Common Name(s) Fas-; Fas-def; MRL/lpr; Tnfrf6lpr; Tnfrsf6lpr; Tnfrsf6lpr; lpr;
Strain of OriginMRL/Mp
Gene Symbol and Name Fas, Fas (TNF receptor superfamily member 6)
Chromosome 19
Gene Common Name(s) AI196731; ALPS1A; APO-1; APT1; CD95; FAS1; FASTM; TNF receptor superfamily member 6; TNFR6; TNFRSF6; Tnfrsf6; expressed sequence AI196731; lpr; lymphoproliferation;
General Note Faslpr, lymphoproliferation, recessive. This mutation was found during inbreeding of a strain MRL/Mp derived from crosses among strains LG, AKR, C3H, and C57BL/6. The resemblance has led to extensive use of Faslpr mice in attemptsto determine the etiology of SLE and to evaluate therapies. However, the human APT1 gene (OMIM 134637) encodes the FAS antigen; Tnfrsf6 is not the homolog of the human (SLE) gene.The Cd72c haplotype is a modifier of Faslpr-induced autoimmune disease. J:204782
Molecular Note Southern blotting experiments indicated that the mutation is a genomic rearrangement within the gene, probably within the second intron. Sequencing of genomic DNA and RT-PCR products from homozygous mutant mice revealed the insertion of an early transposable element (ETn) into intron 2. RT-PCR analysis of liver and thymus mRNA showed that the presence of the ETn leads to premature termination of transcription at the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the ETn and aberrant mRNA splicing. The mutation is "leaky," however, as full-length mRNA and a longer splice product incorporating a segment of the ETn as an extra intron are detected in the thymus at low levels. [MGI Ref ID J:1181] [MGI Ref ID J:14206] [MGI Ref ID J:14503] [MGI Ref ID J:15429] [MGI Ref ID J:4166] [MGI Ref ID J:4342]


Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

Faslpr, Standard PCR
B2mtm1Unc, Standard PCR

Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting


References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Koller BH; Marrack P; Kappler JW; Smithies O. 1990. Normal development of mice deficient in beta 2M, MHC class I proteins, and CD8+ T cells. Science 248(4960):1227-30. [PubMed: 2112266]  [MGI Ref ID J:64451]

Additional References

Christianson GJ; Blankenburg RL; Duffy TM; Panka D; Roths JB; Marshak-Rothstein A; Roopenian DC. 1996. beta2-microglobulin dependence of the lupus-like autoimmune syndrome of MRL-lpr mice. J Immunol 156(12):4932-9. [PubMed: 8648144]  [MGI Ref ID J:33405]

Clark LD; Clark RK; Heber-Katz E. 1998. A new murine model for mammalian wound repair and regeneration. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 88(1):35-45. [PubMed: 9683548]  [MGI Ref ID J:48937]

Li X; Mohan S; Gu W; Baylink DJ. 2001. Analysis of gene expression in the wound repair/regeneration process. Mamm Genome 12(1):52-9. [PubMed: 11178744]  [MGI Ref ID J:68684]

Li X; Mohan S; Gu W; Miyakoshi N; Baylink DJ. 2000. Differential protein profile in the ear-punched tissue of regeneration and non-regeneration strains of mice: a novel approach to explore the candidate genes for soft-tissue regeneration Biochim Biophys Acta 1524(2-3):102-9. [PubMed: 11113556]  [MGI Ref ID J:66437]

Mukherjee R; Zhang Z; Zhong R; Yin ZQ; Roopenian DC; Jevnikar AM. 1996. Lupus nephritis in the absence of renal major histocompatibility complex class I and class II molecules. J Am Soc Nephrol 7(11):2445-52. [PubMed: 8959638]  [MGI Ref ID J:39693]

B2mtm1Unc related

Adoro S; Erman B; Sarafova SD; Van Laethem F; Park JH; Feigenbaum L; Singer A. 2008. Targeting CD4 coreceptor expression to postselection thymocytes reveals that CD4/CD8 lineage choice is neither error-prone nor stochastic. J Immunol 181(10):6975-83. [PubMed: 18981117]  [MGI Ref ID J:140942]

Adoro S; McCaughtry T; Erman B; Alag A; Van Laethem F; Park JH; Tai X; Kimura M; Wang L; Grinberg A; Kubo M; Bosselut R; Love P; Singer A. 2011. Coreceptor gene imprinting governs thymocyte lineage fate. EMBO J 31(2):366-77. [PubMed: 22036949]  [MGI Ref ID J:180236]

Agerstam H; Jaras M; Andersson A; Johnels P; Hansen N; Lassen C; Rissler M; Gisselsson D; Olofsson T; Richter J; Fan X; Ehinger M; Fioretos T. 2010. Modeling the human 8p11-myeloproliferative syndrome in immunodeficient mice. Blood 116(12):2103-11. [PubMed: 20554971]  [MGI Ref ID J:164507]

Aguado E; Richelme S; Nunez-Cruz S; Miazek A; Mura AM; Richelme M; Guo XJ; Sainty D; He HT; Malissen B; Malissen M. 2002. Induction of T helper type 2 immunity by a point mutation in the LAT adaptor. Science 296(5575):2036-40. [PubMed: 12065839]  [MGI Ref ID J:77098]

Albu DI; Vanvalkenburgh J; Morin N; Califano D; Jenkins NA; Copeland NG; Liu P; Avram D. 2011. Transcription factor Bcl11b controls selection of invariant natural killer T-cells by regulating glycolipid presentation in double-positive thymocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(15):6211-6. [PubMed: 21444811]  [MGI Ref ID J:171277]

Aldrich CJ; Ljunggren HG; Van Kaer L; Ashton-Rickardt PG; Tonegawa S; Forman J. 1994. Positive selection of self- and alloreactive CD8+ T cells in Tap-1 mutant mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91(14):6525-8. [PubMed: 8022816]  [MGI Ref ID J:19192]

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Apasov S; Sitkovsky M. 1993. Highly lytic CD8+, alpha beta T-cell receptor cytotoxic T cells with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen-directed cytotoxicity in beta 2-microglobulin, MHC class I-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(7):2837-41. [PubMed: 8464897]  [MGI Ref ID J:4360]

Arnett HA; Wang Y; Matsushima GK; Suzuki K; Ting JP. 2003. Functional genomic analysis of remyelination reveals importance of inflammation in oligodendrocyte regeneration. J Neurosci 23(30):9824-32. [PubMed: 14586011]  [MGI Ref ID J:88200]

Ashour HM; Niederkorn JY. 2006. Peripheral tolerance via the anterior chamber of the eye: role of B cells in MHC class I and II antigen presentation. J Immunol 176(10):5950-7. [PubMed: 16670303]  [MGI Ref ID J:131707]

Assarsson E; Kambayashi T; Sandberg JK; Hong S; Taniguchi M; Van Kaer L; Ljunggren HG; Chambers BJ. 2000. CD8+ T cells rapidly acquire NK1.1 and NK cell-associated molecules upon stimulation in vitro and in vivo. J Immunol 165(7):3673-9. [PubMed: 11034371]  [MGI Ref ID J:118029]

Azuara V; Lembezat MP; Pereira P. 1998. The homogeneity of the TCRdelta repertoire expressed by the Thy-1dull gammadelta T cell population is due to cellular selection. Eur J Immunol 28(11):3456-67. [PubMed: 9842888]  [MGI Ref ID J:51177]

Babu S; Porte P; Klei TR; Shultz LD; Rajan TV. 1998. Host NK cells are required for the growth of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in mice. J Immunol 161(3):1428-32. [PubMed: 9686607]  [MGI Ref ID J:49819]

Baccala R; Witherden D; Gonzalez-Quintial R; Dummer W; Surh CD; Havran WL; Theofilopoulos AN. 2005. Gamma delta T cell homeostasis is controlled by IL-7 and IL-15 together with subset-specific factors. J Immunol 174(8):4606-12. [PubMed: 15814683]  [MGI Ref ID J:98166]

Bain G; Quong MW; Soloff RS; Hedrick SM; Murre C. 1999. Thymocyte maturation is regulated by the activity of the helix-loop-helix protein, E47. J Exp Med 190(11):1605-16. [PubMed: 10587351]  [MGI Ref ID J:58800]

Baldwin SL; Ching LK; Pine SO; Moutaftsi M; Lucas E; Vallur A; Orr MT; Bertholet S; Reed SG; Coler RN. 2013. Protection against tuberculosis with homologous or heterologous protein/vector vaccine approaches is not dependent on CD8+ T cells. J Immunol 191(5):2514-25. [PubMed: 23904160]  [MGI Ref ID J:205818]

Bannai M; Kawamura T; Naito T; Kameyama H; Abe T; Kawamura H; Tsukada C; Watanabe H; Hatakeyama K; Hamada H; Nishiyama Y; Ishikawa H; Takeda K; Okumura K; Taniguchi M; Abo T. 2001. Abundance of unconventional CD8(+) natural killer T cells in the large intestine. Eur J Immunol 31(11):3361-9. [PubMed: 11745354]  [MGI Ref ID J:72615]

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Buxbaum LU; Scott P. 2005. Interleukin 10- and Fcgamma receptor-deficient mice resolve Leishmania mexicana lesions. Infect Immun 73(4):2101-8. [PubMed: 15784551]  [MGI Ref ID J:97206]

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Canonne-Hergaux F; Levy JE; Fleming MD; Montross LK; Andrews NC; Gros P. 2001. Expression of the DMT1 (NRAMP2/DCT1) iron transporter in mice with genetic iron overload disorders. Blood 97(4):1138-40. [PubMed: 11159549]  [MGI Ref ID J:67402]

Capone M; Lees RK; Finke D; Ernst B; Meerwijk JP; MacDonald HR. 2003. Selective absence of CD8+ TCRalpha beta+ intestinal epithelial cells in transgenic mice expressing beta2-microglobulin-associated ligands exclusively on thymic cortical epithelium. Eur J Immunol 33(6):1471-7. [PubMed: 12778464]  [MGI Ref ID J:83888]

Carrier J; Medline A; Sohn KJ; Choi M; Martin R; Hwang SW; Kim YI. 2003. Effects of dietary folate on ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis in the interleukin 2- and beta(2)-microglobulin-deficient mice. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12(11 Pt 1):1262-7. [PubMed: 14652292]  [MGI Ref ID J:87528]

Case LK; Petell L; Yurkovetskiy L; Purdy A; Savage KJ; Golovkina TV. 2008. Replication of beta- and gammaretroviruses is restricted in I/LnJ mice via the same genetic mechanism. J Virol 82(3):1438-47. [PubMed: 18057254]  [MGI Ref ID J:163153]

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Chaise C; Buchan SL; Rice J; Marquet J; Rouard H; Kuentz M; Vittes GE; Molinier-Frenkel V; Farcet JP; Stauss HJ; Delfau-Larue MH; Stevenson FK. 2008. DNA vaccination induces WT1-specific T-cell responses with potential clinical relevance. Blood 112(7):2956-64. [PubMed: 18502835]  [MGI Ref ID J:140153]

Chamero P; Marton TF; Logan DW; Flanagan K; Cruz JR; Saghatelian A; Cravatt BF; Stowers L. 2007. Identification of protein pheromones that promote aggressive behaviour. Nature 450(7171):899-902. [PubMed: 18064011]  [MGI Ref ID J:130465]

Champsaur M; Beilke JN; Ogasawara K; Koszinowski UH; Jonjic S; Lanier LL. 2010. Intact NKG2D-independent function of NK cells chronically stimulated with the NKG2D ligand Rae-1. J Immunol 185(1):157-65. [PubMed: 20530257]  [MGI Ref ID J:161608]

Chan OT; Paliwal V; McNiff JM; Park SH; Bendelac A; Shlomchik MJ. 2001. Deficiency in beta(2)-Microglobulin, But Not CD1, Accelerates Spontaneous Lupus Skin Disease While Inhibiting Nephritis in MRL-Fas(lpr) Mice: An Example of Disease Regulation at the Organ Level. J Immunol 167(5):2985-90. [PubMed: 11509649]  [MGI Ref ID J:71175]

Chan S; Correia-Neves M; Dierich A; Benoist C; Mathis D. 1998. Visualization of CD4/CD8 T cell commitment. J Exp Med 188(12):2321-33. [PubMed: 9858518]  [MGI Ref ID J:113263]

Chan SH; Cosgrove D; Waltzinger C; Benoist C; Mathis D. 1993. Another view of the selective model of thymocyte selection. Cell 73(2):225-36. [PubMed: 8097430]  [MGI Ref ID J:111130]

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Faslpr related

Adachi K; Tsutsui H; Kashiwamura S; Seki E; Nakano H; Takeuchi O; Takeda K; Okumura K; Van Kaer L; Okamura H; Akira S; Nakanishi K. 2001. Plasmodium berghei infection in mice induces liver injury by an IL-12- and toll-like receptor/myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent mechanism. J Immunol 167(10):5928-34. [PubMed: 11698470]  [MGI Ref ID J:118004]

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Balkow S; Kersten A; Tran TT; Stehle T; Grosse P; Museteanu C; Utermohlen O; Pircher H; von Weizsacker F; Wallich R; Mullbacher A; Simon MM. 2001. Concerted action of the FasL/Fas and perforin/granzyme A and B pathways is mandatory for the development of early viral hepatitis but not for recovery from viral infection. J Virol 75(18):8781-91. [PubMed: 11507223]  [MGI Ref ID J:71217]

Bao L; Haas M; Boackle SA; Kraus DM; Cunningham PN; Park P; Alexander JJ; Anderson RK; Culhane K; Holers VM; Quigg RJ. 2002. Transgenic expression of a soluble complement inhibitor protects against renal disease and promotes survival in MRL/lpr mice. J Immunol 168(7):3601-7. [PubMed: 11907125]  [MGI Ref ID J:75572]

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Wu J; Zhou T; Zhang J; He J; Gause WC; Mountz JD. 1994. Correction of accelerated autoimmune disease by early replacement of the mutated lpr gene with the normal Fas apoptosis gene in the T cells of transgenic MRL-lpr/lpr mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91(6):2344-8. [PubMed: 7510888]  [MGI Ref ID J:17253]

Wu X; Jiang N; Deppong C; Singh J; Dolecki G; Mao D; Morel L; Molina HD. 2002. A role for the Cr2 gene in modifying autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Immunol 169(3):1587-92. [PubMed: 12133988]  [MGI Ref ID J:78006]

Wueest S; Rapold RA; Schoenle EJ; Konrad D. 2010. Fas activation in adipocytes impairs insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by reducing Akt. FEBS Lett 584(19):4187-92. [PubMed: 20828573]  [MGI Ref ID J:164421]

Wueest S; Rapold RA; Schumann DM; Rytka JM; Schildknecht A; Nov O; Chervonsky AV; Rudich A; Schoenle EJ; Donath MY; Konrad D. 2010. Deletion of Fas in adipocytes relieves adipose tissue inflammation and hepatic manifestations of obesity in mice. J Clin Invest 120(1):191-202. [PubMed: 19955656]  [MGI Ref ID J:156776]

Xanthoulea S; Pasparakis M; Kousteni S; Brakebusch C; Wallach D; Bauer J; Lassmann H; Kollias G. 2004. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor shedding controls thresholds of innate immune activation that balance opposing TNF functions in infectious and inflammatory diseases. J Exp Med 200(3):367-76. [PubMed: 15289505]  [MGI Ref ID J:92470]

Xiang Z; Cutler AJ; Brownlie RJ; Fairfax K; Lawlor KE; Severinson E; Walker EU; Manz RA; Tarlinton DM; Smith KG. 2007. FcgammaRIIb controls bone marrow plasma cell persistence and apoptosis. Nat Immunol 8(4):419-29. [PubMed: 17322888]  [MGI Ref ID J:120734]

Xiao S; Brooks CR; Zhu C; Wu C; Sweere JM; Petecka S; Yeste A; Quintana FJ; Ichimura T; Sobel RA; Bonventre JV; Kuchroo VK. 2012. Defect in regulatory B-cell function and development of systemic autoimmunity in T-cell Ig mucin 1 (Tim-1) mucin domain-mutant mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(30):12105-10. [PubMed: 22773818]  [MGI Ref ID J:186484]

Xiao S; Sung SS; Fu SM; Ju ST. 2003. Combining Fas mutation with interleukin-2 deficiency prevents Colitis and Lupus: implicating interleukin-2 for auto-reactive T cell expansion and Fas ligand for colon epithelial cell death. J Biol Chem 278(52):52730-8. [PubMed: 14525977]  [MGI Ref ID J:87085]

Xiao Y; Li H; Zhang J; Volk A; Zhang S; Wei W; Zhang S; Breslin P; Zhang J. 2011. TNF-alpha/Fas-RIP-1-induced cell death signaling separates murine hematopoietic stem cells/progenitors into 2 distinct populations. Blood 118(23):6057-67. [PubMed: 21989986]  [MGI Ref ID J:179087]

Xie C; Patel R; Wu T; Zhu J; Henry T; Bhaskarabhatla M; Samudrala R; Tus K; Gong Y; Zhou H; Wakeland EK; Zhou XJ; Mohan C. 2007. PI3K/AKT/mTOR hypersignaling in autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease engendered by the epistatic interplay of Sle1b and FASlpr. Int Immunol 19(4):509-22. [PubMed: 17369192]  [MGI Ref ID J:120119]

Xie Y; Zhang H; Li W; Deng Y; Munegowda MA; Chibbar R; Qureshi M; Xiang J. 2010. Dendritic cells recruit T cell exosomes via exosomal LFA-1 leading to inhibition of CD8+ CTL responses through downregulation of peptide/MHC class I and Fas ligand-mediated cytotoxicity. J Immunol 185(9):5268-78. [PubMed: 20881190]  [MGI Ref ID J:165185]

Xu B; Bulfone-Paus S; Aoyama K; Yu S; Huang P; Morimoto K; Matsushita T; Takeuchi T. 2003. Role of Fas/Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis in murine contact hypersensitivity. Int Immunopharmacol 3(7):927-38. [PubMed: 12810350]  [MGI Ref ID J:106217]

Xu H; Kurihara H; Ito T; Nakajima SI; Hagiwara E; Yamanokuchi H; Asari A. 2001. IL-12 Enhances Lymphoaccumulation by Suppressing Cell Death of T Cells in MRL- lpr/lpr Mice. J Autoimmun 16(2):87-95. [PubMed: 11247634]  [MGI Ref ID J:68152]

Xu JP; Li X; Mori E; Guo MW; Mori T. 1998. Aberrant expression and dysfunction of Fas antigen in MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr murine ovary. Zygote 6(4):359-67. [PubMed: 9921647]  [MGI Ref ID J:55597]

Xu M; Hou R; Sato-Hayashizaki A; Man R; Zhu C; Wakabayashi C; Hirose S; Adachi T; Tsubata T. 2013. Cd72(c) is a modifier gene that regulates Fas(lpr)-induced autoimmune disease. J Immunol 190(11):5436-45. [PubMed: 23616572]  [MGI Ref ID J:204782]

Yajima K; Nakamura A; Sugahara A; Takai T. 2003. FcgammaRIIB deficiency with Fas mutation is sufficient for the development of systemic autoimmune disease. Eur J Immunol 33(4):1020-9. [PubMed: 12672068]  [MGI Ref ID J:82862]

Yamagiwa S; Kuwano Y; Hasegawa K; Sato K; Ohtsuka K; Iiai T; Tomiyama K; Watanabe H; Sugahara S; Seki S; Asakura H; Abo T. 1996. Existence of a small population of IL-2R beta hi TCRint cells in SCG and MRL-lpr/lpr mice which produce normal Fas mRNA and Fas molecules from the lpr gene. Eur J Immunol 26(7):1409-16. [PubMed: 8766540]  [MGI Ref ID J:34166]

Yamagiwa S; Sugahara S; Shimizu T; Iwanaga T; Yoshida Y; Honda S; Watanabe H; Suzuki K; Asakura H; Abo T. 1998. The primary site of CD4- 8- B220+ alphabeta T cells in lpr mice: the appendix in normal mice. J Immunol 160(6):2665-74. [PubMed: 9510165]  [MGI Ref ID J:111332]

Yan J; Harvey BP; Gee RJ; Shlomchik MJ; Mamula MJ. 2006. B cells drive early T cell autoimmunity in vivo prior to dendritic cell-mediated autoantigen presentation. J Immunol 177(7):4481-7. [PubMed: 16982884]  [MGI Ref ID J:139321]

Yan J; Mamula MJ. 2002. B and T cell tolerance and autoimmunity in autoantibody transgenic mice. Int Immunol 14(8):963-71. [PubMed: 12147633]  [MGI Ref ID J:131498]

Yanaba K; Bouaziz JD; Matsushita T; Tsubata T; Tedder TF. 2009. The development and function of regulatory B cells expressing IL-10 (B10 cells) requires antigen receptor diversity and TLR signals. J Immunol 182(12):7459-72. [PubMed: 19494269]  [MGI Ref ID J:149301]

Yanagi K; Haneji N; Hamano H; Takahashi M; Higashiyama H; Hayashi Y. 1996. In vivo role of IL-10 and IL-12 during development of Sjogren's syndrome in MRL/Lpr mice. Cell Immunol 168(2):243-50. [PubMed: 8640871]  [MGI Ref ID J:31851]

Yang CH; Tian L; Ling GS; Trendell-Smith NJ; Ma L; Lo CK; Stott DI; Liew FY; Huang FP. 2008. Immunological mechanisms and clinical implications of regulatory T cell deficiency in a systemic autoimmune disorder: Roles of IL-2 versus IL-15. Eur J Immunol 38(6):1664-76. [PubMed: 18465774]  [MGI Ref ID J:136193]

Yang JQ; Chun T; Liu H; Hong S; Bui H; Van Kaer L; Wang CR; Singh RR. 2004. CD1d deficiency exacerbates inflammatory dermatitis in MRL-lpr/lpr mice. Eur J Immunol 34(6):1723-32. [PubMed: 15162443]  [MGI Ref ID J:90394]

Yang ML; Doyle HA; Gee RJ; Lowenson JD; Clarke S; Lawson BR; Aswad DW; Mamula MJ. 2006. Intracellular protein modification associated with altered T cell functions in autoimmunity. J Immunol 177(7):4541-9. [PubMed: 16982891]  [MGI Ref ID J:139320]

Yang X; Yang J; Chu Y; Wang J; Guan M; Zhu X; Xue Y; Zou H. 2013. T follicular helper cells mediate expansion of regulatory B cells via IL-21 in Lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice. PLoS One 8(4):e62855. [PubMed: 23638156]  [MGI Ref ID J:200873]

Yasuda K; Watkins AA; Kochar GS; Wilson GE; Laskow B; Richez C; Bonegio RG; Rifkin IR. 2014. Interferon regulatory factor-5 deficiency ameliorates disease severity in the MRL/lpr mouse model of lupus in the absence of a mutation in DOCK2. PLoS One 9(7):e103478. [PubMed: 25076492]  [MGI Ref ID J:218999]

Yasuda T; Kuwabara T; Nakano H; Aritomi K; Onodera T; Lipp M; Takahama Y; Kakiuchi T. 2007. Chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 promote activation-induced cell death of antigen-responding T cells. Blood 109(2):449-56. [PubMed: 16973962]  [MGI Ref ID J:144008]

Yasuda T; Zhang Y; Nagase H; Kaneko T; Sayama K; Hashimoto H; Matsuzawa A. 2000. Immunological characterization of C3H mice congenic for Fas(lprcg), C3h/HeJ-Fas(lprcg)/Fas(lprcg). Lab Anim 34(1):46-55. [PubMed: 10759366]  [MGI Ref ID J:59981]

Yasutomo K; Maeda K; Hisaeda H; Good RA; Kuroda Y; Himeno K. 1997. The Fas-deficient SCID mouse exhibits the development of T cells in the thymus. J Immunol 158(10):4729-33. [PubMed: 9144486]  [MGI Ref ID J:40207]

Yin Y; Stahl BC; DeWolf WC; Morgentaler A. 2002. P53 and Fas are sequential mechanisms of testicular germ cell apoptosis. J Androl 23(1):64-70. [PubMed: 11780924]  [MGI Ref ID J:105850]

Yin Z; Bahtiyar G; Zhang N; Liu L; Zhu P; Robert ME; McNiff J; Madaio MP; Craft J. 2002. IL-10 regulates murine lupus. J Immunol 169(4):2148-55. [PubMed: 12165544]  [MGI Ref ID J:78239]

Yoh K; Itoh K; Enomoto A; Hirayama A; Yamaguchi N; Kobayashi M; Morito N; Koyama A; Yamamoto M; Takahashi S. 2001. Nrf2-deficient female mice develop lupus-like autoimmune nephritis. Kidney Int 60(4):1343-53. [PubMed: 11576348]  [MGI Ref ID J:104016]

Yoshida T; Higuchi T; Hagiyama H; Strasser A; Nishioka K; Tsubata T. 2000. Rapid B cell apoptosis induced by antigen receptor ligation does not require fas (CD95/APO-1), the adaptor protein FADD/MORT1 or CrmA-sensitive caspases but is defective in both MRL-+/+ and MRL-lpr/lpr mice Int Immunol 12(4):517-26. [PubMed: 10744653]  [MGI Ref ID J:61691]

Yoshizawa Y; Honda S; Shibuya A. 2014. Involvement of Fcalpha/muR (CD351) in autoantibody production. Mol Immunol 57(2):216-9. [PubMed: 24172225]  [MGI Ref ID J:206184]

Youd ME; Luus L; Corley RB. 2004. IgM monomers accelerate disease manifestations in autoimmune-prone Fas-deficient mice. J Autoimmun 23(4):333-43. [PubMed: 15571927]  [MGI Ref ID J:94230]

Yui K; Wadsworth S; Yellen A; Hashimoto Y; Kokai Y; Greene MI. 1988. Molecular and functional properties of novel T cell subsets in C3H-gld/gld and nude mice. Implications for thymic and extrathymic maturation. Immunol Rev 104:121-55. [PubMed: 3049314]  [MGI Ref ID J:24681]

Zhang B; Hirahashi J; Cullere X; Mayadas TN. 2003. Elucidation of molecular events leading to neutrophil apoptosis following phagocytosis: cross-talk between caspase 8, reactive oxygen species, and MAPK/ERK activation. J Biol Chem 278(31):28443-54. [PubMed: 12736263]  [MGI Ref ID J:120441]

Zhang B; Kracker S; Yasuda T; Casola S; Vanneman M; Homig-Holzel C; Wang Z; Derudder E; Li S; Chakraborty T; Cotter SE; Koyama S; Currie T; Freeman GJ; Kutok JL; Rodig SJ; Dranoff G; Rajewsky K. 2012. Immune Surveillance and Therapy of Lymphomas Driven by Epstein-Barr Virus Protein LMP1 in a Mouse Model. Cell 148(4):739-51. [PubMed: 22341446]  [MGI Ref ID J:181546]

Zhang B; Maris CH; Foell J; Whitmire J; Niu L; Song J; Kwon BS; Vella AT; Ahmed R; Jacob J; Mittler RS. 2007. Immune suppression or enhancement by CD137 T cell costimulation during acute viral infection is time dependent. J Clin Invest 117(10):3029-41. [PubMed: 17853940]  [MGI Ref ID J:127406]

Zhang MC; Furukawa H; Tokunaka K; Saiga K; Date F; Owada Y; Nose M; Ono M. 2008. Mast cell hyperplasia in the skin of Dsg4-deficient hypotrichosis mice, which are long-living mutants of lupus-prone mice. Immunogenetics 60(10):599-607. [PubMed: 18677469]  [MGI Ref ID J:140028]

Zhang X; Shan P; Alam J; Davis RJ; Flavell RA; Lee PJ. 2003. Carbon monoxide modulates Fas/Fas ligand, caspases, and Bcl-2 family proteins via the p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway during ischemia-reperfusion lung injury. J Biol Chem 278(24):22061-70. [PubMed: 12690100]  [MGI Ref ID J:211469]

Zhang XK; Gallant S; Molano I; Moussa OM; Ruiz P; Spyropoulos DD; Watson DK; Gilkeson G. 2004. Decreased expression of the Ets family transcription factor Fli-1 markedly prolongs survival and significantly reduces renal disease in MRL/lpr mice. J Immunol 173(10):6481-9. [PubMed: 15528390]  [MGI Ref ID J:94287]

Zhang Z; Kyttaris VC; Tsokos GC. 2009. The role of IL-23/IL-17 axis in lupus nephritis. J Immunol 183(5):3160-9. [PubMed: 19657089]  [MGI Ref ID J:151862]

Zhao Y; Scott NA; Fynch S; Elkerbout L; Wong WW; Mason KD; Strasser A; Huang DC; Kay TW; Thomas HE. 2015. Autoreactive T cells induce necrosis and not BCL-2-regulated or death receptor-mediated apoptosis or RIPK3-dependent necroptosis of transplanted islets in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia 58(1):140-8. [PubMed: 25301392]  [MGI Ref ID J:219674]

Zhao Z; Deocharan B; Scherer PE; Ozelius LJ; Putterman C. 2006. Differential binding of cross-reactive anti-DNA antibodies to mesangial cells: the role of alpha-actinin. J Immunol 176(12):7704-14. [PubMed: 16751418]  [MGI Ref ID J:132348]

Zheng L; Sharma R; Gaskin F; Fu SM; Ju ST. 2007. A novel role of IL-2 in organ-specific autoimmune inflammation beyond regulatory T cell checkpoint: both IL-2 knockout and Fas mutation prolong lifespan of Scurfy mice but by different mechanisms. J Immunol 179(12):8035-41. [PubMed: 18056343]  [MGI Ref ID J:155041]

Zhou T; Bluethmann H; Eldridge J; Berry K; Mountz JD. 1993. Origin of CD4-CD8-B220+ T cells in MRL-lpr/lpr mice. Clues from a T cell receptor beta transgenic mouse. J Immunol 150(8 Pt 1):3651-67. [PubMed: 7682246]  [MGI Ref ID J:4525]

Zhou T; Edwards CK 3rd; Yang P; Wang Z; Bluethmann H; Mountz JD. 1996. Greatly accelerated lymphadenopathy and autoimmune disease in lpr mice lacking tumor necrosis factor receptor I. J Immunol 156(8):2661-5. [PubMed: 8609380]  [MGI Ref ID J:32463]

Ziebell JM; Bye N; Semple BD; Kossmann T; Morganti-Kossmann MC. 2011. Attenuated neurological deficit, cell death and lesion volume in Fas-mutant mice is associated with altered neuroinflammation following traumatic brain injury. Brain Res 1414:94-105. [PubMed: 21871613]  [MGI Ref ID J:176594]

Zielinski CE; Jacob SN; Bouzahzah F; Ehrlich BE; Craft J. 2005. Naive CD4+ T cells from lupus-prone Fas-intact MRL mice display TCR-mediated hyperproliferation due to intrinsic threshold defects in activation. J Immunol 174(8):5100-9. [PubMed: 15814741]  [MGI Ref ID J:98149]

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Zoukhri D; Kublin CL. 2001. Impaired neurotransmitter release from lacrimal and salivary gland nerves of a murine model of Sjogren's syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42(5):925-32. [PubMed: 11274068]  [MGI Ref ID J:68663]

Zuliani C; Kleber S; Klussmann S; Wenger T; Kenzelmann M; Schreglmann N; Martinez A; del Rio JA; Soriano E; Vodrazka P; Kuner R; Groene HJ; Herr I; Krammer PH; Martin-Villalba A. 2006. Control of neuronal branching by the death receptor CD95 (Fas/Apo-1). Cell Death Differ 13(1):31-40. [PubMed: 16003386]  [MGI Ref ID J:121029]

Zuo J; Ge H; Zhu G; Matthias P; Sun J. 2007. OBF-1 is essential for the generation of antibody-secreting cells and the development of autoimmunity in MRL-lpr mice. J Autoimmun 29(2-3):87-96. [PubMed: 17574818]  [MGI Ref ID J:125114]

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Health & husbandry

The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

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Animal Health Reports

Production of mice from cryopreserved embryos or sperm occurs in a maximum barrier room, G200.

Colony Maintenance

Breeding & HusbandryThis double mutant strain is maintained by mating homozygous siblings. Only homozygous mice may be ordered. Expected coat color from breeding: albino

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Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $3435.00
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

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  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing


Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $4465.50
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

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   000485 MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/J
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.

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The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCTS" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or services provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than the internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE or PRODUCTS from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON's prior written authorization.

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The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or services. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS or services may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and services by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.

Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or services shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or services by JACKSON.