Strain Name:

B6.129S6-Rac2tm1Mddw/J

Stock Number:

004197

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Description

The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Strain Information

Type Congenic; Mutant Strain; Targeted Mutation;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Additional information on Congenic nomenclature.
Specieslaboratory mouse
 
Donating Investigator David A. Williams,   Indiana University

Description
Mice that are homozygous for the targeted mutation are viable, fertile, and normal in size but exhibit phagocytic immunodeficiency. No endogenous gene product (mRNA or protein) was detected by Northern blot analysis, RT-PCR or Western blot analysis. The Rac proteins are a subclass of the Rho family of GTPases, and are involved in actin cytoskeletal organization in cell movement, cell proliferation, kinase signaling pathways, and in superoxide production in phagocytic cells. Neutrophils and mast cells derived from homozygous mice display abnormal actin-based functions: cytoskeleton remodeling ability, adhesion, migration, degranulation, and phagocytosis. Diminished superoxide production in response to some agonists, and reduced total number of leukocytes and neutrophils in peritoneal exudate is observed. As result of functional deficiencies in neutrophil and mast cell populations, these mutant mice are more vulnerable to invasive infection. Slowed growth of mast cells, accompanying reduction in mast cell number and a significant decrease in growth factor-dependent survival was found to be due to increased cell apoptosis. These mutant mice may be useful in studies of phagocytic immunodeficiency, cellular inflammatory responses, hematopoietic cell regulation, and B cell development and signaling.

Development
A targeting vector containing neomycin resistance and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase genes was used to disrupt exon 1 of the Rac2 gene. The construct was electroporated into 129S6/SvEv derived CCE.1 embryonic stem (ES) cells. Correctly targeted ES cells were injected into C57BL/6 blastocysts. The resulting chimeric animals were crossed to C57BL/6 mice.

Control Information

  Control
   Wild-type from the colony
   000664 C57BL/6J
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Phenotype

Phenotype Information

View Related Disease (OMIM) Terms

Related Disease (OMIM) Terms provided by MGI
- Potential model based on gene homology relationships. Phenotypic similarity to the human disease has not been tested.
Neutrophil Immunodeficiency Syndrome   (RAC2)
View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

Rac2tm1Mddw/Rac2tm1Mddw

        B6.129S-Rac2tm1Mddw
  • immune system phenotype
  • abnormal neutrophil physiology
    • mutant bone marrow neutrophils show a significant decrease in PMA-elicited NADPH oxidase activity relative to wild-type controls; however, the overall kinetics of PMA-induced superoxide production are normal   (MGI Ref ID J:83457)
    • mutant bone marrow neutrophils show a significant decrease in fMLP-elicited NADPH oxidase activity relative to wild-type controls; both a delay in reaching maximal enzyme activity and an overall decrease in superoxide production are observed   (MGI Ref ID J:83457)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • abnormal neutrophil physiology
    • mutant bone marrow neutrophils show a significant decrease in PMA-elicited NADPH oxidase activity relative to wild-type controls; however, the overall kinetics of PMA-induced superoxide production are normal   (MGI Ref ID J:83457)
    • mutant bone marrow neutrophils show a significant decrease in fMLP-elicited NADPH oxidase activity relative to wild-type controls; both a delay in reaching maximal enzyme activity and an overall decrease in superoxide production are observed   (MGI Ref ID J:83457)

The following phenotype information is associated with a similar, but not exact match to this JAX® Mice strain.

Rac2tm1Mddw/Rac2tm1Mddw

        involves: 129S/SvEv * C57BL/6
  • mortality/aging
  • increased sensitivity to induced morbidity/mortality
    • Aspergillus fumigatus-infected mice exhibit increased mortality and decreased survival time compared to similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
  • immune system phenotype
  • abnormal granulocyte differentiation
    • mice exhibit a modest excess of mature granulopoiesis in the bone marrow compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
  • abnormal neutrophil physiology
    • PMA and NADPH-stimulated bone marrow neutrophils exhibit 23% of normal superoxide production   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • however, peritoneal exudate neutrophils exhibit normal superoxide production following thioglycollate stimulation   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • TNF-alpha and PMA-stimulated bone marrow neutrophils exhibit a 61% of normal superoxide production   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • neutrophil integrin adhesion is decreased compared to wild-type cells   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • chemotaxis of bone marrow neutrophils is decreased 4- to 10-fold compared to wild-type cells   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • impaired neutrophil chemotaxis
      • spreading of neutrophils over glass cover slips is 76% of that observed in wild-type cells   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
  • decreased T cell proliferation
    • following anti-CD3 antibody stimulation, T cell proliferation is decreased compared to similarly treated wild-type cells   (MGI Ref ID J:119437)
    • CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to anti-CD3 antibodies is decreased 2-fold compared to similarly treated wild-type cells   (MGI Ref ID J:119437)
    • however, co-stimulation with anti-CD28 antibodies or the addition of IL2 can partially compensate for reduced proliferation of T cells   (MGI Ref ID J:119437)
  • decreased leukocyte cell number
    • at 4 post-thioglycollate treatment, peritoneal exudates exhibit reduced leukocyte numbers compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • decreased neutrophil cell number
      • at 4 and 18 hours post-thioglycollate treatment, peritoneal exudates exhibit reduced neutrophils numbers compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
  • increased leukocyte cell number
    • 1.9-fold higher than in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • increased neutrophil cell number
      • mice exhibit a 2.5- to 3-fold increased in neutrophil numbers compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
  • increased susceptibility to bacterial infection
    • Aspergillus fumigatus-infected mice exhibit increased mortality and decreased survival time compared to similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • 4 to 6 days post-infection with A. fumigatus, recovery of viable A. fumigatus in the brain and kidney is increased 9.2 and 5.5 times compared to in similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • foci of hyphae in the renal parenchyma of A. fumigatus-infected mice are surrounded by an exuberant neutrophil infiltrate unlike in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • abnormal granulocyte differentiation
    • mice exhibit a modest excess of mature granulopoiesis in the bone marrow compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
  • abnormal neutrophil physiology
    • PMA and NADPH-stimulated bone marrow neutrophils exhibit 23% of normal superoxide production   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • however, peritoneal exudate neutrophils exhibit normal superoxide production following thioglycollate stimulation   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • TNF-alpha and PMA-stimulated bone marrow neutrophils exhibit a 61% of normal superoxide production   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • neutrophil integrin adhesion is decreased compared to wild-type cells   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • chemotaxis of bone marrow neutrophils is decreased 4- to 10-fold compared to wild-type cells   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • impaired neutrophil chemotaxis
      • spreading of neutrophils over glass cover slips is 76% of that observed in wild-type cells   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
  • decreased T cell proliferation
    • following anti-CD3 antibody stimulation, T cell proliferation is decreased compared to similarly treated wild-type cells   (MGI Ref ID J:119437)
    • CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to anti-CD3 antibodies is decreased 2-fold compared to similarly treated wild-type cells   (MGI Ref ID J:119437)
    • however, co-stimulation with anti-CD28 antibodies or the addition of IL2 can partially compensate for reduced proliferation of T cells   (MGI Ref ID J:119437)
  • decreased leukocyte cell number
    • at 4 post-thioglycollate treatment, peritoneal exudates exhibit reduced leukocyte numbers compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • decreased neutrophil cell number
      • at 4 and 18 hours post-thioglycollate treatment, peritoneal exudates exhibit reduced neutrophils numbers compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
  • increased leukocyte cell number
    • 1.9-fold higher than in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
    • increased neutrophil cell number
      • mice exhibit a 2.5- to 3-fold increased in neutrophil numbers compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
  • cellular phenotype
  • abnormal granulocyte differentiation
    • mice exhibit a modest excess of mature granulopoiesis in the bone marrow compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)
  • impaired neutrophil chemotaxis
    • spreading of neutrophils over glass cover slips is 76% of that observed in wild-type cells   (MGI Ref ID J:53362)

Rac2tm1Mddw/Rac2tm1Mddw

        involves: 129S/SvEv
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • abnormal wound healing
    • lipid peroxidation, respiratory burst activity of neutrophils, and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, measured by CD31 staining, at the wound site is decreased compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:131305)
    • delayed wound healing
      • delayed wound healing is associated with a 3-fold decrease in superoxide production at the wound site and a decrease in peroxide concentration in wound fluid compared to in similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:131305)
  • cardiovascular system phenotype
  • abnormal vascular endothelial cell physiology
    • proliferation of vascular endothelial cells at a wound site is decreased compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:131305)
  • decreased angiogenesis
    • proliferation of vascular endothelial cells at a wound site is decreased compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:131305)
  • immune system phenotype
  • abnormal neutrophil physiology
    • respiratory burst activity of neutrophils at a wound site is decreased compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:131305)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • abnormal neutrophil physiology
    • respiratory burst activity of neutrophils at a wound site is decreased compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:131305)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Rac2tm1Mddw related

Apoptosis Research
Extracellular Modulators

Cancer Research
Genes Regulating Growth and Proliferation

Developmental Biology Research
Defects in Cell Adhesion Molecules

Hematological Research
Immunological Defects
      B and T cell deficiency
Mast Cell Deficiency

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
Growth Factors/Receptors/Cytokines
Immunodeficiency
      B cell deficiency
Immunodeficiency Associated with Other Defects
Inflammation
      B and T cell deficiency
      Neutrophil defects
Intracellular Signaling Molecules
Lymphoid Tissue Defects
      B and T cell deficiency
T Cell Receptor Signaling Defects
      B and T cell deficiency

Research Tools
Apoptosis Research
Cancer Research
      B cell deficiency
      T cell deficiency
      production of B cells and antibodies

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

 
Allele Symbol Rac2tm1Mddw
Allele Name targeted mutation 1, Mary C Dinauer and David A Williams
Allele Type Targeted (Null/Knockout)
Common Name(s) Rac2tm1Daw; rac2-;
Mutation Made By David Williams,   Indiana University
Strain of Origin129S/SvEv-Gpi1
ES Cell Line NameCCE/EK.CCE
ES Cell Line Strain129S/SvEv-Gpi1
Gene Symbol and Name Rac2, RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 2
Chromosome 15
Gene Common Name(s) AI323801; AI452260; EN-7; Gx; HSPC022; expressed sequence AI323801; expressed sequence AI452260; p21-Rac2;
Molecular Note A neomycin resistance cassette replaced a genomic fragment containing exon 1, which encodes the translational initiation site and part of the GTP-binding domain. Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that no transcripts were detectable in totalRNA derived from neutrophils or lymphocytes in homozygous mice. Western blot analysis confirmed an absence of protein produced from this allele in peritoneal exudate cells from homozygous mice. [MGI Ref ID J:53362]

Genotyping

Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

Rac2tm1Mddw, Standard PCR


Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting

References

References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Roberts AW; Kim C; Zhen L; Lowe JB; Kapur R; Petryniak B; Spaetti A; Pollock JD; Borneo JB; Bradford GB; Atkinson SJ; Dinauer MC; Williams DA. 1999. Deficiency of the hematopoietic cell-specific Rho family GTPase Rac2 is characterized by abnormalities in neutrophil function and host defense. Immunity 10(2):183-96. [PubMed: 10072071]  [MGI Ref ID J:53362]

Additional References

Cancelas JA; Lee AW; Prabhakar R; Stringer KF; Zheng Y; Williams DA. 2005. Rac GTPases differentially integrate signals regulating hematopoietic stem cell localization. Nat Med 11(8):886-91. [PubMed: 16025125]  [MGI Ref ID J:110380]

Croker BA; Tarlinton DM; Cluse LA; Tuxen AJ; Light A; Yang FC; Williams DA; Roberts AW. 2002. The Rac2 guanosine triphosphatase regulates B lymphocyte antigen receptor responses and chemotaxis and is required for establishment of B-1a and marginal zone B lymphocytes. J Immunol 168(7):3376-86. [PubMed: 11907095]  [MGI Ref ID J:75581]

Filippi MD; Harris CE; Meller J; Gu Y; Zheng Y; Williams DA. 2004. Localization of Rac2 via the C terminus and aspartic acid 150 specifies superoxide generation, actin polarity and chemotaxis in neutrophils. Nat Immunol 5(7):744-51. [PubMed: 15170212]  [MGI Ref ID J:91126]

Gu Y; Filippi MD; Cancelas JA; Siefring JE; Williams EP; Jasti AC; Harris CE; Lee AW; Prabhakar R; Atkinson SJ; Kwiatkowski DJ; Williams DA. 2003. Hematopoietic cell regulation by Rac1 and Rac2 guanosine triphosphatases. Science 302(5644):445-9. [PubMed: 14564009]  [MGI Ref ID J:86814]

Rac2tm1Mddw related

Abdel-Latif D; Steward M; Macdonald DL; Francis GA; Dinauer MC; Lacy P. 2004. Rac2 is critical for neutrophil primary granule exocytosis. Blood 104(3):832-9. [PubMed: 15073033]  [MGI Ref ID J:92258]

Anderson KE; Chessa TA; Davidson K; Henderson RB; Walker S; Tolmachova T; Grys K; Rausch O; Seabra MC; Tybulewicz VL; Stephens LR; Hawkins PT. 2010. PtdIns3P and Rac direct the assembly of the NADPH oxidase on a novel, pre-phagosomal compartment during FcR-mediated phagocytosis in primary mouse neutrophils. Blood 116(23):4978-89. [PubMed: 20813901]  [MGI Ref ID J:167418]

Arana E; Vehlow A; Harwood NE; Vigorito E; Henderson R; Turner M; Tybulewicz VL; Batista FD. 2008. Activation of the small GTPase Rac2 via the B cell receptor regulates B cell adhesion and immunological-synapse formation. Immunity 28(1):88-99. [PubMed: 18191593]  [MGI Ref ID J:131150]

Azim AC; Cao H; Gao X; Joo M; Malik AB; van Breemen RB; Sadikot RT; Park G; Christman JW. 2007. Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by small GTPase Rac2 in bone marrow macrophages. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 293(3):L668-73. [PubMed: 17575012]  [MGI Ref ID J:128040]

Cancelas JA; Jansen M; Williams DA. 2006. The role of chemokine activation of Rac GTPases in hematopoietic stem cell marrow homing, retention, and peripheral mobilization. Exp Hematol 34(8):976-85. [PubMed: 16863904]  [MGI Ref ID J:111908]

Cancelas JA; Lee AW; Prabhakar R; Stringer KF; Zheng Y; Williams DA. 2005. Rac GTPases differentially integrate signals regulating hematopoietic stem cell localization. Nat Med 11(8):886-91. [PubMed: 16025125]  [MGI Ref ID J:110380]

Chang KH; Sanchez-Aguilera A; Shen S; Sengupta A; Madhu MN; Ficker AM; Dunn SK; Kuenzi AM; Arnett JL; Santho RA; Agirre X; Perentesis JP; Deininger MW; Zheng Y; Bustelo XR; Williams DA; Cancelas JA. 2012. Vav3 collaborates with p190-BCR-ABL in lymphoid progenitor leukemogenesis, proliferation, and survival. Blood 120(4):800-11. [PubMed: 22692505]  [MGI Ref ID J:189090]

Croker BA; Handman E; Hayball JD; Baldwin TM; Voigt V; Cluse LA; Yang FC; Williams DA; Roberts AW. 2002. Rac2-deficient mice display perturbed T-cell distribution and chemotaxis, but only minor abnormalities in T(H)1 responses. Immunol Cell Biol 80(3):231-40. [PubMed: 12067410]  [MGI Ref ID J:77489]

Croker BA; Tarlinton DM; Cluse LA; Tuxen AJ; Light A; Yang FC; Williams DA; Roberts AW. 2002. The Rac2 guanosine triphosphatase regulates B lymphocyte antigen receptor responses and chemotaxis and is required for establishment of B-1a and marginal zone B lymphocytes. J Immunol 168(7):3376-86. [PubMed: 11907095]  [MGI Ref ID J:75581]

Distasi MR; Case J; Ziegler MA; Dinauer MC; Yoder MC; Haneline LS; Dalsing MC; Miller SJ; Labarrere CA; Murphy MP; Ingram DA; Unthank JL. 2009. Suppressed hindlimb perfusion in Rac2-/- and Nox2-/- mice does not result from impaired collateral growth. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 296(3):H877-86. [PubMed: 19151256]  [MGI Ref ID J:146529]

Dooley JL; Abdel-Latif D; St Laurent CD; Puttagunta L; Befus D; Lacy P. 2009. Regulation of inflammation by Rac2 in immune complex-mediated acute lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 297(6):L1091-102. [PubMed: 19801448]  [MGI Ref ID J:155910]

Dumont C; Corsoni-Tadrzak A; Ruf S; de Boer J; Williams A; Turner M; Kioussis D; Tybulewicz VL. 2009. Rac GTPases play critical roles in early T-cell development. Blood 113(17):3990-8. [PubMed: 19088377]  [MGI Ref ID J:148437]

Faroudi M; Hons M; Zachacz A; Dumont C; Lyck R; Stein JV; Tybulewicz VL. 2010. Critical roles for Rac GTPases in T-cell migration to and within lymph nodes. Blood 116(25):5536-47. [PubMed: 20870900]  [MGI Ref ID J:167391]

Fattouh R; Guo CH; Lam GY; Gareau MG; Ngan BY; Glogauer M; Muise AM; Brumell JH. 2013. Rac2-deficiency leads to exacerbated and protracted colitis in response to Citrobacter rodentium infection. PLoS One 8(4):e61629. [PubMed: 23613889]  [MGI Ref ID J:200110]

Fulkerson PC; Zhu H; Williams DA; Zimmermann N; Rothenberg ME. 2005. CXCL9 inhibits eosinophil responses by a CCR3- and Rac2-dependent mechanism. Blood 106(2):436-43. [PubMed: 15802529]  [MGI Ref ID J:107462]

Glogauer M; Marchal CC; Zhu F; Worku A; Clausen BE; Foerster I; Marks P; Downey GP; Dinauer M; Kwiatkowski DJ. 2003. Rac1 deletion in mouse neutrophils has selective effects on neutrophil functions. J Immunol 170(11):5652-7. [PubMed: 12759446]  [MGI Ref ID J:83457]

Goldberg SR; Georgiou J; Glogauer M; Grynpas MD. 2012. A 3D scanning confocal imaging method measures pit volume and captures the role of Rac in osteoclast function. Bone 51(1):145-52. [PubMed: 22561898]  [MGI Ref ID J:186186]

Gomez JC; Soltys J; Okano K; Dinauer MC; Doerschuk CM. 2008. The role of Rac2 in regulating neutrophil production in the bone marrow and circulating neutrophil counts. Am J Pathol 173(2):507-17. [PubMed: 18583316]  [MGI Ref ID J:138295]

Gu Y; Filippi MD; Cancelas JA; Siefring JE; Williams EP; Jasti AC; Harris CE; Lee AW; Prabhakar R; Atkinson SJ; Kwiatkowski DJ; Williams DA. 2003. Hematopoietic cell regulation by Rac1 and Rac2 guanosine triphosphatases. Science 302(5644):445-9. [PubMed: 14564009]  [MGI Ref ID J:86814]

Guo F; Cancelas JA; Hildeman D; Williams DA; Zheng Y. 2008. Rac GTPase isoforms Rac1 and Rac2 play a redundant and crucial role in T-cell development. Blood 112(5):1767-75. [PubMed: 18579797]  [MGI Ref ID J:138889]

Hall AB; Gakidis MA; Glogauer M; Wilsbacher JL; Gao S; Swat W; Brugge JS. 2006. Requirements for Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factors and Rho GTPases in FcgammaR- and complement-mediated phagocytosis. Immunity 24(3):305-16. [PubMed: 16546099]  [MGI Ref ID J:113323]

Henderson RB; Grys K; Vehlow A; de Bettignies C; Zachacz A; Henley T; Turner M; Batista F; Tybulewicz VL. 2010. A novel Rac-dependent checkpoint in B cell development controls entry into the splenic white pulp and cell survival. J Exp Med 207(4):837-53. [PubMed: 20308364]  [MGI Ref ID J:159176]

Ingram DA; Hiatt K; King AJ; Fisher L; Shivakumar R; Derstine C; Wenning MJ; Diaz B; Travers JB; Hood A; Marshall M; Williams DA; Clapp DW. 2001. Hyperactivation of p21(ras) and the hematopoietic-specific Rho GTPase, Rac2, cooperate to alter the proliferation of neurofibromin-deficient mast cells in vivo and in vitro. J Exp Med 194(1):57-69. [PubMed: 11435472]  [MGI Ref ID J:71331]

Kalfa TA; Pushkaran S; Mohandas N; Hartwig JH; Fowler VM; Johnson JF; Joiner CH; Williams DA; Zheng Y. 2006. Rac GTPases regulate the morphology and deformability of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton. Blood 108(12):3637-45. [PubMed: 16882712]  [MGI Ref ID J:140447]

Kalfa TA; Pushkaran S; Zhang X; Johnson JF; Pan D; Daria D; Geiger H; Cancelas JA; Williams DA; Zheng Y. 2010. Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases are necessary for early erythropoietic expansion in the bone marrow but not in the spleen. Haematologica 95(1):27-35. [PubMed: 20065081]  [MGI Ref ID J:162051]

Karlsson T; Glogauer M; Ellen RP; Loitto VM; Magnusson KE; Magalhaes MA. 2011. Aquaporin 9 phosphorylation mediates membrane localization and neutrophil polarization. J Leukoc Biol 90(5):963-73. [PubMed: 21873454]  [MGI Ref ID J:178235]

Kim C; Dinauer MC. 2006. Impaired NADPH oxidase activity in Rac2-deficient murine neutrophils does not result from defective translocation of p47phox and p67phox and can be rescued by exogenous arachidonic acid. J Leukoc Biol 79(1):223-34. [PubMed: 16275890]  [MGI Ref ID J:104739]

Kim C; Dinauer MC. 2001. Rac2 is an essential regulator of neutrophil nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activation in response to specific signaling pathways. J Immunol 166(2):1223-32. [PubMed: 11145705]  [MGI Ref ID J:66852]

Koh AL; Sun CX; Zhu F; Glogauer M. 2005. The role of Rac1 and Rac2 in bacterial killing. Cell Immunol 235(2):92-7. [PubMed: 16157315]  [MGI Ref ID J:107943]

Konstantinidis DG; Pushkaran S; Johnson JF; Cancelas JA; Manganaris S; Harris CE; Williams DA; Zheng Y; Kalfa TA. 2012. Signaling and cytoskeletal requirements in erythroblast enucleation. Blood 119(25):6118-27. [PubMed: 22461493]  [MGI Ref ID J:186731]

Kuiper JW; Sun C; Magalhaes MA; Glogauer M. 2011. Rac regulates PtdInsP3 signaling and the chemotactic compass through a redox-mediated feedback loop. Blood 118(23):6164-71. [PubMed: 21976675]  [MGI Ref ID J:179091]

Lane SW; De Vita S; Alexander KA; Karaman R; Milsom MD; Dorrance AM; Purdon A; Louis L; Bouxsein ML; Williams DA. 2012. Rac signaling in osteoblastic cells is required for normal bone development but is dispensable for hematopoietic development. Blood 119(3):736-44. [PubMed: 22123845]  [MGI Ref ID J:181778]

Lawson CD; Donald S; Anderson KE; Patton DT; Welch HC. 2011. P-Rex1 and Vav1 cooperate in the regulation of formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-dependent neutrophil responses. J Immunol 186(3):1467-76. [PubMed: 21178006]  [MGI Ref ID J:168922]

Li B; Yu H; Zheng W; Voll R; Na S; Roberts AW; Williams DA; Davis RJ; Ghosh S; Flavell RA. 2000. Role of the guanosine triphosphatase Rac2 in T helper 1 cell differentiation. Science 288(5474):2219-22. [PubMed: 10864872]  [MGI Ref ID J:63080]

Li S; Yamauchi A; Marchal CC; Molitoris JK; Quilliam LA; Dinauer MC. 2002. Chemoattractant-stimulated rac activation in wild-type and rac2-deficient murine neutrophils: preferential activation of rac2 and rac2 gene dosage effect on neutrophil functions. J Immunol 169(9):5043-51. [PubMed: 12391220]  [MGI Ref ID J:79793]

Lim MB; Kuiper JW; Katchky A; Goldberg H; Glogauer M. 2011. Rac2 is required for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. J Leukoc Biol 90(4):771-6. [PubMed: 21712395]  [MGI Ref ID J:177545]

Martin H; Mali RS; Ma P; Chatterjee A; Ramdas B; Sims E; Munugalavadla V; Ghosh J; Mattingly RR; Visconte V; Tiu RV; Vlaar CP; Dharmawardhane S; Kapur R. 2013. Pak and Rac GTPases promote oncogenic KIT-induced neoplasms. J Clin Invest 123(10):4449-63. [PubMed: 24091327]  [MGI Ref ID J:203981]

McCarty OJ; Larson MK; Auger JM; Kalia N; Atkinson BT; Pearce AC; Ruf S; Henderson RB; Tybulewicz VL; Machesky LM; Watson SP. 2005. Rac1 is essential for platelet lamellipodia formation and aggregate stability under flow. J Biol Chem 280(47):39474-84. [PubMed: 16195235]  [MGI Ref ID J:104107]

Mizukawa B; Wei J; Shrestha M; Wunderlich M; Chou FS; Griesinger A; Harris CE; Kumar AR; Zheng Y; Williams DA; Mulloy JC. 2011. Inhibition of Rac GTPase signaling and downstream prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins as combination targeted therapy in MLL-AF9 leukemia. Blood 118(19):5235-45. [PubMed: 21940819]  [MGI Ref ID J:178886]

Mondal S; Ghosh-Roy S; Loison F; Li Y; Jia Y; Harris C; Williams DA; Luo HR. 2011. PTEN negatively regulates engulfment of apoptotic cells by modulating activation of Rac GTPase. J Immunol 187(11):5783-94. [PubMed: 22043008]  [MGI Ref ID J:179722]

Ojha N; Roy S; He G; Biswas S; Velayutham M; Khanna S; Kuppusamy P; Zweier JL; Sen CK. 2008. Assessment of wound-site redox environment and the significance of Rac2 in cutaneous healing. Free Radic Biol Med 44(4):682-91. [PubMed: 18068132]  [MGI Ref ID J:131305]

Peng HJ; Henkels KM; Mahankali M; Marchal C; Bubulya P; Dinauer MC; Gomez-Cambronero J. 2011. The dual effect of Rac2 on phospholipase D2 regulation that explains both the onset and termination of chemotaxis. Mol Cell Biol 31(11):2227-40. [PubMed: 21444720]  [MGI Ref ID J:174038]

Pestonjamasp KN; Forster C; Sun C; Gardiner EM; Bohl B; Weiner O; Bokoch GM; Glogauer M. 2006. Rac1 links leading edge and uropod events through Rho and myosin activation during chemotaxis. Blood 108(8):2814-20. [PubMed: 16809619]  [MGI Ref ID J:139459]

Saci A; Cantley LC; Carpenter CL. 2011. Rac1 regulates the activity of mTORC1 and mTORC2 and controls cellular size. Mol Cell 42(1):50-61. [PubMed: 21474067]  [MGI Ref ID J:172668]

Savina A; Peres A; Cebrian I; Carmo N; Moita C; Hacohen N; Moita LF; Amigorena S. 2009. The small GTPase Rac2 controls phagosomal alkalinization and antigen crosspresentation selectively in CD8(+) dendritic cells. Immunity 30(4):544-55. [PubMed: 19328020]  [MGI Ref ID J:147980]

Sengupta A; Arnett J; Dunn S; Williams DA; Cancelas JA. 2010. Rac2 GTPase deficiency depletes BCR-ABL+ leukemic stem cells and progenitors in vivo. Blood 116(1):81-4. [PubMed: 20407032]  [MGI Ref ID J:162808]

Shimomura Y; Ogawa A; Kawada M; Sugimoto K; Mizoguchi E; Shi HN; Pillai S; Bhan AK; Mizoguchi A. 2008. A unique B2 B cell subset in the intestine. J Exp Med 205(6):1343-55. [PubMed: 18519649]  [MGI Ref ID J:137039]

Sima C; Gastfreund S; Sun C; Glogauer M. 2014. Rac-null leukocytes are associated with increased inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss. Am J Pathol 184(2):472-82. [PubMed: 24269593]  [MGI Ref ID J:205191]

Spencer NY; Yan Z; Boudreau RL; Zhang Y; Luo M; Li Q; Tian X; Shah AM; Davisson RL; Davidson B; Banfi B; Engelhardt JF. 2011. Control of hepatic nuclear superoxide production by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADPH oxidase-4. J Biol Chem 286(11):8977-87. [PubMed: 21212270]  [MGI Ref ID J:170529]

Spencer NY; Zhou W; Li Q; Zhang Y; Luo M; Yan Z; Lynch TJ; Abbott D; Banfi B; Engelhardt JF. 2013. Hepatocytes produce TNF-alpha following hypoxia-reoxygenation and liver ischemia-reperfusion in a NADPH oxidase- and c-Src-dependent manner. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 305(1):G84-94. [PubMed: 23639811]  [MGI Ref ID J:202785]

Sun CX; Downey GP; Zhu F; Koh AL; Thang H; Glogauer M. 2004. Rac1 is the small GTPase responsible for regulating the neutrophil chemotaxis compass. Blood 104(12):3758-65. [PubMed: 15308574]  [MGI Ref ID J:94828]

Tan BL; Yazicioglu MN; Ingram D; McCarthy J; Borneo J; Williams DA; Kapur R. 2003. Genetic evidence for convergence of c-Kit- and alpha4 integrin-mediated signals on class IA PI-3kinase and the Rac pathway in regulating integrin-directed migration in mast cells. Blood 101(12):4725-32. [PubMed: 12560232]  [MGI Ref ID J:109998]

Thomas EK; Cancelas JA; Chae HD; Cox AD; Keller PJ; Perrotti D; Neviani P; Druker BJ; Setchell KD; Zheng Y; Harris CE; Williams DA. 2007. Rac guanosine triphosphatases represent integrating molecular therapeutic targets for BCR-ABL-induced myeloproliferative disease. Cancer Cell 12(5):467-78. [PubMed: 17996650]  [MGI Ref ID J:127321]

Utomo A; Cullere X; Glogauer M; Swat W; Mayadas TN. 2006. Vav proteins in neutrophils are required for FcgammaR-mediated signaling to Rac GTPases and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase component p40(phox). J Immunol 177(9):6388-97. [PubMed: 17056570]  [MGI Ref ID J:140509]

Utomo A; Hirahashi J; Mekala D; Asano K; Glogauer M; Cullere X; Mayadas TN. 2008. Requirement for Vav proteins in post-recruitment neutrophil cytotoxicity in IgG but not complement C3-dependent injury. J Immunol 180(9):6279-87. [PubMed: 18424751]  [MGI Ref ID J:134524]

Vinolo MA; Ferguson GJ; Kulkarni S; Damoulakis G; Anderson K; Bohlooly-Y M; Stephens L; Hawkins PT; Curi R. 2011. SCFAs induce mouse neutrophil chemotaxis through the GPR43 receptor. PLoS One 6(6):e21205. [PubMed: 21698257]  [MGI Ref ID J:174782]

Walmsley MJ; Ooi SK; Reynolds LF; Smith SH; Ruf S; Mathiot A; Vanes L; Williams DA; Cancro MP; Tybulewicz VL. 2003. Critical roles for Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases in B cell development and signaling. Science 302(5644):459-62. [PubMed: 14564011]  [MGI Ref ID J:86765]

Wang QQ; Li H; Oliver T; Glogauer M; Guo J; He YW. 2008. Integrin beta1 regulates phagosome maturation in macrophages through Rac expression. J Immunol 180(4):2419-28. [PubMed: 18250451]  [MGI Ref ID J:131992]

Wang Y; Lebowitz D; Sun C; Thang H; Grynpas MD; Glogauer M. 2008. Identifying the relative contributions of Rac1 and Rac2 to osteoclastogenesis. J Bone Miner Res 23(2):260-70. [PubMed: 17922611]  [MGI Ref ID J:145675]

Wheeler AP; Wells CM; Smith SD; Vega FM; Henderson RB; Tybulewicz VL; Ridley AJ. 2006. Rac1 and Rac2 regulate macrophage morphology but are not essential for migration. J Cell Sci 119(Pt 13):2749-57. [PubMed: 16772332]  [MGI Ref ID J:110344]

Yamauchi A; Marchal CC; Molitoris J; Pech N; Knaus U; Towe J; Atkinson SJ; Dinauer MC. 2005. Rac GTPase isoform-specific regulation of NADPH oxidase and chemotaxis in murine neutrophils in vivo. Role of the C-terminal polybasic domain. J Biol Chem 280(2):953-64. [PubMed: 15504745]  [MGI Ref ID J:96141]

Yan J; Chen S; Zhang Y; Li X; Li Y; Wu X; Yuan J; Robling AG; Karpur R; Chan RJ; Yang FC. 2008. Rac1 mediates the osteoclast gains-in-function induced by haploinsufficiency of Nf1. Hum Mol Genet 17(7):936-48. [PubMed: 18089636]  [MGI Ref ID J:132466]

Yu H; Leitenberg D; Li B; Flavell RA. 2001. Deficiency of small GTPase Rac2 affects T cell activation. J Exp Med 194(7):915-26. [PubMed: 11581314]  [MGI Ref ID J:119437]

Health & husbandry

The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Production of mice from cryopreserved embryos or sperm occurs in a maximum barrier room, G200.

Colony Maintenance

Breeding & HusbandryThis strain originated on a B6;129 background and has been backcrossed for at least 17 generations (11/01) on the C57BL/6 background. Homozygous mice must be maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions.

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls


Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Cryopreserved

Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $2525.00
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Frozen Products

Price (US dollars $)
Frozen Embryo $1650.00

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryopreserved Embryos
    Available to most shipping destinations1
    This strain is also available as cryopreserved embryos2. Orders for cryopreserved embryos may be placed with our Customer Service Department. Experienced technicians at The Jackson Laboratory have recovered frozen embryos of this strain successfully. We will provide you enough embryos to perform two embryo transfers. The Jackson Laboratory does not guarantee successful recovery at your facility. For complete information on purchasing embryos, please visit our Cryopreserved Embryos web page.

    1 Shipments cannot be made to Australia due to Australian government import restrictions.
    2 Embryos for most strains are cryopreserved at the two cell stage while some strains are cryopreserved at the eight cell stage. If this information is important to you, please contact Customer Service.
  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We willfulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Cryopreserved

Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $3283.00
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Frozen Products

Price (US dollars $)
Frozen Embryo $2145.00

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryopreserved Embryos
    Available to most shipping destinations1
    This strain is also available as cryopreserved embryos2. Orders for cryopreserved embryos may be placed with our Customer Service Department. Experienced technicians at The Jackson Laboratory have recovered frozen embryos of this strain successfully. We will provide you enough embryos to perform two embryo transfers. The Jackson Laboratory does not guarantee successful recovery at your facility. For complete information on purchasing embryos, please visit our Cryopreserved Embryos web page.

    1 Shipments cannot be made to Australia due to Australian government import restrictions.
    2 Embryos for most strains are cryopreserved at the two cell stage while some strains are cryopreserved at the eight cell stage. If this information is important to you, please contact Customer Service.
  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We willfulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Control Information

  Control
   Wild-type from the colony
   000664 C57BL/6J
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.
 

Payment Terms and Conditions

Terms are granted by individual review and stated on the customer invoice(s) and account statement. These transactions are payable in U.S. currency within the granted terms. Payment for services, products, shipping containers, and shipping costs that are rendered are expected within the payment terms indicated on the invoice or stated by contract. Invoices and account balances in arrears of stated terms may result in The Jackson Laboratory pursuing collection activities including but not limited to outside agencies and court filings.


See Terms of Use tab for General Terms and Conditions


The Jackson Laboratory's Genotype Promise

The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
Ordering Information
JAX® Mice
Surgical and Preconditioning Services
JAX® Services
Customer Services and Support
Tel: 1-800-422-6423 or 1-207-288-5845
Fax: 1-207-288-6150
Technical Support Email Form

Terms of Use

Terms of Use


General Terms and Conditions


For Licensing and Use Restrictions view the link(s) below:
- Use of MICE by companies or for-profit entities requires a license prior to shipping.

Contact information

General inquiries regarding Terms of Use

Contracts Administration

phone:207-288-6470

JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use

"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCTS" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or services provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than the internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE or PRODUCTS from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON's prior written authorization.

No Warranty

MICE, PRODUCTS AND SERVICES ARE PROVIDED “AS IS”. JACKSON EXTENDS NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, WITH RESPECT TO MICE, PRODUCTS OR SERVICES, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR ANY WARRANTY OF NON-INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.

In case of dissatisfaction for a valid reason and claimed in writing by a purchaser within ninety (90) days of receipt of mice, products or services, JACKSON will, at its option, provide credit or replacement for the mice or product received or the services provided.

No Liability

In no event shall JACKSON, its trustees, directors, officers, employees, and affiliates be liable for any causes of action or damages, including any direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages, arising out of the provision of MICE, PRODUCTS or services, including economic damage or injury to property and lost profits, and including any damage arising from acts or negligence on the part of JACKSON, its agents or employees. Unless prohibited by law, in purchasing or receiving MICE, PRODUCTS or services from JACKSON, purchaser or recipient, or any party claiming by or through them, expressly releases and discharges JACKSON from all such causes of action or damages, and further agrees to defend and indemnify JACKSON from any costs or damages arising out of any third party claims.

MICE and PRODUCTS are to be used in a safe manner and in accordance with all applicable governmental rules and regulations.

The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or services. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS or services may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and services by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.

Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or services shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or services by JACKSON.


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