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Common Names: BALB/cBy TCRdelta-;     BALB/cByJ-Tcrd;    


The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Strain Information

Type Congenic; Targeted Mutation;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Additional information on Congenic nomenclature.
Specieslaboratory mouse
H2 Haplotyped

Mice homozygous for this targeted mutation are viable and fertile. Gamma delta T-cell receptor expression is deficient in all adult lymphoid and epithelial organs. There is normal development of the alpha beta T-cell lineage. Patterns of CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ alpha beta T-cells are apparently normal. Mice do not develop inflammatory bowel disease.

In an attempt to offer alleles on well-characterized or multiple genetic backgrounds, alleles are frequently moved to a genetic background different from that on which an allele was first characterized. This is the case for the strain above. It should be noted that the phenotype could vary from that originally described. We will modify the strain description if necessary as published results become available.

This targeted mutant strain was developed by Dr. Peter Mombaerts in the laboratory of Dr. Susumu Tonegawa at the Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A replacement targeting vector containing Pgk-neo was used which resulted in a 4 kb deletion encompassing most of the delta chain constant region coding sequences. This strain was generated in the laboratory of Dr. Leonard Shultz by backcrossing mice from B6.1292-Tcrdtm1Mom/J to BALB/cByJ inbred mice for a minimum of 9 generations.

Related Strains

View Strains carrying   Tcrdtm1Mom     (6 strains)


Phenotype Information

View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

The following phenotype information is associated with a similar, but not exact match to this JAX® Mice strain.


  • immune system phenotype
  • dermatitis
    • no overt signs of spontaneous dermatitis on this background   (MGI Ref ID J:75915)
  • increased susceptibility to type IV hypersensitivity reaction
    • aggravated allergic contact dermatitis in response to DNFAB and irritant contact dermatitis   (MGI Ref ID J:75915)
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • impaired skin barrier function
    • transepidermal water loss as measured by skin surface impedance is increased under environmentally stressful conditions   (MGI Ref ID J:106782)
  • integument phenotype
  • abnormal skin condition
    • less extensive ear thickening   (MGI Ref ID J:75915)
  • dermatitis
    • no overt signs of spontaneous dermatitis on this background   (MGI Ref ID J:75915)
  • impaired skin barrier function
    • transepidermal water loss as measured by skin surface impedance is increased under environmentally stressful conditions   (MGI Ref ID J:106782)


  • immune system phenotype
  • *normal* immune system phenotype
    • no evidence of spontaneous dermatitis, allergic or irritant contact dermatitis   (MGI Ref ID J:75915)
  • cellular phenotype
  • increased apoptosis
    • apoptosis levels in the epidermis are 3 fold higher than in controls   (MGI Ref ID J:94872)
  • integument phenotype
  • *normal* integument phenotype
    • no skin abnormalities   (MGI Ref ID J:75915)


        either: (involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * BALB/cJ) or (involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6)
  • immune system phenotype
  • abnormal gamma-delta T cell differentiation
    • rearrangement of Vgamma and Vdelta genes occurs in fetal and adult thymus, however, surface expression does not occur   (MGI Ref ID J:3865)
  • absent gamma-delta T cells
    • gamma-delta T cells are not detected by flow cytometry in lymphoid or epithelial organs of 4 week old mice or in fetal thymocytes (Day 16), however, levels of alpha-beta T cells and B cells are similar to control   (MGI Ref ID J:3865)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • abnormal gamma-delta T cell differentiation
    • rearrangement of Vgamma and Vdelta genes occurs in fetal and adult thymus, however, surface expression does not occur   (MGI Ref ID J:3865)
  • absent gamma-delta T cells
    • gamma-delta T cells are not detected by flow cytometry in lymphoid or epithelial organs of 4 week old mice or in fetal thymocytes (Day 16), however, levels of alpha-beta T cells and B cells are similar to control   (MGI Ref ID J:3865)


  • respiratory system phenotype
  • abnormal respiratory system physiology
    • ovalbumin-sensitized/challenged mice (OVA) are unable to generate an early phase reaction (EPR- initial phase of brochoconstriction) following OVA provocation   (MGI Ref ID J:125656)
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Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Tcrdtm1Mom related

Hematological Research
Immunological Defects

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
CD Antigens, Antigen Receptors, and Histocompatibility Markers
      Inflammatory bowel disease
T Cell Receptor Signaling Defects

Research Tools
Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
      T Cell Receptor Deficiency

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

Allele Symbol Tcrdtm1Mom
Allele Name targeted mutation 1, Peter Mombaerts
Allele Type Targeted (Null/Knockout)
Common Name(s) C-delta-; TCRdelta KO; TCRdelta-; delta-; delta0; gammadelta TCR-;
Mutation Made By Peter Mombaerts,   Max Planck Research Unit for Neurogenetics
Strain of Origin129P2/OlaHsd
ES Cell Line NameE14
ES Cell Line Strain129P2/OlaHsd
Gene Symbol and Name Tcrd, T cell receptor delta chain
Chromosome 14
Gene Common Name(s) Tcr delta; Tcrdelta;
Molecular Note A PGK-neo cassette was used to disrupt the constant gene segment (designated C-delta). Flow cytometry showed that cells isolated from the lymphoid or epithelial organs of homozygous mice did not react with an anti-pan Tcrd mAb. Immunoprecipitation showedan absence of expression on the surface of thymocytes isolated from homozygous mutant embryos. [MGI Ref ID J:3865] [MGI Ref ID J:91942]


Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

NEOTD (Generic Neo), Standard PCR

Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting


References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Itohara S; Mombaerts P; Lafaille J; Iacomini J; Nelson A; Clarke AR; Hooper ML; Farr A; Tonegawa S. 1993. T cell receptor delta gene mutant mice: independent generation of alpha beta T cells and programmed rearrangements of gamma delta TCR genes. Cell 72(3):337-48. [PubMed: 8381716]  [MGI Ref ID J:3865]

Additional References

Tcrdtm1Mom related

Aifantis I; Bassing CH; Garbe AI; Sawai K; Alt FW; von Boehmer H. 2006. The E delta enhancer controls the generation of CD4- CD8- alphabetaTCR-expressing T cells that can give rise to different lineages of alphabeta T cells. J Exp Med 203(6):1543-50. [PubMed: 16754716]  [MGI Ref ID J:124376]

Alcon VL; Luther C; Balce D; Takei F. 2009. B-cell co-receptor CD72 is expressed on NK cells and inhibits IFN-gamma production but not cytotoxicity. Eur J Immunol 39(3):826-32. [PubMed: 19197938]  [MGI Ref ID J:146477]

Allen HL; Deepe GS Jr. 2006. B cells and CD4-CD8- T cells are key regulators of the severity of reactivation histoplasmosis. J Immunol 177(3):1763-71. [PubMed: 16849486]  [MGI Ref ID J:138028]

Alugupalli KR; Akira S; Lien E; Leong JM. 2007. MyD88- and Bruton's tyrosine kinase-mediated signals are essential for T cell-independent pathogen-specific IgM responses. J Immunol 178(6):3740-9. [PubMed: 17339472]  [MGI Ref ID J:144277]

Alugupalli KR; Gerstein RM; Chen J; Szomolanyi-Tsuda E; Woodland RT; Leong JM. 2003. The resolution of relapsing fever borreliosis requires IgM and is concurrent with expansion of B1b lymphocytes. J Immunol 170(7):3819-27. [PubMed: 12646649]  [MGI Ref ID J:125443]

Alugupalli KR; Leong JM; Woodland RT; Muramatsu M; Honjo T; Gerstein RM. 2004. B1b lymphocytes confer T cell-independent long-lasting immunity. Immunity 21(3):379-90. [PubMed: 15357949]  [MGI Ref ID J:93752]

Ammirante M; Luo JL; Grivennikov S; Nedospasov S; Karin M. 2010. B-cell-derived lymphotoxin promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer. Nature 464(7286):302-5. [PubMed: 20220849]  [MGI Ref ID J:157973]

Anderson BE; McNiff JM; Matte C; Athanasiadis I; Shlomchik WD; Shlomchik MJ. 2004. Recipient CD4+ T cells that survive irradiation regulate chronic graft-versus-host disease. Blood 104(5):1565-73. [PubMed: 15150080]  [MGI Ref ID J:92701]

Andrew EM; Newton DJ; Dalton JE; Egan CE; Goodwin SJ; Tramonti D; Scott P; Carding SR. 2005. Delineation of the function of a major gamma delta T cell subset during infection. J Immunol 175(3):1741-50. [PubMed: 16034115]  [MGI Ref ID J:105477]

Archer NK; Harro JM; Shirtliff ME. 2013. Clearance of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is T cell dependent and mediated through interleukin-17A expression and neutrophil influx. Infect Immun 81(6):2070-5. [PubMed: 23529621]  [MGI Ref ID J:199531]

Arnold CN; Campbell DJ; Lipp M; Butcher EC. 2007. The germinal center response is impaired in the absence of T cell-expressed CXCR5. Eur J Immunol 37(1):100-9. [PubMed: 17171760]  [MGI Ref ID J:117042]

Arwert EN; Lal R; Quist S; Rosewell I; van Rooijen N; Watt FM. 2010. Tumor formation initiated by nondividing epidermal cells via an inflammatory infiltrate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(46):19903-8. [PubMed: 21041641]  [MGI Ref ID J:166606]

Aurora AB; Baluk P; Zhang D; Sidhu SS; Dolganov GM; Basbaum C; McDonald DM; Killeen N. 2005. Immune complex-dependent remodeling of the airway vasculature in response to a chronic bacterial infection. J Immunol 175(10):6319-26. [PubMed: 16272283]  [MGI Ref ID J:119344]

Baban B; Chandler PR; Johnson BA 3rd; Huang L; Li M; Sharpe ML; Francisco LM; Sharpe AH; Blazar BR; Munn DH; Mellor AL. 2011. Physiologic control of IDO competence in splenic dendritic cells. J Immunol 187(5):2329-35. [PubMed: 21813777]  [MGI Ref ID J:179269]

Baccala R; Witherden D; Gonzalez-Quintial R; Dummer W; Surh CD; Havran WL; Theofilopoulos AN. 2005. Gamma delta T cell homeostasis is controlled by IL-7 and IL-15 together with subset-specific factors. J Immunol 174(8):4606-12. [PubMed: 15814683]  [MGI Ref ID J:98166]

Ballesteros-Tato A; Leon B; Lund FE; Randall TD. 2013. CD4+ T helper cells use CD154-CD40 interactions to counteract T reg cell-mediated suppression of CD8+ T cell responses to influenza. J Exp Med 210(8):1591-601. [PubMed: 23835849]  [MGI Ref ID J:202249]

Barker TT; Lee PY; Kelly-Scumpia KM; Weinstein JS; Nacionales DC; Kumagai Y; Akira S; Croker BP; Sobel ES; Reeves WH; Satoh M. 2011. Pathogenic role of B cells in the development of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage induced by pristane. Lab Invest 91(10):1540-50. [PubMed: 21808234]  [MGI Ref ID J:176270]

Barthold SW; Hodzic E; Tunev S; Feng S. 2006. Antibody-mediated disease remission in the mouse model of lyme borreliosis. Infect Immun 74(8):4817-25. [PubMed: 16861670]  [MGI Ref ID J:112329]

Bento AF; Marcon R; Dutra RC; Claudino RF; Cola M; Pereira Leite DF; Calixto JB. 2011. beta-Caryophyllene Inhibits Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice through CB2 Receptor Activation and PPARgamma Pathway. Am J Pathol 178(3):1153-66. [PubMed: 21356367]  [MGI Ref ID J:169691]

Bergtold A; Desai DD; Gavhane A; Clynes R. 2005. Cell surface recycling of internalized antigen permits dendritic cell priming of B cells. Immunity 23(5):503-14. [PubMed: 16286018]  [MGI Ref ID J:113283]

Bian K; Zhong M; Harari Y; Lai M; Weisbrodt N; Murad F. 2005. Helminth regulation of host IL-4Ralpha/Stat6 signaling: mechanism underlying NOS-2 inhibition by Trichinella spiralis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(11):3936-41. [PubMed: 15741272]  [MGI Ref ID J:97167]

Bjordahl RL; Gapin L; Marrack P; Refaeli Y. 2012. iNKT cells suppress the CD8+ T cell response to a murine Burkitt's-like B cell lymphoma. PLoS One 7(8):e42635. [PubMed: 22880059]  [MGI Ref ID J:189824]

Bokhari SM; Kim KJ; Pinson DM; Slusser J; Yeh HW; Parmely MJ. 2008. NK cells and gamma interferon coordinate the formation and function of hepatic granulomas in mice infected with the Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain. Infect Immun 76(4):1379-89. [PubMed: 18227174]  [MGI Ref ID J:133531]

Bonnet M; Huang F; Benoukraf T; Cabaud O; Verthuy C; Boucher A; Jaeger S; Ferrier P; Spicuglia S. 2009. Duality of enhancer functioning mode revealed in a reduced TCR beta gene enhancer knockin mouse model. J Immunol 183(12):7939-48. [PubMed: 19923469]  [MGI Ref ID J:157494]

Bonorino C; Nardi NB; Zhang X; Wysocki LJ. 1998. Characteristics of the strong antibody response to mycobacterial Hsp70: a primary, T cell-dependent IgG response with no evidence of natural priming or gamma delta T cell involvement. J Immunol 161(10):5210-6. [PubMed: 9820492]  [MGI Ref ID J:115026]

Borchers MT; Crosby J; Justice P; Farmer S; Hines E; Lee JJ; Lee NA. 2001. Intrinsic AHR in IL-5 transgenic mice is dependent on CD4(+) cells and CD49d-mediated signaling. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 281(3):L653-9. [PubMed: 11504693]  [MGI Ref ID J:132284]

Borchers MT; Wesselkamper SC; Eppert BL; Motz GT; Sartor MA; Tomlinson CR; Medvedovic M; Tichelaar JW. 2008. Nonredundant functions of alphabeta and gammadelta T cells in acrolein-induced pulmonary pathology. Toxicol Sci 105(1):188-99. [PubMed: 18515264]  [MGI Ref ID J:139766]

Bortnick A; Chernova I; Quinn WJ 3rd; Mugnier M; Cancro MP; Allman D. 2012. Long-lived bone marrow plasma cells are induced early in response to T cell-independent or T cell-dependent antigens. J Immunol 188(11):5389-96. [PubMed: 22529295]  [MGI Ref ID J:188747]

Bry L; Brenner MB. 2004. Critical role of T cell-dependent serum antibody, but not the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, for surviving acute mucosal infection with Citrobacter rodentium, an attaching and effacing pathogen. J Immunol 172(1):433-41. [PubMed: 14688352]  [MGI Ref ID J:87077]

Buchanan RM; Arulanandam BP; Metzger DW. 1998. IL-12 enhances antibody responses to T-independent polysaccharide vaccines in the absence of T and NK cells. J Immunol 161(10):5525-33. [PubMed: 9820529]  [MGI Ref ID J:115023]

Burns AM; Chong AS. 2011. Alloantibodies prevent the induction of transplantation tolerance by enhancing alloreactive T cell priming. J Immunol 186(1):214-21. [PubMed: 21135169]  [MGI Ref ID J:168797]

Byeseda SE; Burns AR; Dieffenbaugher S; Rumbaut RE; Smith CW; Li Z. 2009. ICAM-1 is necessary for epithelial recruitment of gammadelta T cells and efficient corneal wound healing. Am J Pathol 175(2):571-9. [PubMed: 19608878]  [MGI Ref ID J:150953]

Caccamo N; Sireci G; Meraviglia S; Dieli F; Ivanyi J; Salerno A. 2006. gammadelta T cells condition dendritic cells in vivo for priming pulmonary CD8 T cell responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Eur J Immunol 36(10):2681-90. [PubMed: 16981183]  [MGI Ref ID J:118094]

Cady CT; Lahn M; Vollmer M; Tsuji M; Seo SJ; Reardon CL; O'Brien RL; Born WK. 2000. Response of murine gamma delta T cells to the synthetic polypeptide poly-Glu50Tyr50. J Immunol 165(4):1790-8. [PubMed: 10925256]  [MGI Ref ID J:120419]

Cai Y; Shen X; Ding C; Qi C; Li K; Li X; Jala VR; Zhang HG; Wang T; Zheng J; Yan J. 2011. Pivotal Role of Dermal IL-17-Producing gammadelta T Cells in Skin Inflammation. Immunity 35(4):596-610. [PubMed: 21982596]  [MGI Ref ID J:177652]

Cao AT; Yao S; Gong B; Elson CO; Cong Y. 2012. Th17 cells upregulate polymeric Ig receptor and intestinal IgA and contribute to intestinal homeostasis. J Immunol 189(9):4666-73. [PubMed: 22993206]  [MGI Ref ID J:190633]

Cardona AE; Teale JM. 2002. gamma/delta T Cell-Deficient Mice Exhibit Reduced Disease Severity and Decreased Inflammatory Response in the Brain in Murine Neurocysticercosis. J Immunol 169(6):3163-71. [PubMed: 12218134]  [MGI Ref ID J:78958]

Cariappa A; Mazo IB; Chase C; Shi HN; Liu H; Li Q; Rose H; Leung H; Cherayil BJ; Russell P; von Andrian U; Pillai S. 2005. Perisinusoidal B cells in the bone marrow participate in T-independent responses to blood-borne microbes. Immunity 23(4):397-407. [PubMed: 16226505]  [MGI Ref ID J:113277]

Cernetich A; Garver LS; Jedlicka AE; Klein PW; Kumar N; Scott AL; Klein SL. 2006. Involvement of gonadal steroids and gamma interferon in sex differences in response to blood-stage malaria infection. Infect Immun 74(6):3190-203. [PubMed: 16714546]  [MGI Ref ID J:109239]

Chan AJ; Alikhan MA; Odobasic D; Gan PY; Khouri MB; Steinmetz OM; Mansell AS; Kitching AR; Holdsworth SR; Summers SA. 2014. Innate IL-17A-Producing Leukocytes Promote Acute Kidney Injury via Inflammasome and Toll-Like Receptor Activation. Am J Pathol 184(5):1411-8. [PubMed: 24631024]  [MGI Ref ID J:208397]

Chang JH; Hu H; Jin J; Puebla-Osorio N; Xiao Y; Gilbert BE; Brink R; Ullrich SE; Sun SC. 2014. TRAF3 regulates the effector function of regulatory T cells and humoral immune responses. J Exp Med 211(1):137-51. [PubMed: 24378539]  [MGI Ref ID J:208351]

Chappell CP; Draves KE; Giltiay NV; Clark EA. 2012. Extrafollicular B cell activation by marginal zone dendritic cells drives T cell-dependent antibody responses. J Exp Med 209(10):1825-40. [PubMed: 22966002]  [MGI Ref ID J:191423]

Chen Y; Chou K; Fuchs E; Havran WL; Boismenu R. 2002. Protection of the intestinal mucosa by intraepithelial gamma delta T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(22):14338-43. [PubMed: 12376619]  [MGI Ref ID J:125077]

Chennupati V; Worbs T; Liu X; Malinarich FH; Schmitz S; Haas JD; Malissen B; Forster R; Prinz I. 2010. Intra- and intercompartmental movement of gammadelta T cells: intestinal intraepithelial and peripheral gammadelta T cells represent exclusive nonoverlapping populations with distinct migration characteristics. J Immunol 185(9):5160-8. [PubMed: 20870939]  [MGI Ref ID J:165201]

Cho JS; Pietras EM; Garcia NC; Ramos RI; Farzam DM; Monroe HR; Magorien JE; Blauvelt A; Kolls JK; Cheung AL; Cheng G; Modlin RL; Miller LS. 2010. IL-17 is essential for host defense against cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice. J Clin Invest 120(5):1762-73. [PubMed: 20364087]  [MGI Ref ID J:161481]

Chodaczek G; Papanna V; Zal MA; Zal T. 2012. Body-barrier surveillance by epidermal gammadelta TCRs. Nat Immunol 13(3):272-82. [PubMed: 22327568]  [MGI Ref ID J:181476]

Chung CS; Watkins L; Funches A; Lomas-Neira J; Cioffi WG; Ayala A. 2006. Deficiency of gammadelta T lymphocytes contributes to mortality and immunosuppression in sepsis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 291(5):R1338-43. [PubMed: 16793935]  [MGI Ref ID J:144693]

Cong Y; Feng T; Fujihashi K; Schoeb TR; Elson CO. 2009. A dominant, coordinated T regulatory cell-IgA response to the intestinal microbiota. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(46):19256-61. [PubMed: 19889972]  [MGI Ref ID J:154759]

Conlon TM; Saeb-Parsy K; Cole JL; Motallebzadeh R; Qureshi MS; Rehakova S; Negus MC; Callaghan CJ; Bolton EM; Bradley JA; Pettigrew GJ. 2012. Germinal center alloantibody responses are mediated exclusively by indirect-pathway CD4 T follicular helper cells. J Immunol 188(6):2643-52. [PubMed: 22323543]  [MGI Ref ID J:181855]

Conti HR; Shen F; Nayyar N; Stocum E; Sun JN; Lindemann MJ; Ho AW; Hai JH; Yu JJ; Jung JW; Filler SG; Masso-Welch P; Edgerton M; Gaffen SL. 2009. Th17 cells and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for mucosal host defense against oral candidiasis. J Exp Med 206(2):299-311. [PubMed: 19204111]  [MGI Ref ID J:146451]

Corthay A; Johansson A; Vestberg M; Holmdahl R. 1999. Collagen-induced arthritis development requires alpha beta T cells but not gamma delta T cells: studies with T cell-deficient (TCR mutant) mice. Int Immunol 11(7):1065-73. [PubMed: 10383939]  [MGI Ref ID J:56725]

Cox MA; Barnum SR; Bullard DC; Zajac AJ. 2013. ICAM-1-dependent tuning of memory CD8 T-cell responses following acute infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(4):1416-21. [PubMed: 23297203]  [MGI Ref ID J:193714]

Crosby JR; Cieslewicz G; Borchers M; Hines E; Carrigan P; Lee JJ; Lee NA. 2002. Early phase bronchoconstriction in the mouse requires allergen-specific IgG. J Immunol 168(8):4050-4. [PubMed: 11937563]  [MGI Ref ID J:125656]

Crosby JR; Shen HH; Borchers MT; Justice JP; Ansay T; Lee JJ; Lee NA. 2002. Ectopic expression of IL-5 identifies an additional CD4(+) T cell mechanism of airway eosinophil recruitment. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 282(1):L99-108. [PubMed: 11741821]  [MGI Ref ID J:107840]

Crowe CR; Chen K; Pociask DA; Alcorn JF; Krivich C; Enelow RI; Ross TM; Witztum JL; Kolls JK. 2009. Critical role of IL-17RA in immunopathology of influenza infection. J Immunol 183(8):5301-10. [PubMed: 19783685]  [MGI Ref ID J:153826]

Cuda CM; Zeumer L; Sobel ES; Croker BP; Morel L. 2010. Murine lupus susceptibility locus Sle1a requires the expression of two sub-loci to induce inflammatory T cells. Genes Immun 11(7):542-53. [PubMed: 20445563]  [MGI Ref ID J:186900]

Do JS; Min B. 2009. IL-15 produced and trans-presented by DCs underlies homeostatic competition between CD8 and {gamma}{delta} T cells in vivo. Blood 113(25):6361-71. [PubMed: 19380870]  [MGI Ref ID J:150154]

Do JS; Valujskikh A; Vignali DA; Fairchild RL; Min B. 2012. Unexpected role for MHC II-peptide complexes in shaping CD8 T-cell expansion and differentiation in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(31):12698-703. [PubMed: 22802622]  [MGI Ref ID J:188517]

Dohi T; Fujihashi K; Koga T; Etani Y; Yoshino N; Kawamura YI; McGhee JR. 2004. CD4+CD45RBHi interleukin-4 defective T cells elicit antral gastritis and duodenitis. Am J Pathol 165(4):1257-68. [PubMed: 15466391]  [MGI Ref ID J:93676]

Dohi T; Fujihashi K; Koga T; Shirai Y; Kawamura YI; Ejima C; Kato R; Saitoh K; McGhee JR. 2003. T helper type-2 cells induce ileal villus atrophy, goblet cell metaplasia, and wasting disease in T cell-deficient mice. Gastroenterology 124(3):672-82. [PubMed: 12612906]  [MGI Ref ID J:82106]

Dubin PJ; Martz A; Eisenstatt JR; Fox MD; Logar A; Kolls JK. 2012. Interleukin-23-Mediated Inflammation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pulmonary Infection. Infect Immun 80(1):398-409. [PubMed: 22025517]  [MGI Ref ID J:178958]

Edelblum KL; Shen L; Weber CR; Marchiando AM; Clay BS; Wang Y; Prinz I; Malissen B; Sperling AI; Turner JR. 2012. Dynamic migration of gammadelta intraepithelial lymphocytes requires occludin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(18):7097-102. [PubMed: 22511722]  [MGI Ref ID J:183907]

Egan CE; Dalton JE; Andrew EM; Smith JE; Gubbels MJ; Striepen B; Carding SR. 2005. A requirement for the Vgamma1+ subset of peripheral gammadelta T cells in the control of the systemic growth of Toxoplasma gondii and infection-induced pathology. J Immunol 175(12):8191-9. [PubMed: 16339558]  [MGI Ref ID J:122276]

Elhage R; Gourdy P; Brouchet L; Jawien J; Fouque MJ; Fievet C; Huc X; Barreira Y; Couloumiers JC; Arnal JF; Bayard F. 2004. Deleting TCR alpha beta+ or CD4+ T lymphocytes leads to opposite effects on site-specific atherosclerosis in female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Am J Pathol 165(6):2013-8. [PubMed: 15579444]  [MGI Ref ID J:94976]

Emoto M; Nishimura H; Sakai T; Hiromatsu K; Gomi H; Itohara S; Yoshikai Y. 1995. Mice deficient in gamma delta T cells are resistant to lethal infection with Salmonella choleraesuis. Infect Immun 63(9):3736-8. [PubMed: 7642318]  [MGI Ref ID J:111169]

Endres R; Alimzhanov MB; Plitz T; Futterer A; Kosco-Vilbois MH; Nedospasov SA; Rajewsky K; Pfeffer K. 1999. Mature follicular dendritic cell networks depend on expression of lymphotoxin beta receptor by radioresistant stromal cells and of lymphotoxin beta and tumor necrosis factor by B cells. J Exp Med 189(1):159-68. [PubMed: 9874572]  [MGI Ref ID J:119173]

Endt K; Stecher B; Chaffron S; Slack E; Tchitchek N; Benecke A; Van Maele L; Sirard JC; Mueller AJ; Heikenwalder M; Macpherson AJ; Strugnell R; von Mering C; Hardt WD. 2010. The microbiota mediates pathogen clearance from the gut lumen after non-typhoidal Salmonella diarrhea. PLoS Pathog 6(9):. [PubMed: 20844578]  [MGI Ref ID J:167923]

Enzler T; Bonizzi G; Silverman GJ; Otero DC; Widhopf GF; Anzelon-Mills A; Rickert RC; Karin M. 2006. Alternative and classical NF-kappa B signaling retain autoreactive B cells in the splenic marginal zone and result in lupus-like disease. Immunity 25(3):403-15. [PubMed: 16973390]  [MGI Ref ID J:113556]

Felices M; Yin CC; Kosaka Y; Kang J; Berg LJ. 2009. Tec kinase Itk in gammadeltaT cells is pivotal for controlling IgE production in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(20):8308-13. [PubMed: 19416854]  [MGI Ref ID J:148531]

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Uezu K; Kawakami K; Miyagi K; Kinjo Y; Kinjo T; Ishikawa H; Saito A. 2004. Accumulation of gammadelta T cells in the lungs and their regulatory roles in Th1 response and host defense against pulmonary infection with Cryptococcus neoformans. J Immunol 172(12):7629-34. [PubMed: 15187143]  [MGI Ref ID J:90820]

Van de Keere F; Tonegawa S. 1998. CD4(+) T cells prevent spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in anti-myelin basic protein T cell receptor transgenic mice. J Exp Med 188(10):1875-82. [PubMed: 9815265]  [MGI Ref ID J:115028]

VanCott JL; McNeal MM; Flint J; Bailey SA; Choi AH; Ward RL. 2001. Role for T cell-independent B cell activity in the resolution of primary rotavirus infection in mice. Eur J Immunol 31(11):3380-7. [PubMed: 11745356]  [MGI Ref ID J:72616]

VanLith ML; Kohlgraf KG; Sivinski CL; Tempero RM; Hollingsworth MA. 2002. MUC1-specific anti-tumor responses: molecular requirements for CD4-mediated responses. Int Immunol 14(8):873-82. [PubMed: 12147624]  [MGI Ref ID J:113544]

Veinotte LL; Greenwood CP; Mohammadi N; Parachoniak CA; Takei F. 2006. Expression of rearranged TCRgamma genes in natural killer cells suggests a minor thymus-dependent pathway of lineage commitment. Blood 107(7):2673-9. [PubMed: 16317098]  [MGI Ref ID J:131242]

Veinotte LL; Halim TY; Takei F. 2008. Unique subset of natural killer cells develops from progenitors in lymph node. Blood 111(8):4201-8. [PubMed: 18227350]  [MGI Ref ID J:134359]

Venet F; Chung CS; Huang X; Lomas-Neira J; Chen Y; Ayala A. 2009. Lymphocytes in the development of lung inflammation: a role for regulatory CD4+ T cells in indirect pulmonary lung injury. J Immunol 183(5):3472-80. [PubMed: 19641139]  [MGI Ref ID J:151875]

Victoratos P; Kollias G. 2009. Induction of autoantibody-mediated spontaneous arthritis critically depends on follicular dendritic cells. Immunity 30(1):130-42. [PubMed: 19119026]  [MGI Ref ID J:143728]

Waggoner SN; Cornberg M; Selin LK; Welsh RM. 2012. Natural killer cells act as rheostats modulating antiviral T cells. Nature 481(7381):394-8. [PubMed: 22101430]  [MGI Ref ID J:180370]

Walker CR; Hautefort I; Dalton JE; Overweg K; Egan CE; Bongaerts RJ; Newton DJ; Cruickshank SM; Andrew EM; Carding SR. 2013. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte-enterocyte crosstalk regulates production of bactericidal angiogenin 4 by Paneth cells upon microbial challenge. PLoS One 8(12):e84553. [PubMed: 24358364]  [MGI Ref ID J:209854]

Wang T; Gao Y; Scully E; Davis CT; Anderson JF; Welte T; Ledizet M; Koski R; Madri JA; Barrett A; Yin Z; Craft J; Fikrig E. 2006. Gamma delta T cells facilitate adaptive immunity against West Nile virus infection in mice. J Immunol 177(3):1825-32. [PubMed: 16849493]  [MGI Ref ID J:138027]

Warfield KL; Olinger G; Deal EM; Swenson DL; Bailey M; Negley DL; Hart MK; Bavari S. 2005. Induction of humoral and CD8+ T cell responses are required for protection against lethal Ebola virus infection. J Immunol 175(2):1184-91. [PubMed: 16002721]  [MGI Ref ID J:100701]

Weidanz WP; Kemp JR; Batchelder JM; Cigel FK; Sandor M; Heyde HC. 1999. Plasticity of immune responses suppressing parasitemia during acute Plasmodium chabaudi malaria. J Immunol 162(12):7383-8. [PubMed: 10358190]  [MGI Ref ID J:119884]

Weitkamp JH; Rosen MJ; Zhao Z; Koyama T; Geem D; Denning TL; Rock MT; Moore DJ; Halpern MD; Matta P; Denning PW. 2014. Small intestinal intraepithelial TCRgammadelta+ T lymphocytes are present in the premature intestine but selectively reduced in surgical necrotizing enterocolitis. PLoS One 9(6):e99042. [PubMed: 24905458]  [MGI Ref ID J:217329]

Wilbert OM; Weber-Arden J; Kabelitz D; Arden B. 1997. TCR-delta gene rearrangement and selection during fetal thymocyte development. J Immunol 159(7):3338-46. [PubMed: 9317132]  [MGI Ref ID J:43089]

Witherden DA; Verdino P; Rieder SE; Garijo O; Mills RE; Teyton L; Fischer WH; Wilson IA; Havran WL. 2010. The junctional adhesion molecule JAML is a costimulatory receptor for epithelial gammadelta T cell activation. Science 329(5996):1205-10. [PubMed: 20813954]  [MGI Ref ID J:163519]

Wohler JE; Smith SS; Zinn KR; Bullard DC; Barnum SR. 2009. Gammadelta T cells in EAE: early trafficking events and cytokine requirements. Eur J Immunol 39(6):1516-26. [PubMed: 19384874]  [MGI Ref ID J:149481]

Wolfe DN; Karanikas AT; Hester SE; Kennett MJ; Harvill ET. 2010. IL-10 induction by Bordetella parapertussis limits a protective IFN-gamma response. J Immunol 184(3):1392-400. [PubMed: 20042578]  [MGI Ref ID J:159527]

Woodward AL; Spergel JM; Alenius H; Mizoguchi E; Bhan AK; Castigli E; Brodeur SR; Oettgen HC; Geha RS. 2001. An obligate role for T-cell receptor alphabeta+ T cells but not T-cell receptor gammadelta+ T cells, B cells, or CD40/CD40L interactions in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107(2):359-66. [PubMed: 11174205]  [MGI Ref ID J:106314]

Wu ZQ; Vos Q; Shen Y; Lees A; Wilson SR; Briles DE; Gause WC; Mond JJ; Snapper CM. 1999. In vivo polysaccharide-specific IgG isotype responses to intact Streptococcus pneumoniae are T cell dependent and require CD40- and B7-ligand interactions. J Immunol 163(2):659-67. [PubMed: 10395655]  [MGI Ref ID J:119892]

Xia M; Qi Q; Jin Y; Wiest DL; August A; Xiong N. 2010. Differential roles of IL-2-inducible T cell kinase-mediated TCR signals in tissue-specific localization and maintenance of skin intraepithelial T cells. J Immunol 184(12):6807-14. [PubMed: 20483745]  [MGI Ref ID J:161148]

Xiong N; Kang C; Raulet DH. 2002. Redundant and unique roles of two enhancer elements in the TCRgamma locus in gene regulation and gammadelta T cell development. Immunity 16(3):453-63. [PubMed: 11911829]  [MGI Ref ID J:75624]

Xiong N; Zhang L; Kang C; Raulet DH. 2008. Gene placement and competition control T cell receptor gamma variable region gene rearrangement. J Exp Med 205(4):929-38. [PubMed: 18378791]  [MGI Ref ID J:133974]

Yager EJ; Ahmed M; Lanzer K; Randall TD; Woodland DL; Blackman MA. 2008. Age-associated decline in T cell repertoire diversity leads to holes in the repertoire and impaired immunity to influenza virus. J Exp Med 205(3):711-23. [PubMed: 18332179]  [MGI Ref ID J:133102]

Yamazaki K; Shimada S; Kato-Nagaoka N; Soga H; Itoh T; Nanno M. 2005. Accumulation of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in association with lack of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor. Eur J Immunol 35(4):1211-9. [PubMed: 15770700]  [MGI Ref ID J:97824]

Yang H; Antony PA; Wildhaber BE; Teitelbaum DH. 2004. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte gamma delta-T cell-derived keratinocyte growth factor modulates epithelial growth in the mouse. J Immunol 172(7):4151-8. [PubMed: 15034027]  [MGI Ref ID J:88716]

Yang X; Hayglass KT; Brunham RC. 1998. Different roles are played by alpha beta and gamma delta T cells in acquired immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis pulmonary infection. Immunology 94(4):469-75. [PubMed: 9767433]  [MGI Ref ID J:49498]

Yang Y; Ghosn EE; Cole LE; Obukhanych TV; Sadate-Ngatchou P; Vogel SN; Herzenberg LA; Herzenberg LA. 2012. Antigen-specific antibody responses in B-1a and their relationship to natural immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(14):5382-7. [PubMed: 22421134]  [MGI Ref ID J:182664]

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Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

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Production of mice from cryopreserved embryos or sperm occurs in a maximum barrier room, G200.

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Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls

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Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $3435.00
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing


Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $4465.50
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

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Terms are granted by individual review and stated on the customer invoice(s) and account statement. These transactions are payable in U.S. currency within the granted terms. Payment for services, products, shipping containers, and shipping costs that are rendered are expected within the payment terms indicated on the invoice or stated by contract. Invoices and account balances in arrears of stated terms may result in The Jackson Laboratory pursuing collection activities including but not limited to outside agencies and court filings.

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The Jackson Laboratory's Genotype Promise

The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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- Use of MICE by companies or for-profit entities requires a license prior to shipping.

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JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use

"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCTS" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or services provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than the internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE or PRODUCTS from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON's prior written authorization.

No Warranty


In case of dissatisfaction for a valid reason and claimed in writing by a purchaser within ninety (90) days of receipt of mice, products or services, JACKSON will, at its option, provide credit or replacement for the mice or product received or the services provided.

No Liability

In no event shall JACKSON, its trustees, directors, officers, employees, and affiliates be liable for any causes of action or damages, including any direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages, arising out of the provision of MICE, PRODUCTS or services, including economic damage or injury to property and lost profits, and including any damage arising from acts or negligence on the part of JACKSON, its agents or employees. Unless prohibited by law, in purchasing or receiving MICE, PRODUCTS or services from JACKSON, purchaser or recipient, or any party claiming by or through them, expressly releases and discharges JACKSON from all such causes of action or damages, and further agrees to defend and indemnify JACKSON from any costs or damages arising out of any third party claims.

MICE and PRODUCTS are to be used in a safe manner and in accordance with all applicable governmental rules and regulations.

The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or services. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS or services may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and services by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.

Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or services shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or services by JACKSON.