Strain Name:

ALS/LtJ

Stock Number:

003072

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Availability:

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Common Names: Alloxan Susceptibility;    
ALS/LtJ and ALR/LtJ (Stock No. 003070) inbred strains are useful for a wide range od studies including type 1 and type 2 diabetes, obesity, metabolism and toxicology research. Treatment of alloxan or streptozotocin causing pancreatic beta cell destruction, leads to severe hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in ALS/LtJ mice. Alloxan-untreated ALS/Lt males exhibit impaired glucose tolerance when tested by intraperitoneal administration of glucose, and become hyperinsulinemic . ALS/LtJ mice contain genes predisposing to both experimentally-induced type 1 and spontaneously-developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. ALS/Lt mice exhibit significantly lower antioxidant defenses than do ALR/Lt. ALS/Lt is a useful control strain for comparing inbred strain susceptibility to free radical-mediated damage.

Description

Strain Information

Type Inbred Strain;
Additional information on Inbred Strains.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Mating SystemSibling x Sibling         (Female x Male)   01-MAR-06
Specieslaboratory mouse
H2 Haplotypenb1
GenerationF?+F14+32 (05-MAR-13)
Generation Definitions

Appearance
albino
Related Genotype: a/a Tyrc/Tyrc

Important Note
This strain is homozygous for Cdh23ahl, the age related hearing loss 1 mutation, which on this background results in progressive hearing loss with onset prior to three months of age and for Gnat2cpfl3, cone photoreceptor function loss 3, which affects bright light (photopic) vision.

Description
ALS/LtJ and ALR/LtJ (Stock No. 003070) inbred strains are of interest to investigators across a wide range of scientific disciplines including type 1 and type 2 diabetes, obesity, metabolism and toxicology research. Treatment of alloxan or streptozotocin causing pancreatic beta cell destruction, leads to severe hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in ALS/LtJ mice. ALR/LtJ mice are resistant to these toxins. By 34 weeks of age, both untreated ALS/Lt and ALR/Lt males fed a 6% fat-containing chow diet attain a mean body weight of around 50 grams. Genome wide scan comparison shows that ALS/LtJ mice are more closely related to NON/ShiLtJ mice (they share the H2nb1 haplotype) than to NOD/ShiLtJ. Like two other ICR-derived inbred strains selected in Japan (NON and NSY), alloxan-untreated ALS/Lt males exhibit impaired glucose tolerance when tested by intraperitoneal administration of glucose. However, unlike NON/ShiLt males, which exhibit impaired glucose tolerance in the presence of low plasma insulin concentrations, alloxan-untreated ALS/LtJ males become hyperinsulinemic by 10 weeks of age and maintain hyperinsulinemia as they age. Four untreated males and three females in a research colony have spontaneously developed type 2 diabetes between nine to 32 weeks of age (EH Leiter, unpublished observations). ALS/LtJ mice thus contain genes predisposing to both experimentally-inducedtype 1 and spontaneously-developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Since ALS/Lt mice exhibit significantly lower antioxidant defenses than do ALR/Lt, yet the two strains are closely related, ALS/Lt is a useful control strain for comparing inbred strain susceptibility to free radical-mediated damage.

Development
Alloxan is a pancreatic beta cell-selective toxin that induces diabetes in rodents by generating cytotoxic free radicals. The ALS (alloxan-induced diabetes-susceptible) inbred strain was created in Japan by selective inbreeding of Crj:CD-1 (ICR) mice with selection for susceptibility to diabetes development after administration of alloxan at doses representing the ED50 for the original Crj:CD-1 strain (45 mg/kg in males, 47 mg/kg in females). These dosages are lower than what is necessary to elicit a strong diabetogenic response in most inbred strains, typically 60mg/kg. After a litter was born and weaned, the parents and some of the progeny were alloxan-treated to select for high versus low [ALR (alloxan-induced diabetes-resistant)] incidence lines based on blood glucose levels at 7 days post treatment. ALS and ALR inbred strains were obtained from Japan by Dr. EH Leiter (Lt) at The Jackson Laboratory in 1996. ALS/Lt and ALR/Lt mice were transferred to the production colony in 1998.

Related Strains

Alloxan Resistance and Susceptibility Strains
003070   ALR/LtJ
View Alloxan Resistance and Susceptibility Strains     (1 strain)

Strains carrying   Cdh23ahl allele
001137   129P1/ReJ
000690   129P3/J
000691   129X1/SvJ
000646   A/J
000647   A/WySnJ
003070   ALR/LtJ
004502   B6;AKR-Lxl2/GrsrJ
001026   BALB/cByJ
000653   BUB/BnJ
005494   C3.129S1(B6)-Grm1rcw/J
000664   C57BL/6J
004764   C57BL/6J-Cdh23v-8J/J
003129   C57BL/6J-Epha4rb-2J/GrsrJ
004820   C57BL/6J-Kcne12J/J
004703   C57BL/6J-Kcnq2Nmf134/J
004811   C57BL/6J-nmf110/J
004812   C57BL/6J-nmf111/J
004747   C57BL/6J-nmf118/J
004656   C57BL/6J-nmf88/J
004391   C57BL/6J-Chr 13A/J/NaJ
004385   C57BL/6J-Chr 7A/J/NaJ
000662   C57BLKS/J
000667   C57BR/cdJ
000668   C57L/J
000669   C58/J
010614   CBACa.B6-Cdh23ahl/Kjn
000657   CE/J
000670   DBA/1J
001140   DBA/1LacJ
000671   DBA/2J
007048   DBA/2J-Gpnmb+/SjJ
002106   KK/HlJ
000675   LG/J
000676   LP/J
000677   MA/MyJ
001976   NOD/ShiLtJ
002050   NOR/LtJ
000679   P/J
002747   SENCARB/PtJ
002335   SKH2/J
003392   STOCK Crb1rd8/J
View Strains carrying   Cdh23ahl     (41 strains)

View Strains carrying   Gnat2cpfl3     (14 strains)

Strains carrying   mt-Trm1 allele
000646   A/J
001976   NOD/ShiLtJ
000684   NZB/BlNJ
View Strains carrying   mt-Trm1     (3 strains)

Strains carrying other alleles of Cdh23
002552   B6(V)-Cdh23v-2J/J
002756   B6.CAST-Cdh23Ahl+/Kjn
010615   B6.CBACa-Cdh23CBA/CaJ/Kjn
002432   B6J x B6.C-H2-Kbm1/ByJ-Cdh23v-J/J
004764   C57BL/6J-Cdh23v-8J/J
004819   C57BL/6J-Cdh23v-9J/J
005016   CByJ;B6-Cdh23v-10J/J
000275   V/LeJ
View Strains carrying other alleles of Cdh23     (8 strains)

Strains carrying other alleles of mt-Tr
003070   ALR/LtJ
002335   SKH2/J
View Strains carrying other alleles of mt-Tr     (2 strains)

Additional Web Information

JAX® NOTES, Fall 1999; 479. New Mouse Models for Diabetes and Free Radical Research.
JAX® NOTES, Spring 1999; 477. Control Strains for NOD/LtJ Mice in Diabetes Research.

Phenotype

Phenotype Information

View Phenotypic Data

Phenotypic Data
Mouse Phenome Database
View Related Disease (OMIM) Terms

Related Disease (OMIM) Terms provided by MGI
- Model with phenotypic similarity to human disease where etiologies involve orthologs. Human genes are associated with this disease. Orthologs of those genes appear in the mouse genotype(s).
Achromatopsia 4; ACHM4
- Potential model based on gene homology relationships. Phenotypic similarity to the human disease has not been tested.
Deafness, Autosomal Recessive 12; DFNB12   (CDH23)
Usher Syndrome, Type ID; USH1D   (CDH23)
View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

Gnat2cpfl3/Gnat2cpfl3

        ALS/LtJ
  • vision/eye phenotype
  • abnormal cone electrophysiology
    • photopic responses are 25% of normal by 4 weeks of age and completely diminished by 9 months   (MGI Ref ID J:122428)
    • scotopic (rod) responses show some diminution, but are near normal by 9 months of age   (MGI Ref ID J:122428)
  • abnormal photoreceptor outer segment morphology
    • outer segments are vacuolated by 27 weeks of age   (MGI Ref ID J:122428)
  • abnormal retinal cone cell morphology
    • reduced labeling for alpha-transducin in cone outer segments as determined by immunocytochemistry, however, PNA staining reveals a normal number of cone outer segments   (MGI Ref ID J:122428)
  • abnormal retinal vasculature morphology
    • dilated retinal veins and slightly constricted arterioles are observed in 8 month old mice   (MGI Ref ID J:122428)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal photoreceptor outer segment morphology
    • outer segments are vacuolated by 27 weeks of age   (MGI Ref ID J:122428)
  • abnormal retinal cone cell morphology
    • reduced labeling for alpha-transducin in cone outer segments as determined by immunocytochemistry, however, PNA staining reveals a normal number of cone outer segments   (MGI Ref ID J:122428)
  • cardiovascular system phenotype
  • abnormal retinal vasculature morphology
    • dilated retinal veins and slightly constricted arterioles are observed in 8 month old mice   (MGI Ref ID J:122428)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Diabetes and Obesity Research
Hyperglycemia
      alloxan induced
Hyperinsulinemia
      males; spontaneous, alloxan untreated
Hypoinsulinemia
      alloxan induced
Insulin Resistance
      males; spontaneous, alloxan untreated
Obesity With Diabetes
      moderate, adult onset
Type 1 Diabetes (IDDM)
      males: alloxan induced
Type 1 Diabetes (IDDM) Analysis Strains
      Related Inbred Strains
Type 2 Diabetes (NIDDM)
      males
      males: spontaneous, alloxan untreated

Metabolism Research
Free Radical Research

Neurobiology Research
Hearing Defects
      Age related hearing loss

Research Tools
Toxicology Research
      free radical research

Sensorineural Research
Hearing Defects
      Age related hearing loss

Cdh23ahl related

Neurobiology Research
Hearing Defects
      Age related hearing loss

Sensorineural Research
Hearing Defects
      Age related hearing loss

Gnat2cpfl3 related
Eye Defects

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

 
Allele Symbol Cdh23ahl
Allele Name age related hearing loss 1
Allele Type QTL
Common Name(s) Cdh23753A; mdfw;
Strain of Originmultiple strains
Gene Symbol and Name Cdh23, cadherin 23 (otocadherin)
Chromosome 10
Gene Common Name(s) 4930542A03Rik; CDHR23; RIKEN cDNA 4930542A03 gene; USH1D; W; age related hearing loss 1; ahl; bob; bobby; bus; bustling; mdfw; modifier of deaf waddler; neuroscience mutagenesis facility, 112; neuroscience mutagenesis facility, 181; neuroscience mutagenesis facility, 252; nmf112; nmf181; nmf252; sals; salsa; v; waltzer;
Molecular Note Genetic complementation tests have shown allelism between the mdfw (modifier of deaf waddler) locus and the ahl locus. Further analysis has identified an association between ahl and a G to A transition at nucleotide position 753 of Cdh23. This hypomorphic allele causes in frame skipping of exon 7 and reduced message stability. Twenty-seven strains classified with ahl and carrying the 753A allele include: CD1, RBF/DnJ, PL/J, AKR/J, RF/J, BALB/cBy, A/WySnJ, P/J, SENCARA/PtJ, DBA/1J, ALS/LtJ, C58/J, C57BLKS/J, 129P1/ReJ, C57BR/cd, SKH2/J, BUB/Bn, MA/MyJ, LP/J, 129X1/SvJ, NOR/LtJ, A/J, C57BL/6, NOD/LtJ, DBA/2J, ALR/LtJ, C57L/J. Strains classified with ahl that DO NOT carry this mutation include: C3H/HeSnJ, I/LnJ,YBR/Ei, MRL/MpJ. [MGI Ref ID J:86905]
 
Allele Symbol Gnat2cpfl3
Allele Name cone photoreceptor function loss 3
Allele Type Spontaneous
Strain of Originvarious
Gene Symbol and Name Gnat2, guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha transducing 2
Chromosome 3
Gene Common Name(s) ACHM4; AW490837; GNATC; Gnat-2; Gt-2; Tcalpha; expressed sequence AW490837;
General Note This allele has been detected in the following strains either by genotyping or complementation testing: ALS/LtJ, SENCARA/PtJ, SENCARB/PtJ, SENCARC/PtJ, PN/nBSwUmabJ. (J:122428)
Molecular Note A single nucleotide substitution of G to A at position 598 in exon 6. This mutation converts codon 200 from aspartic acid to asparagine. [MGI Ref ID J:122428]
 
Allele Symbol mt-Trm1
Allele Name mutation 1
Allele Type Spontaneous
Common Name(s) 10A;
Strain of Originvarious
Gene Symbol and Name mt-Tr, mitochondrially encoded tRNA arginine
Chromosome MT
Gene Common Name(s) TrnR tRNA; tRNA; tRNA-Arg;
General Note This polymorphism is present in A/J, NZB/B1NJ, ALS/Lt and NOD/ShiLtJ. A variant with 9 adenines is found in NOD/ShiLtDvs, ALR/Lt and SKH2/J.
Molecular Note The adenine repeat in the D stem is polymorphic with 10 adenines in this allele. [MGI Ref ID J:67312] [MGI Ref ID J:97969]

Genotyping

Genotyping Information


Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting

References

References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Graser RT; Mathews CE; Leiter EH; Serreze DV. 1999. MHC characterization of ALR and ALS mice: respective similarities to the NOD and NON strains. Immunogenetics 49(7-8):722-6. [PubMed: 10369935]  [MGI Ref ID J:56048]

Mathews CE; Bagley R; Leiter EH. 2004. ALS/Lt: a new type 2 diabetes mouse model associated with low free radical scavenging potential. Diabetes 53 Suppl 1:S125-9. [PubMed: 14749277]  [MGI Ref ID J:88014]

Mathews CE; Dunn BD; Hannigan MO; Huang CK; Leiter EH. 2002. Genetic control of neutrophil superoxide production in diabetes-resistant ALR/Lt mice. Free Radic Biol Med 32(8):744-51. [PubMed: 11937300]  [MGI Ref ID J:76108]

Mathews CE; Leiter EH. 1999. Constitutive differences in antioxidant defense status distinguish alloxan-resistant and alloxan-susceptible mice. Free Radic Biol Med 27(3-4):449-55. [PubMed: 10468221]  [MGI Ref ID J:57552]

Mathews CE; Leiter EH. 1999. Resistance of ALR/Lt islets to free radical-mediated diabetogenic stress is inherited as a dominant trait. Diabetes 48(11):2189-96. [PubMed: 10535453]  [MGI Ref ID J:109893]

Petkov PM; Cassell MA; Sargent EE; Donnelly CJ; Robinson P; Crew V; Asquith S; Haar RV; Wiles MV. 2004. Development of a SNP genotyping panel for genetic monitoring of the laboratory mouse. Genomics 83(5):902-11. [PubMed: 15081119]  [MGI Ref ID J:89298]

Sekiguchi F; Ishibashi K; Katoh H; Kawamoto Y; Ino T. 1990. Genetic profile of alloxan-induced diabetes-susceptible mice (ALS) and-resistant mice (ALR). Exp Anim 39(2):269-72. [PubMed: 2361527]  [MGI Ref ID J:109930]

Ueda H; Ikegami H; Yamato E; Fu J; Fukuda M; Shen G; Kawaguchi Y; Takekawa K; Fujioka Y; Fujisawa T; Nakagawa Y; Hamada Y; Shibata M; Ogihara T. 1995. The NSY mouse: a new animal model of spontaneous NIDDM with moderate obesity. Diabetologia 38(5):503-8. [PubMed: 7489831]  [MGI Ref ID J:25653]

Additional References

Cdh23ahl related

Bosco A; Crish SD; Steele MR; Romero CO; Inman DM; Horner PJ; Calkins DJ; Vetter ML. 2012. Early reduction of microglia activation by irradiation in a model of chronic glaucoma. PLoS One 7(8):e43602. [PubMed: 22952717]  [MGI Ref ID J:191663]

Davis RR; Newlander JK; Ling X; Cortopassi GA; Krieg EF; Erway LC. 2001. Genetic basis for susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss in mice. Hear Res 155(1-2):82-90. [PubMed: 11335078]  [MGI Ref ID J:69679]

Di Palma F; Pellegrino R; Noben-Trauth K. 2001. Genomic structure, alternative splice forms and normal and mutant alleles of cadherin 23 (Cdh23). Gene 281(1-2):31-41. [PubMed: 11750125]  [MGI Ref ID J:73941]

Fetoni AR; Picciotti PM; Paludetti G; Troiani D. 2011. Pathogenesis of presbycusis in animal models: a review. Exp Gerontol 46(6):413-25. [PubMed: 21211561]  [MGI Ref ID J:186964]

Han F; Yu H; Tian C; Chen HE; Benedict-Alderfer C; Zheng Y; Wang Q; Han X; Zheng QY. 2010. A new mouse mutant of the Cdh23 gene with early-onset hearing loss facilitates evaluation of otoprotection drugs. Pharmacogenomics J :. [PubMed: 20644563]  [MGI Ref ID J:174758]

Johnson KR; Erway LC; Cook SA; Willott JF; Zheng QY. 1997. A major gene affecting age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice Hear Res 114(1-2):83-92. [PubMed: 9447922]  [MGI Ref ID J:44966]

Johnson KR; Longo-Guess C; Gagnon LH; Yu H; Zheng QY. 2008. A locus on distal chromosome 11 (ahl8) and its interaction with Cdh23 ahl underlie the early onset, age-related hearing loss of DBA/2J mice. Genomics 92(4):219-25. [PubMed: 18662770]  [MGI Ref ID J:139223]

Johnson KR; Yu H; Ding D; Jiang H; Gagnon LH; Salvi RJ. 2010. Separate and combined effects of Sod1 and Cdh23 mutations on age-related hearing loss and cochlear pathology in C57BL/6J mice. Hear Res 268(1-2):85-92. [PubMed: 20470874]  [MGI Ref ID J:163035]

Johnson KR; Zheng QY; Bykhovskaya Y; Spirina O; Fischel-Ghodsian N. 2001. A nuclear-mitochondrial DNA interaction affecting hearing impairment in mice. Nat Genet 27(2):191-4. [PubMed: 11175788]  [MGI Ref ID J:67312]

Johnson KR; Zheng QY; Noben-Trauth K. 2006. Strain background effects and genetic modifiers of hearing in mice. Brain Res 1091(1):79-88. [PubMed: 16579977]  [MGI Ref ID J:110459]

Johnson KR; Zheng QY; Weston MD; Ptacek LJ; Noben-Trauth K. 2005. The Mass1(frings) mutation underlies early onset hearing impairment in BUB/BnJ mice, a model for the auditory pathology of Usher syndrome IIC. Genomics 85(5):582-90. [PubMed: 15820310]  [MGI Ref ID J:97534]

Kane KL; Longo-Guess CM; Gagnon LH; Ding D; Salvi RJ; Johnson KR. 2012. Genetic background effects on age-related hearing loss associated with Cdh23 variants in mice. Hear Res 283(1-2):80-8. [PubMed: 22138310]  [MGI Ref ID J:183757]

Keithley EM; Canto C; Zheng QY; Fischel-Ghodsian N; Johnson KR. 2004. Age-related hearing loss and the ahl locus in mice. Hear Res 188(1-2):21-8. [PubMed: 14759567]  [MGI Ref ID J:87783]

Liu X; Bulgakov OV; Darrow KN; Pawlyk B; Adamian M; Liberman MC; Li T. 2007. Usherin is required for maintenance of retinal photoreceptors and normal development of cochlear hair cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(11):4413-8. [PubMed: 17360538]  [MGI Ref ID J:118927]

Manji SS; Williams LH; Miller KA; Ooms LM; Bahlo M; Mitchell CA; Dahl HH. 2011. A mutation in synaptojanin 2 causes progressive hearing loss in the ENU-mutagenised mouse strain Mozart. PLoS One 6(3):e17607. [PubMed: 21423608]  [MGI Ref ID J:171701]

Nadeau JH. 2003. Modifier genes and protective alleles in humans and mice. Curr Opin Genet Dev 13(3):290-5. [PubMed: 12787792]  [MGI Ref ID J:88012]

Noben-Trauth K; Latoche JR; Neely HR; Bennett B. 2010. Phenotype and genetics of progressive sensorineural hearing loss (Snhl1) in the LXS set of recombinant inbred strains of mice. PLoS One 5(7):e11459. [PubMed: 20628639]  [MGI Ref ID J:163117]

Noben-Trauth K; Zheng QY; Johnson KR. 2003. Association of cadherin 23 with polygenic inheritance and genetic modification of sensorineural hearing loss. Nat Genet 35(1):21-3. [PubMed: 12910270]  [MGI Ref ID J:86905]

Noben-Trauth K; Zheng QY; Johnson KR; Nishina PM. 1997. mdfw: a deafness susceptibility locus that interacts with deaf waddler (dfw). Genomics 44(3):266-72. [PubMed: 9325047]  [MGI Ref ID J:38429]

Perrin BJ; Sonnemann KJ; Ervasti JM. 2010. beta-actin and gamma-actin are each dispensable for auditory hair cell development but required for Stereocilia maintenance. PLoS Genet 6(10):e1001158. [PubMed: 20976199]  [MGI Ref ID J:167543]

Perrin BJ; Strandjord DM; Narayanan P; Henderson DM; Johnson KR; Ervasti JM. 2013. beta-Actin and Fascin-2 Cooperate to Maintain Stereocilia Length. J Neurosci 33(19):8114-21. [PubMed: 23658152]  [MGI Ref ID J:197137]

Vazquez AE; Jimenez AM; Martin GK; Luebke AE; Lonsbury-Martin BL. 2004. Evaluating cochlear function and the effects of noise exposure in the B6.CAST+Ahl mouse with distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Hear Res 194(1-2):87-96. [PubMed: 15276680]  [MGI Ref ID J:117746]

Zheng QY; Johnson KR. 2001. Hearing loss associated with the modifier of deaf waddler (mdfw) locus corresponds with age-related hearing loss in 12 inbred strains of mice. Hear Res 154(1-2):45-53. [PubMed: 11423214]  [MGI Ref ID J:70964]

Zheng QY; Scarborough JD; Zheng Y; Yu H; Choi D; Gillespie PG. 2012. Digenic inheritance of deafness caused by 8J allele of myosin-VIIA and mutations in other Usher I genes. Hum Mol Genet 21(11):2588-98. [PubMed: 22381527]  [MGI Ref ID J:183898]

Zilberstein Y; Liberman MC; Corfas G. 2012. Inner hair cells are not required for survival of spiral ganglion neurons in the adult cochlea. J Neurosci 32(2):405-10. [PubMed: 22238076]  [MGI Ref ID J:179911]

Gnat2cpfl3 related

Alexander JJ; Umino Y; Everhart D; Chang B; Min SH; Li Q; Timmers AM; Hawes NL; Pang JJ; Barlow RB; Hauswirth WW. 2007. Restoration of cone vision in a mouse model of achromatopsia. Nat Med 13(6):685-7. [PubMed: 17515894]  [MGI Ref ID J:121897]

Allen AE; Cameron MA; Brown TM; Vugler AA; Lucas RJ. 2010. Visual responses in mice lacking critical components of all known retinal phototransduction cascades. PLoS One 5(11):e15063. [PubMed: 21124780]  [MGI Ref ID J:167121]

Altimus CM; Guler AD; Alam NM; Arman AC; Prusky GT; Sampath AP; Hattar S. 2010. Rod photoreceptors drive circadian photoentrainment across a wide range of light intensities. Nat Neurosci 13(9):1107-12. [PubMed: 20711184]  [MGI Ref ID J:165280]

Chang B; Dacey MS; Hawes NL; Hitchcock PF; Milam AH; Atmaca-Sonmez P; Nusinowitz S; Heckenlively JR. 2006. Cone photoreceptor function loss-3, a novel mouse model of achromatopsia due to a mutation in Gnat2. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47(11):5017-21. [PubMed: 17065522]  [MGI Ref ID J:122428]

Chang B; Hawes NL; Hurd RE; Wang J; Howell D; Davisson MT; Roderick TH; Nusinowitz S; Heckenlively JR. 2005. Mouse models of ocular diseases. Vis Neurosci 22(5):587-93. [PubMed: 16332269]  [MGI Ref ID J:156373]

Chang B; Hurd R; Wang J; Nishina P. 2013. Survey of common eye diseases in laboratory mouse strains. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 54(7):4974-81. [PubMed: 23800770]  [MGI Ref ID J:198916]

Deng WT; Sakurai K; Liu J; Dinculescu A; Li J; Pang J; Min SH; Chiodo VA; Boye SL; Chang B; Kefalov VJ; Hauswirth WW. 2009. Functional interchangeability of rod and cone transducin alpha-subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(42):17681-6. [PubMed: 19815523]  [MGI Ref ID J:153749]

Jones RS; Pedisich M; Carroll RC; Nawy S. 2014. Spatial organization of AMPAR subtypes in ON RGCs. J Neurosci 34(2):656-61. [PubMed: 24403163]  [MGI Ref ID J:205576]

Naarendorp F; Esdaille TM; Banden SM; Andrews-Labenski J; Gross OP; Pugh EN Jr. 2010. Dark light, rod saturation, and the absolute and incremental sensitivity of mouse cone vision. J Neurosci 30(37):12495-507. [PubMed: 20844144]  [MGI Ref ID J:164666]

Nusinowitz S; Ridder WH 3rd; Ramirez J. 2007. Temporal response properties of the primary and secondary rod-signaling pathways in normal and Gnat2 mutant mice. Exp Eye Res 84(6):1104-14. [PubMed: 17408617]  [MGI Ref ID J:126462]

Sakami S; Kolesnikov AV; Kefalov VJ; Palczewski K. 2014. P23H opsin knock-in mice reveal a novel step in retinal rod disc morphogenesis. Hum Mol Genet 23(7):1723-41. [PubMed: 24214395]  [MGI Ref ID J:207143]

Umino Y; Solessio E; Barlow RB. 2008. Speed, spatial, and temporal tuning of rod and cone vision in mouse. J Neurosci 28(1):189-98. [PubMed: 18171936]  [MGI Ref ID J:131050]

Wang YV; Weick M; Demb JB. 2011. Spectral and temporal sensitivity of cone-mediated responses in mouse retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci 31(21):7670-81. [PubMed: 21613480]  [MGI Ref ID J:191557]

Won J; Shi LY; Hicks W; Wang J; Hurd R; Naggert JK; Chang B; Nishina PM. 2011. Mouse model resources for vision research. J Ophthalmol 2011:391384. [PubMed: 21052544]  [MGI Ref ID J:166679]

mt-Trm1 related

Johnson KR; Zheng QY; Bykhovskaya Y; Spirina O; Fischel-Ghodsian N. 2001. A nuclear-mitochondrial DNA interaction affecting hearing impairment in mice. Nat Genet 27(2):191-4. [PubMed: 11175788]  [MGI Ref ID J:67312]

Johnson KR; Zheng QY; Noben-Trauth K. 2006. Strain background effects and genetic modifiers of hearing in mice. Brain Res 1091(1):79-88. [PubMed: 16579977]  [MGI Ref ID J:110459]

Mathews CE; Leiter EH; Spirina O; Bykhovskaya Y; Gusdon AM; Ringquist S; Fischel-Ghodsian N. 2005. mt-Nd2 Allele of the ALR/Lt mouse confers resistance against both chemically induced and autoimmune diabetes. Diabetologia 48(2):261-7. [PubMed: 15692809]  [MGI Ref ID J:97969]

Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Room Number           FGB27

Colony Maintenance

Mating SystemSibling x Sibling         (Female x Male)   01-MAR-06
Diet Information LabDiet® 5K52/5K67

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls


Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)Gender
Individual Mouse $135.00Female or Male  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)Gender
Individual Mouse $175.50Female or Male  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

Important Note

This strain is homozygous for Cdh23ahl, the age related hearing loss 1 mutation, which on this background results in progressive hearing loss with onset prior to three months of age and for Gnat2cpfl3, cone photoreceptor function loss 3, which affects bright light (photopic) vision.

Payment Terms and Conditions

Terms are granted by individual review and stated on the customer invoice(s) and account statement. These transactions are payable in U.S. currency within the granted terms. Payment for services, products, shipping containers, and shipping costs that are rendered are expected within the payment terms indicated on the invoice or stated by contract. Invoices and account balances in arrears of stated terms may result in The Jackson Laboratory pursuing collection activities including but not limited to outside agencies and court filings.


See Terms of Use tab for General Terms and Conditions


The Jackson Laboratory's Genotype Promise

The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use

"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCTS" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or services provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than the internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE or PRODUCTS from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON's prior written authorization.

No Warranty

MICE, PRODUCTS AND SERVICES ARE PROVIDED “AS IS”. JACKSON EXTENDS NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, WITH RESPECT TO MICE, PRODUCTS OR SERVICES, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR ANY WARRANTY OF NON-INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.

In case of dissatisfaction for a valid reason and claimed in writing by a purchaser within ninety (90) days of receipt of mice, products or services, JACKSON will, at its option, provide credit or replacement for the mice or product received or the services provided.

No Liability

In no event shall JACKSON, its trustees, directors, officers, employees, and affiliates be liable for any causes of action or damages, including any direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages, arising out of the provision of MICE, PRODUCTS or services, including economic damage or injury to property and lost profits, and including any damage arising from acts or negligence on the part of JACKSON, its agents or employees. Unless prohibited by law, in purchasing or receiving MICE, PRODUCTS or services from JACKSON, purchaser or recipient, or any party claiming by or through them, expressly releases and discharges JACKSON from all such causes of action or damages, and further agrees to defend and indemnify JACKSON from any costs or damages arising out of any third party claims.

MICE and PRODUCTS are to be used in a safe manner and in accordance with all applicable governmental rules and regulations.

The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or services. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS or services may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and services by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.

Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or services shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or services by JACKSON.


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