Strain Name:

SW.Cg-Tg(MtTGFA)42Lmb/J

Stock Number:

003722

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Description

The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Strain Information

Type Congenic; Mutant Strain; Transgenic;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Additional information on Congenic nomenclature.
Specieslaboratory mouse
 
Donating Investigator IMR Colony,   The Jackson Laboratory

Description
In the STOCK TgN(MtTGFA)42Lmb line, liver lesions develop in a progressive fashion, with neoplasia confirmed at autopsy (average age 13 months). Pancreas showed progressive hyperplasia of the stroma, tubular structures and ductular metaplasia, with penetrance of 100%. Unlike mice from the FVB/N-TgN(MtTGFA)100Lmb line, STOCK TgN(MtTGFA)42Lmb mice do not develop mammary tumors.

In an attempt to offer alleles on well-characterized or multiple genetic backgrounds, alleles are frequently moved to a genetic background different from that on which an allele was first characterized. This is the case for the strain above. It should be noted that the phenotype could vary from that originally described. We will modify the strain description if necessary as published results become available.

Control Information

  Control
   Noncarrier
   000689 SWR/J (approximate)
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Related Strains

Strains carrying   Tg(MtTGFA)42Lmb allele
002422   STOCK Tg(MtTGFA)42Lmb/J
View Strains carrying   Tg(MtTGFA)42Lmb     (1 strain)

View Strains carrying other alleles of Mt1     (15 strains)

Strains carrying other alleles of TGFA
002459   B6D2-Tg(MMTVTGFA)254Rjc/J
002373   B6D2-Tg(MMTVTGFA)29Rjc/J
002953   FVB.Cg-Tg(MMTVTGFA)254Rjc/J
002421   FVB/N-Tg(MtTGFA)100Lmb/J
View Strains carrying other alleles of TGFA     (4 strains)

Phenotype

Phenotype Information

View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

The following phenotype information may relate to a genetic background differing from this JAX® Mice strain.

Tg(MtTGFA)42Lmb/0

        involves: C57BL/6 * CD-1
  • tumorigenesis
  • increased liver tumor incidence
    • mice develop liver tumors at the same frequency as on a CD-1 background   (MGI Ref ID J:2578)

Tg(MtTGFA)42Lmb/0

        involves: CD-1 * FVB/N
  • tumorigenesis
  • increased liver tumor incidence
    • mice develop fewer liver tumors than on a CD-1 or C57BL/6 and CD-1 background   (MGI Ref ID J:2578)

Tg(MtTGFA)42Lmb/0

        involves: CD-1
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • abnormal noradrenaline level
    • noradrenaline levels in the hypothalamus are elevated in female mice compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:127695)
  • abnormal serotonin level
    • serotonine levels in the cortex and brain are elevated in female mice compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:127695)
    • the ratio of 5-HIAA and 5-HT (indicating serotonine turn over) is reduced in the male brain stem and the female frontal cortex compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:127695)

Tg(MtTGFA)42Lmb/Tg(MtTGFA)42Lmb

        involves: CD-1
  • endocrine/exocrine gland phenotype
  • abnormal mammary gland development
    • at 6 weeks of age, zinc treated females exhibit a delay in epithelium penetration into the mesenchymal fat pad compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
    • at 7 weeks of age, active epithelial cells are located in the subtending duct as well as the end bud region compared to wild-type mice in which active cells are only located in the end bud region   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
    • however, by week 12 mammary development is normal   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
  • abnormal pancreas morphology
    • the pancreas shows progressive hyperplasia of the stroma, tubular structures, and florid ductular metaplasia   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
    • pancreas fibrosis
      • exposure to zinc increases severity of lesions   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
      • older mice exhibit severe perilobular and intralobular fibrosis   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
      • pancreatic fibrosis is less severe in zinc restricted mice   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
  • liver/biliary system phenotype
  • abnormal liver morphology
    • mice exhibit progressive liver lesions that begin after 2 months of age with karyomegaly and cytomegaly of hepatocytes   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
    • at 7 to 8 months of age, mice exhibit foci's heterogeneity of cell size and cellular dysplasia in the liver   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
    • mice exhibit single to multiple foci liver nodules of 0.5 cm in diameter or greater   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
    • liver lesions develop in a progressive fashion, with neoplasia confirmed at autopsy   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
    • abnormal hepatocyte morphology
      • after 2 months, mice exhibit foci of hepatocytes that exhibit karyomegaly and cytomegaly   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
    • enlarged liver
      • in severe cases mice exhibit enlarged livers due to the presence of nodular masses   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
  • renal/urinary system phenotype
  • abnormal glomerular mesangium morphology
    • mice supplemented with zinc exhibit increased mesangial compartments due to increased mesangial cell numbers and space compared to similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:20315)
    • expanded mesangial matrix
      • in mice supplemented with zinc   (MGI Ref ID J:20315)
    • mesangial cell hyperplasia
      • in mice supplemented with zinc   (MGI Ref ID J:20315)
  • increased kidney weight
    • in female mice supplemented with zinc compared to similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:20315)
  • kidney cysts
    • female mice supplemented with zinc exhibit renal cysts of distal tubule origins unlike in similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:20315)
    • renal cysts in female mice supplemented with zinc are frequently associated with fibrosis   (MGI Ref ID J:20315)
    • occasionally cysts are of proximal tubular origins   (MGI Ref ID J:20315)
    • some male mice supplemented with zinc exhibit renal cysts   (MGI Ref ID J:20315)
  • renal fibrosis
    • renal cysts in female mice supplemented with zinc are frequently associated with fibrosis   (MGI Ref ID J:20315)
  • renal glomerulus hypertrophy
    • mice supplemented with zinc exhibit enlarged glomeruli compared to similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:20315)
  • tumorigenesis
  • increased hepatocellular carcinoma incidence
    • mice exhibit heptatocellular carcinomas that are none metastatic   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
    • exposure to zinc increases severity of lesions   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
  • growth/size/body phenotype
  • increased body weight
    • in mice supplemented with zinc compared to similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:20315)
  • immune system phenotype
  • *normal* immune system phenotype
    • mice are not diabetic and have no obvious inflammatory reaction   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
  • integument phenotype
  • abnormal mammary gland development
    • at 6 weeks of age, zinc treated females exhibit a delay in epithelium penetration into the mesenchymal fat pad compared to wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
    • at 7 weeks of age, active epithelial cells are located in the subtending duct as well as the end bud region compared to wild-type mice in which active cells are only located in the end bud region   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
    • however, by week 12 mammary development is normal   (MGI Ref ID J:28452)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Cancer Research
Increased Tumor Incidence
      Hepatomas
      Hepatomas: hepatacellular carcinoma

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

 
Allele Symbol Tg(MtTGFA)42Lmb
Allele Name transgene insertion 42, Glenn Merlino
Allele Type Transgenic (random, expressed)
Common Name(s) MT-TGF-alpha; MT/TGF-alpha line MT42; MT42; TGF-alpha; Tg(Mt1-TGFA)42Lmb; line MT42;
Mutation Made ByDr. Glenn Merlino,   National Institutes of Health
Strain of OriginCD-1
Expressed Gene TGFA, transforming growth factor, alpha, human
Promoter Mt1, metallothionein 1, mouse, laboratory
Molecular Note This transgene contains the inducible mouse Mt1 (metallothionein) promoter, cDNA of the wild-type allele of the human TGFA (transforming growth factor alpha) gene, and a human growth hormone polyadenylation signal. Line 100, carrying 10 copies of the transgene was also produced (see Tg(MtTGFA)100Lmb). [MGI Ref ID J:28452]
 
 

Genotyping

Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

Tg(MtTGFA), Standard PCR


Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting

References

References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Jhappan C; Stahle C; Harkins RN; Fausto N; Smith GH; Merlino GT. 1990. TGF alpha overexpression in transgenic mice induces liver neoplasia and abnormal development of the mammary gland and pancreas. Cell 61(6):1137-46. [PubMed: 2350785]  [MGI Ref ID J:28452]

Additional References

Bardeesy N; Morgan J; Sinha M; Signoretti S; Srivastava S; Loda M; Merlino G; DePinho RA. 2002. Obligate roles for p16(Ink4a) and p19(Arf)-p53 in the suppression of murine pancreatic neoplasia. Mol Cell Biol 22(2):635-43. [PubMed: 11756558]  [MGI Ref ID J:73973]

Calvisi DF; Factor VM; Loi R; Thorgeirsson SS. 2001. Activation of beta-catenin during hepatocarcinogenesis in transgenic mouse models: relationship to phenotype and tumor grade. Cancer Res 61(5):2085-91. [PubMed: 11280770]  [MGI Ref ID J:68485]

Conner EA; Lemmer ER; Omori M; Wirth PJ; Factor VM; Thorgeirsson SS. 2000. Dual functions of E2F-1 in a transgenic mouse model of liver carcinogenesis Oncogene 19(44):5054-62. [PubMed: 11042693]  [MGI Ref ID J:65354]

Hironaka K; Factor VM; Calvisi DF; Conner EA; Thorgeirsson SS. 2003. Dysregulation of DNA Repair Pathways in a Transforming Growth Factor alpha/c-myc Transgenic Mouse Model of Accelerated Hepatocarcinogenesis. Lab Invest 83(5):643-54. [PubMed: 12746474]  [MGI Ref ID J:83492]

Kakizaki S; Takagi H; Fukusato T; Toyoda M; Horiguchi N; Sato K; Takayama H; Nagamine T; Mori M. 2001. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on hepatocarcinogenesis in transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) transgenic mice treated with diethylnitrosamine. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 71(5):261-7. [PubMed: 11725690]  [MGI Ref ID J:72993]

Matsumoto T; Takagi H; Mori M. 2000. Androgen dependency of hepatocarcinogenesis in TGFalpha transgenic mice Liver 20(3):228-33. [PubMed: 10902973]  [MGI Ref ID J:63573]

Tg(MtTGFA)42Lmb related

Bockman DE; Merlino G. 1992. Cytological changes in the pancreas of transgenic mice overexpressing transforming growth factor alpha. Gastroenterology 103(6):1883-92. [PubMed: 1451981]  [MGI Ref ID J:80653]

Booth BW; Jhappan C; Merlino G; Smith GH. 2007. TGFbeta1 and TGFalpha contrarily affect alveolar survival and tumorigenesis in mouse mammary epithelium. Int J Cancer 120(3):493-9. [PubMed: 17096338]  [MGI Ref ID J:117812]

Calvisi DF; Factor VM; Ladu S; Conner EA; Thorgeirsson SS. 2004. Disruption of beta-catenin pathway or genomic instability define two distinct categories of liver cancer in transgenic mice. Gastroenterology 126(5):1374-86. [PubMed: 15131798]  [MGI Ref ID J:90164]

Calvisi DF; Factor VM; Loi R; Thorgeirsson SS. 2001. Activation of beta-catenin during hepatocarcinogenesis in transgenic mouse models: relationship to phenotype and tumor grade. Cancer Res 61(5):2085-91. [PubMed: 11280770]  [MGI Ref ID J:68485]

Calvisi DF; Ladu S; Conner EA; Factor VM; Thorgeirsson SS. 2004. Disregulation of E-cadherin in transgenic mouse models of liver cancer. Lab Invest 84(9):1137-47. [PubMed: 15220935]  [MGI Ref ID J:91632]

Calvisi DF; Thorgeirsson SS. 2005. Molecular mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis in transgenic mouse models of liver cancer. Toxicol Pathol 33(1):181-4. [PubMed: 15805070]  [MGI Ref ID J:98665]

Durkin ME; Keck-Waggoner CL; Popescu NC; Thorgeirsson SS. 2001. Integration of a c-myc Transgene Results in Disruption of the Mouse Gtf2ird1 Gene, the Homologue of the Human GTF2IRD1 Gene Hemizygously Deleted in Williams-Beuren Syndrome. Genomics 73(1):20-7. [PubMed: 11352562]  [MGI Ref ID J:68983]

Gattone VH 2nd; Kuenstler KA; Lindemann GW; Lu X; Cowley BD Jr; Rankin CA; Calvet JP. 1996. Renal expression of a transforming growth factor-alpha transgene accelerates the progression of inherited, slowly progressive polycystic kidney disease in the mouse. J Lab Clin Med 127(2):214-22. [PubMed: 8636651]  [MGI Ref ID J:129264]

Griffitts J; Tesiram Y; Reid GE; Saunders D; Floyd RA; Towner RA. 2009. In vivo MRS assessment of altered fatty acyl unsaturation in liver tumor formation of a TGF alpha/c-myc transgenic mouse model. J Lipid Res 50(4):611-22. [PubMed: 19065002]  [MGI Ref ID J:149269]

Hilakivi-Clarke LA; Corduban TD; Taira T; Hitri A; Deutsch S; Korpi ER; Goldberg R; Kellar KJ. 1995. Alterations in brain monoamines and GABAA receptors in transgenic mice overexpressing TGF alpha. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 50(4):593-600. [PubMed: 7617706]  [MGI Ref ID J:127695]

Hironaka K; Factor VM; Calvisi DF; Conner EA; Thorgeirsson SS. 2003. Dysregulation of DNA Repair Pathways in a Transforming Growth Factor alpha/c-myc Transgenic Mouse Model of Accelerated Hepatocarcinogenesis. Lab Invest 83(5):643-54. [PubMed: 12746474]  [MGI Ref ID J:83492]

Iakova P; Timchenko L; Timchenko NA. 2011. Intracellular signaling and hepatocellular carcinoma. Semin Cancer Biol 21(1):28-34. [PubMed: 20850540]  [MGI Ref ID J:170790]

Jhappan C; Takayama H; Dickson RB; Merlino G. 1994. Transgenic mice provide genetic evidence that transforming growth factor alpha promotes skin tumorigenesis via H-ras-dependent and H-ras-independent pathways. Cell Growth Differ 5(4):385-94. [PubMed: 8043512]  [MGI Ref ID J:81426]

Kakizaki S; Takagi H; Fukusato T; Toyoda M; Horiguchi N; Sato K; Takayama H; Nagamine T; Mori M. 2001. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on hepatocarcinogenesis in transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) transgenic mice treated with diethylnitrosamine. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 71(5):261-7. [PubMed: 11725690]  [MGI Ref ID J:72993]

Lowden DA; Lindemann GW; Merlino G; Barash BD; Calvet JP; Gattone VH 2nd. 1994. Renal cysts in transgenic mice expressing transforming growth factor-alpha [see comments] J Lab Clin Med 124(3):386-94. [PubMed: 8083581]  [MGI Ref ID J:20315]

Matsumoto T; Takagi H; Mori M. 2000. Androgen dependency of hepatocarcinogenesis in TGFalpha transgenic mice Liver 20(3):228-33. [PubMed: 10902973]  [MGI Ref ID J:63573]

Murakami H; Sanderson ND; Nagy P; Marino PA; Merlino G; Thorgeirsson SS. 1993. Transgenic mouse model for synergistic effects of nuclear oncogenes and growth factors in tumorigenesis: interaction of c-myc and transforming growth factor alpha in hepatic oncogenesis. Cancer Res 53(8):1719-23. [PubMed: 8467484]  [MGI Ref ID J:4527]

Novoselov SV; Calvisi DF; Labunskyy VM; Factor VM; Carlson BA; Fomenko DE; Moustafa ME; Hatfield DL; Gladyshev VN. 2005. Selenoprotein deficiency and high levels of selenium compounds can effectively inhibit hepatocarcinogenesis in transgenic mice. Oncogene 24(54):8003-11. [PubMed: 16170372]  [MGI Ref ID J:104079]

Puatanachokchai R; Kakuni M; Wanibuchi H; Kinoshita A; Kang JS; Salim EI; Morimura K; Tamano S; Merlino GT; Fukushima S. 2006. Lack of promoting effects of phenobarbital at low dose on diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in TGF-alpha transgenic mice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 7(2):274-8. [PubMed: 16839222]  [MGI Ref ID J:115804]

Santoni-Rugiu E; Jensen MR; Factor VM; Thorgeirsson SS. 1999. Acceleration of c-myc-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by Co-expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha in transgenic mice is associated with TGF-beta1 signaling disruption. Am J Pathol 154(6):1693-700. [PubMed: 10362794]  [MGI Ref ID J:55747]

Santoni-Rugiu E; Jensen MR; Thorgeirsson SS. 1998. Disruption of the pRb/E2F pathway and inhibition of apoptosis are major oncogenic events in liver constitutively expressing c-myc and transforming growth factor alpha. Cancer Res 58(1):123-34. [PubMed: 9426068]  [MGI Ref ID J:45016]

Santoni-Rugiu E; Nagy P; Jensen MR; Factor VM; Thorgeirsson SS. 1996. Evolution of neoplastic development in the liver of transgenic mice co-expressing c-myc and transforming growth factor-alpha. Am J Pathol 149(2):407-28. [PubMed: 8701981]  [MGI Ref ID J:34434]

Sargent LM; Zhou X; Keck CL; Sanderson ND; Zimonjic DB; Popescu NC; Thorgeirsson SS. 1999. Nonrandom cytogenetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma from transgenic mice overexpressing c-Myc and transforming growth factor-alpha in the liver. Am J Pathol 154(4):1047-55. [PubMed: 10233843]  [MGI Ref ID J:79839]

Takagi H; Aida K; Sohara N; Mori M; Merlino G; Negishi M. 1997. Steroid hormone-dependent overexpression of cytochromes P450 2A in liver tumors of TGF alpha transgenic male mice. J Gastroenterol 32(5):708-11. [PubMed: 9350003]  [MGI Ref ID J:44697]

Takagi H; Sharp R; Hammermeister C; Goodrow T; Bradley MO; Fausto N; Merlino G. 1992. Molecular and genetic analysis of liver oncogenesis in transforming growth factor alpha transgenic mice. Cancer Res 52(19):5171-7. [PubMed: 1394122]  [MGI Ref ID J:2578]

Tamano S; Merlino GT; Ward JM. 1994. Rapid development of hepatic tumors in transforming growth factor alpha transgenic mice associated with increased cell proliferation in precancerous hepatocellular lesions initiated by N-nitrosodiethylamine and promoted by phenobarbital. Carcinogenesis 15(9):1791-8. [PubMed: 7923571]  [MGI Ref ID J:20676]

Vail ME; Pierce RH; Fausto N. 2001. Bcl-2 delays and alters hepatic carcinogenesis induced by transforming growth factor alpha. Cancer Res 61(2):594-601. [PubMed: 11212255]  [MGI Ref ID J:67450]

Wang TC; Bonner-Weir S; Oates PS; Chulak M; Simon B; Merlino GT; Schmidt EV; Brand SJ. 1993. Pancreatic gastrin stimulates islet differentiation of transforming growth factor alpha-induced ductular precursor cells. J Clin Invest 92(3):1349-56. [PubMed: 8376589]  [MGI Ref ID J:78615]

Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Production of mice from cryopreserved embryos or sperm occurs in a maximum barrier room, G200.

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls


Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Cryopreserved

Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $3175.00
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.
    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 11 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice
    Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Cryopreserved

Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $4127.50
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.
    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 11 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice
    Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Control Information

  Control
   Noncarrier
   000689 SWR/J (approximate)
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.
 

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