Strain Name:

STOCK Smotm2Amc/J

Stock Number:

004526

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Availability:

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These floxed mice possess loxP sites on either side of exon 1 of the Smo (smoothened homolog (Drosophila) gene. When bred to strains expressing Cre recombinase in various tissues, this strain may be useful in studies such as hedgehog signaling and cell proliferation in the dental epithelium, craniofacial development, astrocyte populations, cardiovascular development, and of cardiac neural crest cells.

Description

Strain Information

Former Names STOCK Smohtm2Amc    (Changed: 15-DEC-04 )
Type Mutant Stock; Targeted Mutation;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
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Mating SystemHomozygote x Homozygote         (Female x Male)   01-MAR-06
Specieslaboratory mouse
GenerationF?+F6pF6 (26-JAN-09)
Generation Definitions
 
Donating Investigator Andrew P McMahon,   University of Southern California

Description
These mice possess loxP sites on either side of exon 1 of the targeted gene. Mice that are homozygous for this allele are viable, fertile, normal in size and do not display any gross physical or behavioral abnormalities.

When bred to a strain with the targeted null allele (Stock No. 004288) and a strain expressing Cre recombinase in the skin (Stock No. 004782), this mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of hedgehog signalling and cell proliferation in the dental epithelium.

When bred to a strain with the targeted null allele (Stock No. 004288) and a strain expressing Cre recombinase in the nervous system (Stock No. 003771), this mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of hedgehog signalling and cerebellar foliation.

When bred to a strain with the targeted null allele (Stock No. 004288) and a strain expressing Cre recombinase in the midbrain/dorsal spinal cord (Stock No. 007807), this mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of craniofacial development.

When bred to a strain expressing Cre recombinase in astrocytes and neural stem cells (see Stock No. 012886 for example), this mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of specific populations of astrocytes.

When bred to a strain expressing Cre recombinase in endothelial cells (see Stock No. 004128 for example), this mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of cardiovascular development.

When bred to a strain expressing Cre recombinase in the neural tube/midbrain/dorsal spinal cord (see Stock No. 009107 for example), this mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of cardiac neural crest cells.

Development
A loxP site flanked targeting vector containing a 400bp fragment of exon 1 and an FRT-flanked neomycin resistance gene was utilized in the construction of this mutant. This construct was electroporated into 129X1/SvJ derived AV3 embryonic stem (ES) cells. Correctly targeted ES cells were injected into C57BL/6J blastocysts. The resulting male chimeric animals were crossed to Swiss Webster females.

Control Information

  Control
   None Available
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Related Strains

Strains carrying other alleles of Smo
004288   129X1-Smotm1Amc/J
008831   C57BL/6-Tg(Neurod2-Smo*A1)199Jols/J
View Strains carrying other alleles of Smo     (2 strains)

Additional Web Information

Introduction to Cre-lox technology

Phenotype

Phenotype Information

View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

The following phenotype relates to a compound genotype created using this strain.
Contact JAX® Services jaxservices@jax.org for customized breeding options.

Smotm1Amc/Smotm2Amc Tg(KRT14-cre)1Amc/0

        involves: 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * CBA   (conditional)
  • mortality/aging
  • complete neonatal lethality
    • pups die within 1 day after birth   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
  • craniofacial phenotype
  • abnormal ameloblast morphology
    • exhibit abnonormally short ameloblasts in the most advanced cusps of first molar region that are overlaid by a scarce, squamous stratum intermedium   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • in incisors, the cuboidal ameloblasts are only 15% of the apical-basal height and contain centrally located round nuclei   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • mitochondria, RER, and Golgi are sparse and evenly distributed in the cytoplasm of incisor ameloblasts and Tomes' processes and the terminal webs do not develop   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • amelolasts exhibit premature withdrawal from the cell cylce   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
  • abnormal enamel morphology
    • the epithelial enamel organ appears disorganized at the late bell stage in the principal cusps of the first molars   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
  • abnormal incisor morphology
    • incisors are smaller in diameter and exhibit abnormal folding of the inner dental epithelium   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • incisors show an absence of the papillary layer   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
  • abnormal molar morphology
    • first and second molars of both the maxilla and mandible are abnormally fused, forming a single gigantic anlage   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • dental cord is virtually absent   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • the stellate reticulum is hypocellular and shows absence of early vascular loops in the coronal aspect   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • the outer dental epithelium forms a continuous layer without the gaps seen in controls   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • abnormal molar crown morphology
      • cusps of first molars are shallow, broad, underdeveloped and misshapen   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
  • growth/size/body phenotype
  • abnormal ameloblast morphology
    • exhibit abnonormally short ameloblasts in the most advanced cusps of first molar region that are overlaid by a scarce, squamous stratum intermedium   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • in incisors, the cuboidal ameloblasts are only 15% of the apical-basal height and contain centrally located round nuclei   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • mitochondria, RER, and Golgi are sparse and evenly distributed in the cytoplasm of incisor ameloblasts and Tomes' processes and the terminal webs do not develop   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • amelolasts exhibit premature withdrawal from the cell cylce   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
  • abnormal enamel morphology
    • the epithelial enamel organ appears disorganized at the late bell stage in the principal cusps of the first molars   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
  • abnormal incisor morphology
    • incisors are smaller in diameter and exhibit abnormal folding of the inner dental epithelium   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • incisors show an absence of the papillary layer   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
  • abnormal molar morphology
    • first and second molars of both the maxilla and mandible are abnormally fused, forming a single gigantic anlage   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • dental cord is virtually absent   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • the stellate reticulum is hypocellular and shows absence of early vascular loops in the coronal aspect   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • the outer dental epithelium forms a continuous layer without the gaps seen in controls   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)
    • abnormal molar crown morphology
      • cusps of first molars are shallow, broad, underdeveloped and misshapen   (MGI Ref ID J:80081)

Smotm1Amc/Smotm2Amc Tg(Nes-cre)1Kln/0

        involves: 129S1/Sv * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * SJL * Swiss Webster   (conditional)
  • mortality/aging
  • partial postnatal lethality
    • about 10% of mice survive to 3 weeks of age   (MGI Ref ID J:108507)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal cerebellum morphology
    • four principal fissures are very shallow   (MGI Ref ID J:108507)
    • abnormal cerebellar foliation
      • in lateral regions, foliation is limited to slight indentations only in central and posterior regions   (MGI Ref ID J:108507)
    • small cerebellum
      • at E16.5, cerebella appear grossly normal, but reduced in size   (MGI Ref ID J:108507)
      • at P21, cerebella shows more pronounced reduction in size vs wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:108507)
      • AP axis is more dramatically reduced than ML axis   (MGI Ref ID J:108507)
  • decreased brain size
    • overall size of mutant brains is smaller than wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:108507)

Smotm1Amc/Smotm2Amc Tg(Wnt1-cre)11Rth/?

        involves: C57BL/6J * CBA/J   (conditional)
  • craniofacial phenotype
  • abnormal craniofacial development   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • abnormal Meckel's cartilage morphology
      • hypoplastic and short   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • absent Reichert cartilage
      • the basi- cerato- and thyro hyoid elements are missing   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • abnormal cranium morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • abnormal ethmoidal bone morphology
      • mesethmoid bone is missing   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • abnormal lacrimal bone morphology
      • absent or appears as a tiny fragment   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • abnormal mandible morphology
      • the dentate is reduced in length but the lamina is thicker   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • at E9.5, there is an increase in apoptotic cells along the midline   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • at E10.5, apoptotic cells are observed along the midline and laterally   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • at E10.5, mandibles are 9% shorter than the wild-type and only undergoes a 1.5-fold along the dorsal-ventral axis compared to a 4-fold expansion in wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • at E11.5, cell proliferation is decreased   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • abnormal mandibular condyloid process morphology
        • mice have an extra condylar process   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • abnormal maxilla morphology
      • premaxilla and maxilla retain their lateral-most parts only   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • abnormal sphenoid bone morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • abnormal basisphenoid bone morphology
        • rostral half is missing   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • abnormal orbitosphenoid bone morphology
      • absent presphenoid bone   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • absent pterygoid process   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • small alisphenoid bone
    • abnormal temporal bone morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • abnormal squamosal bone morphology
      • absent styloid process   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • absent palatine bone   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • absent vomer bone   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • short zygomatic bone
    • small nasal bone
      • nasal bone is hypoplastic   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • abnormal nasal septum morphology
    • the nasal septum is incomplete   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • abnormal tooth morphology
    • teeth are malformed and arrested   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • absent lower incisors   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent gonial bone   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent incus   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent malleus   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent middle ear ossicles   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent stapes   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent tongue   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • hearing/vestibular/ear phenotype
  • absent gonial bone   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent incus   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent malleus   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent middle ear ossicles   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent stapes   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent tympanic ring   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • digestive/alimentary phenotype
  • absent tongue   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • respiratory system phenotype
  • abnormal nasal septum morphology
    • the nasal septum is incomplete   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • abnormal thyroid cartilage morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • skeleton phenotype
  • abnormal Meckel's cartilage morphology
    • hypoplastic and short   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • abnormal cranium morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • abnormal ethmoidal bone morphology
      • mesethmoid bone is missing   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • abnormal lacrimal bone morphology
      • absent or appears as a tiny fragment   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • abnormal mandible morphology
      • the dentate is reduced in length but the lamina is thicker   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • at E9.5, there is an increase in apoptotic cells along the midline   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • at E10.5, apoptotic cells are observed along the midline and laterally   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • at E10.5, mandibles are 9% shorter than the wild-type and only undergoes a 1.5-fold along the dorsal-ventral axis compared to a 4-fold expansion in wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • at E11.5, cell proliferation is decreased   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • abnormal mandibular condyloid process morphology
        • mice have an extra condylar process   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • abnormal maxilla morphology
      • premaxilla and maxilla retain their lateral-most parts only   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • abnormal sphenoid bone morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • abnormal basisphenoid bone morphology
        • rostral half is missing   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • abnormal orbitosphenoid bone morphology
      • absent presphenoid bone   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • absent pterygoid process   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • small alisphenoid bone
    • abnormal temporal bone morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
      • abnormal squamosal bone morphology
      • absent styloid process   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • absent palatine bone   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • absent vomer bone   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • short zygomatic bone
    • small nasal bone
      • nasal bone is hypoplastic   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • abnormal thyroid cartilage morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent Reichert cartilage
    • the basi- cerato- and thyro hyoid elements are missing   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent gonial bone   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent incus   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent malleus   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent middle ear ossicles   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent stapes   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • vision/eye phenotype
  • abnormal orbitosphenoid bone morphology
  • growth/size/body phenotype
  • abnormal nasal septum morphology
    • the nasal septum is incomplete   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • abnormal tooth morphology
    • teeth are malformed and arrested   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
    • absent lower incisors   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)
  • absent tongue   (MGI Ref ID J:89445)

Smotm2Amc/Smotm2.1Amc Tg(Tek-cre)12Flv/0

        involves: 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6   (conditional)
  • cardiovascular system phenotype
  • *normal* cardiovascular system phenotype
    • mice exhibit normal outflow tract development   (MGI Ref ID J:135134)

Smotm2Amc/Smotm2.1Amc Tg(Wnt1-cre)11Rth/0

        involves: 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6J * CBA/J   (conditional)
  • cardiovascular system phenotype
  • abnormal artery morphology
    • at E10.5 and E18.5, mice exhibit arch-artery defects compared with wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:135134)
    • pulmonary artery hypoplasia
      • in 4 of 23 mice   (MGI Ref ID J:135134)
  • abnormal outflow tract development
    • mice exhibit partial septation of the outflow tract unlike wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:135134)
    • persistent truncus arteriosis
      • in 17 of 23 mice   (MGI Ref ID J:135134)
  • transposition of great arteries
    • 2 of 23 mice exhibit complete separation of a transposed aorta and hypoplastic pulmonary artery unlike in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:135134)
  • embryogenesis phenotype
  • abnormal neural crest cell apoptosis
    • mice exhibit cell death in neural crest cells unlike in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:135134)
  • cellular phenotype
  • abnormal neural crest cell apoptosis
    • mice exhibit cell death in neural crest cells unlike in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:135134)

Smotm2Amc/Smotm2.1Amc Tg(Wnt1-cre)11Rth/0 Gt(ROSA)26Sortm1Sor/Gt(ROSA)26Sor+

        involves: 129S4/SvJaeSor * 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6J * CBA/J   (conditional)
  • embryogenesis phenotype
  • decreased cardiac neural crest cell number
    • the number of cardiac neural crest cells reaching the outflow tract is moderately reduced compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:135134)
  • impaired cardiac neural crest cell differentiation
    • mice exhibit abnormal patterning of cardiac neural crest cells compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:135134)
  • cardiovascular system phenotype
  • decreased cardiac neural crest cell number
    • the number of cardiac neural crest cells reaching the outflow tract is moderately reduced compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:135134)
  • impaired cardiac neural crest cell differentiation
    • mice exhibit abnormal patterning of cardiac neural crest cells compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:135134)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • decreased cardiac neural crest cell number
    • the number of cardiac neural crest cells reaching the outflow tract is moderately reduced compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:135134)
  • impaired cardiac neural crest cell differentiation
    • mice exhibit abnormal patterning of cardiac neural crest cells compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:135134)
  • cellular phenotype
  • impaired cardiac neural crest cell differentiation
    • mice exhibit abnormal patterning of cardiac neural crest cells compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:135134)

Smotm2Amc/Smotm2Amc Tg(Gfap-cre)73.12Mvs/0

        involves: 129X1/SvJ * BALB/c * C57BL/6NHsd   (conditional)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • *normal* nervous system phenotype
    • mice exhibit normal forebrain morphology and cytoarchitecture   (MGI Ref ID J:165495)
    • the number of astrocytes in the cortex is normal   (MGI Ref ID J:165495)
    • astrocytosis
      • mild in the cortex   (MGI Ref ID J:165495)

Smotm2Amc/Smotm2Amc Tg(Nes-cre)1Kln/0

        involves: 129X1/SvJ * C57BL/6 * SJL   (conditional)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal thalamus morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:147427)

Smotm2Amc/Smotm2Amc Tg(Tek-cre)12Flv/0

        involves: 129X1/SvJ * C3H * C57BL/6   (conditional)
  • cardiovascular system phenotype
  • *normal* cardiovascular system phenotype
    • cardiopulmonary development is not disrupted   (MGI Ref ID J:204743)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Research Tools
Cre-lox System
      loxP-flanked Sequences

Smotm2Amc related

Developmental Biology Research
Embryonic Lethality (Homozygous)
Internal/Organ Defects
      heart
Neural Tube Defects

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

 
Allele Symbol Smotm2Amc
Allele Name targeted mutation 2, Andrew P McMahon
Allele Type Targeted (Conditional ready (e.g. floxed), No functional change)
Common Name(s) Smoc; Smof; Smofl; Smoflox;
Mutation Made By Joe Vaughan,   Harvard University
Strain of Origin129X1/SvJ
ES Cell Line NameAV3
ES Cell Line Strain129X1/SvJ
Gene Symbol and Name Smo, smoothened homolog (Drosophila)
Chromosome 6
Gene Common Name(s) E130215L21Rik; FZD11; Gx; RIKEN cDNA E130215L21 gene; SMOH; bent body; bnb;
Molecular Note Two loxP sites flank ~400 bp of exon 1 from 44 bp upstream through 358 bp downstream of the translation initiation codon and an frt-flanked neomycin resistance sequence. [MGI Ref ID J:73071]

Genotyping

Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

Smotm2Amc, Melt Curve Analysis
Smotm2Amc, Standard PCR


Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting

References

References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Long F; Zhang XM; Karp S; Yang Y; McMahon AP. 2001. Genetic manipulation of hedgehog signaling in the endochondral skeleton reveals a direct role in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation. Development 128(24):5099-108. [PubMed: 11748145]  [MGI Ref ID J:73071]

Additional References

Smotm2Amc related

Anderson C; Williams VC; Moyon B; Daubas P; Tajbakhsh S; Buckingham ME; Shiroishi T; Hughes SM; Borycki AG. 2012. Sonic hedgehog acts cell-autonomously on muscle precursor cells to generate limb muscle diversity. Genes Dev 26(18):2103-17. [PubMed: 22987640]  [MGI Ref ID J:187740]

Balordi F; Fishell G. 2007. Hedgehog signaling in the subventricular zone is required for both the maintenance of stem cells and the migration of newborn neurons. J Neurosci 27(22):5936-47. [PubMed: 17537964]  [MGI Ref ID J:121967]

Balordi F; Fishell G. 2007. Mosaic removal of hedgehog signaling in the adult SVZ reveals that the residual wild-type stem cells have a limited capacity for self-renewal. J Neurosci 27(52):14248-59. [PubMed: 18160632]  [MGI Ref ID J:130973]

Barakat B; Yu L; Lo C; Vu D; De Luca E; Cain JE; Martelotto LG; Dedhar S; Sadler AJ; Wang D; Watkins DN; Hannigan GE. 2013. Interaction of smoothened with integrin-linked kinase in primary cilia mediates Hedgehog signalling. EMBO Rep 14(9):837-44. [PubMed: 23877428]  [MGI Ref ID J:203703]

Blaess S; Corrales JD; Joyner AL. 2006. Sonic hedgehog regulates Gli activator and repressor functions with spatial and temporal precision in the mid/hindbrain region. Development 133(9):1799-809. [PubMed: 16571630]  [MGI Ref ID J:108509]

Blaess S; Stephen D; Joyner AL. 2008. Gli3 coordinates three-dimensional patterning and growth of the tectum and cerebellum by integrating Shh and Fgf8 signaling. Development 135(12):2093-103. [PubMed: 18480159]  [MGI Ref ID J:137136]

Brown AS; Epstein DJ. 2011. Otic ablation of smoothened reveals direct and indirect requirements for Hedgehog signaling in inner ear development. Development 138(18):3967-76. [PubMed: 21831920]  [MGI Ref ID J:180898]

Cain JE; Islam E; Haxho F; Blake J; Rosenblum ND. 2011. GLI3 repressor controls functional development of the mouse ureter. J Clin Invest 121(3):1199-206. [PubMed: 21339645]  [MGI Ref ID J:172032]

Cain JE; Islam E; Haxho F; Chen L; Bridgewater D; Nieuwenhuis E; Hui CC; Rosenblum ND. 2009. GLI3 repressor controls nephron number via regulation of Wnt11 and Ret in ureteric tip cells. PLoS One 4(10):e7313. [PubMed: 19809516]  [MGI Ref ID J:154102]

Charron F; Stein E; Jeong J; McMahon AP; Tessier-Lavigne M. 2003. The Morphogen Sonic Hedgehog Is an Axonal Chemoattractant that Collaborates with Netrin-1 in Midline Axon Guidance. Cell 113(1):11-23. [PubMed: 12679031]  [MGI Ref ID J:82736]

Choi KS; Harfe BD. 2011. Hedgehog signaling is required for formation of the notochord sheath and patterning of nuclei pulposi within the intervertebral discs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(23):9484-9. [PubMed: 21606373]  [MGI Ref ID J:173333]

Chowdhry S; Nazmy MH; Meakin PJ; Dinkova-Kostova AT; Walsh SV; Tsujita T; Dillon JF; Ashford ML; Hayes JD. 2010. Loss of Nrf2 markedly exacerbates nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Free Radic Biol Med 48(2):357-371. [PubMed: 19914374]  [MGI Ref ID J:156727]

Cooper CL; Hardy RR; Reth M; Desiderio S. 2012. Non-cell-autonomous hedgehog signaling promotes murine B lymphopoiesis from hematopoietic progenitors. Blood 119(23):5438-48. [PubMed: 22517907]  [MGI Ref ID J:188661]

Corrales JD; Blaess S; Mahoney EM; Joyner AL. 2006. The level of sonic hedgehog signaling regulates the complexity of cerebellar foliation. Development 133(9):1811-21. [PubMed: 16571625]  [MGI Ref ID J:108507]

Coultas L; Nieuwenhuis E; Anderson GA; Cabezas J; Nagy A; Henkelman RM; Hui CC; Rossant J. 2010. Hedgehog regulates distinct vascular patterning events through VEGF-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Blood 116(4):653-60. [PubMed: 20339091]  [MGI Ref ID J:162821]

Dakubo GD; Mazerolle CJ; Wallace VA. 2006. Expression of Notch and Wnt pathway components and activation of Notch signaling in medulloblastomas from heterozygous patched mice. J Neurooncol 79(3):221-7. [PubMed: 16598417]  [MGI Ref ID J:115750]

Dixit R; Ai X; Fine A. 2013. Derivation of lung mesenchymal lineages from the fetal mesothelium requires hedgehog signaling for mesothelial cell entry. Development 140(21):4398-406. [PubMed: 24130328]  [MGI Ref ID J:204973]

El Andaloussi A; Graves S; Meng F; Mandal M; Mashayekhi M; Aifantis I. 2006. Hedgehog signaling controls thymocyte progenitor homeostasis and differentiation in the thymus. Nat Immunol 7(4):418-26. [PubMed: 16518394]  [MGI Ref ID J:112555]

Fendrich V; Esni F; Garay MV; Feldmann G; Habbe N; Jensen JN; Dor Y; Stoffers D; Jensen J; Leach SD; Maitra A. 2008. Hedgehog signaling is required for effective regeneration of exocrine pancreas. Gastroenterology 135(2):621-31. [PubMed: 18515092]  [MGI Ref ID J:141804]

Fuccillo M; Rallu M; McMahon AP; Fishell G. 2004. Temporal requirement for hedgehog signaling in ventral telencephalic patterning. Development 131(20):5031-40. [PubMed: 15371303]  [MGI Ref ID J:93609]

Gao J; Graves S; Koch U; Liu S; Jankovic V; Buonamici S; El Andaloussi A; Nimer SD; Kee BL; Taichman R; Radtke F; Aifantis I. 2009. Hedgehog signaling is dispensable for adult hematopoietic stem cell function. Cell Stem Cell 4(6):548-58. [PubMed: 19497283]  [MGI Ref ID J:149820]

Garcia AD; Petrova R; Eng L; Joyner AL. 2010. Sonic hedgehog regulates discrete populations of astrocytes in the adult mouse forebrain. J Neurosci 30(41):13597-608. [PubMed: 20943901]  [MGI Ref ID J:165495]

Goddeeris MM; Rho S; Petiet A; Davenport CL; Johnson GA; Meyers EN; Klingensmith J. 2008. Intracardiac septation requires hedgehog-dependent cellular contributions from outside the heart. Development 135(10):1887-95. [PubMed: 18441277]  [MGI Ref ID J:134643]

Goddeeris MM; Schwartz R; Klingensmith J; Meyers EN. 2007. Independent requirements for Hedgehog signaling by both the anterior heart field and neural crest cells for outflow tract development. Development 134(8):1593-604. [PubMed: 17344228]  [MGI Ref ID J:135134]

Gonzalez-Reyes LE; Verbitsky M; Blesa J; Jackson-Lewis V; Paredes D; Tillack K; Phani S; Kramer ER; Przedborski S; Kottmann AH. 2012. Sonic hedgehog maintains cellular and neurochemical homeostasis in the adult nigrostriatal circuit. Neuron 75(2):306-19. [PubMed: 22841315]  [MGI Ref ID J:188348]

Gritli-Linde A; Bei M; Maas R; Zhang XM; Linde A; McMahon AP. 2002. Shh signaling within the dental epithelium is necessary for cell proliferation, growth and polarization. Development 129(23):5323-37. [PubMed: 12403705]  [MGI Ref ID J:80081]

Gritli-Linde A; Hallberg K; Harfe BD; Reyahi A; Kannius-Janson M; Nilsson J; Cobourne MT; Sharpe PT; McMahon AP; Linde A. 2007. Abnormal hair development and apparent follicular transformation to mammary gland in the absence of hedgehog signaling. Dev Cell 12(1):99-112. [PubMed: 17199044]  [MGI Ref ID J:117334]

Hammond R; Blaess S; Abeliovich A. 2009. Sonic hedgehog is a chemoattractant for midbrain dopaminergic axons. PLoS One 4(9):e7007. [PubMed: 19774071]  [MGI Ref ID J:153607]

Han YG; Spassky N; Romaguera-Ros M; Garcia-Verdugo JM; Aguilar A; Schneider-Maunoury S; Alvarez-Buylla A. 2008. Hedgehog signaling and primary cilia are required for the formation of adult neural stem cells. Nat Neurosci 11(3):277-84. [PubMed: 18297065]  [MGI Ref ID J:135664]

Harman RM; Cowan RG; Ren Y; Quirk SM. 2011. Reduced signaling through the hedgehog pathway in the uterine stroma causes deferred implantation and embryonic loss. Reproduction 141(5):665-74. [PubMed: 21307272]  [MGI Ref ID J:180936]

Hayashi S; Tenzen T; McMahon AP. 2003. Maternal inheritance of Cre activity in a Sox2Cre deleter strain. Genesis 37(2):51-3. [PubMed: 14595839]  [MGI Ref ID J:86588]

Hayes L; Ralls S; Wang H; Ahn S. 2013. Duration of Shh signaling contributes to mDA neuron diversity. Dev Biol 374(1):115-26. [PubMed: 23201023]  [MGI Ref ID J:193109]

Heller E; Hurchla MA; Xiang J; Su X; Chen S; Schneider J; Joeng KS; Vidal M; Goldberg L; Deng H; Hornick MC; Prior JL; Piwnica-Worms D; Long F; Cagan R; Weilbaecher KN. 2012. Hedgehog Signaling Inhibition Blocks Growth of Resistant Tumors through Effects on Tumor Microenvironment. Cancer Res 72(4):897-907. [PubMed: 22186138]  [MGI Ref ID J:181098]

Hilton MJ; Tu X; Long F. 2007. Tamoxifen-inducible gene deletion reveals a distinct cell type associated with trabecular bone, and direct regulation of PTHrP expression and chondrocyte morphology by Ihh in growth region cartilage. Dev Biol 308(1):93-105. [PubMed: 17560974]  [MGI Ref ID J:123971]

Hoffmann AD; Peterson MA; Friedland-Little JM; Anderson SA; Moskowitz IP. 2009. sonic hedgehog is required in pulmonary endoderm for atrial septation. Development 136(10):1761-70. [PubMed: 19369393]  [MGI Ref ID J:148020]

Hofmann I; Stover EH; Cullen DE; Mao J; Morgan KJ; Lee BH; Kharas MG; Miller PG; Cornejo MG; Okabe R; Armstrong SA; Ghilardi N; Gould S; de Sauvage FJ; McMahon AP; Gilliland DG. 2009. Hedgehog signaling is dispensable for adult murine hematopoietic stem cell function and hematopoiesis. Cell Stem Cell 4(6):559-67. [PubMed: 19497284]  [MGI Ref ID J:149819]

Hu JK; McGlinn E; Harfe BD; Kardon G; Tabin CJ. 2012. Autonomous and nonautonomous roles of Hedgehog signaling in regulating limb muscle formation. Genes Dev 26(18):2088-102. [PubMed: 22987639]  [MGI Ref ID J:187741]

Huang H; Cotton JL; Wang Y; Rajurkar M; Zhu LJ; Lewis BC; Mao J. 2013. Specific requirement of Gli transcription factors in Hedgehog-mediated intestinal development. J Biol Chem 288(24):17589-96. [PubMed: 23645682]  [MGI Ref ID J:199664]

Huang X; Liu J; Ketova T; Fleming JT; Grover VK; Cooper MK; Litingtung Y; Chiang C. 2010. Transventricular delivery of Sonic hedgehog is essential to cerebellar ventricular zone development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(18):8422-7. [PubMed: 20400693]  [MGI Ref ID J:160335]

Ihrie RA; Shah JK; Harwell CC; Levine JH; Guinto CD; Lezameta M; Kriegstein AR; Alvarez-Buylla A. 2011. Persistent sonic hedgehog signaling in adult brain determines neural stem cell positional identity. Neuron 71(2):250-62. [PubMed: 21791285]  [MGI Ref ID J:174685]

Jeong J; Mao J; Tenzen T; Kottmann AH; McMahon AP. 2004. Hedgehog signaling in the neural crest cells regulates the patterning and growth of facial primordia. Genes Dev 18(8):937-51. [PubMed: 15107405]  [MGI Ref ID J:89445]

King P; Paul A; Laufer E. 2009. Shh signaling regulates adrenocortical development and identifies progenitors of steroidogenic lineages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(50):21185-90. [PubMed: 19955443]  [MGI Ref ID J:155826]

Komada M; Iguchi T; Takeda T; Ishibashi M; Sato M. 2013. Smoothened controls cyclin D2 expression and regulates the generation of intermediate progenitors in the developing cortex. Neurosci Lett 547:87-91. [PubMed: 23680462]  [MGI Ref ID J:201110]

Komada M; Saitsu H; Kinboshi M; Miura T; Shiota K; Ishibashi M. 2008. Hedgehog signaling is involved in development of the neocortex. Development 135(16):2717-27. [PubMed: 18614579]  [MGI Ref ID J:138572]

Lan Y; Jiang R. 2009. Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions controlling palatal outgrowth. Development 136(8):1387-96. [PubMed: 19304890]  [MGI Ref ID J:147277]

Lao Z; Raju GP; Bai CB; Joyner AL. 2012. MASTR: A Technique for Mosaic Mutant Analysis with Spatial and Temporal Control of Recombination Using Conditional Floxed Alleles in Mice. Cell Rep :. [PubMed: 22884371]  [MGI Ref ID J:186310]

Lau J; Hebrok M. 2010. Hedgehog signaling in pancreas epithelium regulates embryonic organ formation and adult beta-cell function. Diabetes 59(5):1211-21. [PubMed: 20185815]  [MGI Ref ID J:164411]

Lavine KJ; Kovacs A; Ornitz DM. 2008. Hedgehog signaling is critical for maintenance of the adult coronary vasculature in mice. J Clin Invest 118(7):2404-14. [PubMed: 18568073]  [MGI Ref ID J:137685]

Lavine KJ; Long F; Choi K; Smith C; Ornitz DM. 2008. Hedgehog signaling to distinct cell types differentially regulates coronary artery and vein development. Development 135(18):3161-71. [PubMed: 18725519]  [MGI Ref ID J:138814]

Li G; Fang L; Fernandez G; Pleasure SJ. 2013. The ventral hippocampus is the embryonic origin for adult neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus. Neuron 78(4):658-72. [PubMed: 23643936]  [MGI Ref ID J:201555]

Lillien L; Gulacsi A. 2006. Environmental signals elicit multiple responses in dorsal telencephalic progenitors by threshold-dependent mechanisms. Cereb Cortex 16 Suppl 1:i74-81. [PubMed: 16766711]  [MGI Ref ID J:174485]

Lin C; Yin Y; Veith GM; Fisher AV; Long F; Ma L. 2009. Temporal and spatial dissection of Shh signaling in genital tubercle development. Development 136(23):3959-67. [PubMed: 19906863]  [MGI Ref ID J:158288]

Lin L; Bu L; Cai CL; Zhang X; Evans S. 2006. Isl1 is upstream of sonic hedgehog in a pathway required for cardiac morphogenesis. Dev Biol 295(2):756-63. [PubMed: 16687132]  [MGI Ref ID J:110602]

Liu CF; Breidenbach A; Aschbacher-Smith L; Butler D; Wylie C. 2013. A role for hedgehog signaling in the differentiation of the insertion site of the patellar tendon in the mouse. PLoS One 8(6):e65411. [PubMed: 23762363]  [MGI Ref ID J:203313]

Long F; Chung UI; Ohba S; McMahon J; Kronenberg HM; McMahon AP. 2004. Ihh signaling is directly required for the osteoblast lineage in the endochondral skeleton. Development 131(6):1309-18. [PubMed: 14973297]  [MGI Ref ID J:88635]

Long F; Joeng KS; Xuan S; Efstratiadis A; McMahon AP. 2006. Independent regulation of skeletal growth by Ihh and IGF signaling. Dev Biol 298(1):327-33. [PubMed: 16905129]  [MGI Ref ID J:119575]

Machold R; Hayashi S; Rutlin M; Muzumdar MD; Nery S; Corbin JG; Gritli-Linde A; Dellovade T; Porter JA; Rubin LL; Dudek H; McMahon AP; Fishell G. 2003. Sonic hedgehog is required for progenitor cell maintenance in telencephalic stem cell niches. Neuron 39(6):937-50. [PubMed: 12971894]  [MGI Ref ID J:85603]

Mak KK; Kronenberg HM; Chuang PT; Mackem S; Yang Y. 2008. Indian hedgehog signals independently of PTHrP to promote chondrocyte hypertrophy. Development 135(11):1947-56. [PubMed: 18434416]  [MGI Ref ID J:134987]

Michelotti GA; Xie G; Swiderska M; Choi SS; Karaca G; Kruger L; Premont R; Yang L; Syn WK; Metzger D; Diehl AM. 2013. Smoothened is a master regulator of adult liver repair. J Clin Invest 123(6):2380-94. [PubMed: 23563311]  [MGI Ref ID J:201461]

Nolan-Stevaux O; Lau J; Truitt ML; Chu GC; Hebrok M; Fernandez-Zapico ME; Hanahan D. 2009. GLI1 is regulated through Smoothened-independent mechanisms in neoplastic pancreatic ducts and mediates PDAC cell survival and transformation. Genes Dev 23(1):24-36. [PubMed: 19136624]  [MGI Ref ID J:143478]

Ohazama A; Johnson EB; Ota MS; Choi HJ; Porntaveetus T; Oommen S; Itoh N; Eto K; Gritli-Linde A; Herz J; Sharpe PT. 2008. Lrp4 modulates extracellular integration of cell signaling pathways in development. PLoS ONE 3(12):e4092. [PubMed: 19116665]  [MGI Ref ID J:144348]

Park KS; Martelotto LG; Peifer M; Sos ML; Karnezis AN; Mahjoub MR; Bernard K; Conklin JF; Szczepny A; Yuan J; Guo R; Ospina B; Falzon J; Bennett S; Brown TJ; Markovic A; Devereux WL; Ocasio CA; Chen JK; Stearns T; Thomas RK; Dorsch M; Buonamici S; Watkins DN; Peacock CD; Sage J. 2011. A crucial requirement for Hedgehog signaling in small cell lung cancer. Nat Med 17(11):1504-8. [PubMed: 21983857]  [MGI Ref ID J:178123]

Peng T; Tian Y; Boogerd CJ; Lu MM; Kadzik RS; Stewart KM; Evans SM; Morrisey EE. 2013. Coordination of heart and lung co-development by a multipotent cardiopulmonary progenitor. Nature 500(7464):589-92. [PubMed: 23873040]  [MGI Ref ID J:204743]

Perry JM; Harandi OF; Porayette P; Hegde S; Kannan AK; Paulson RF. 2009. Maintenance of the BMP4-dependent stress erythropoiesis pathway in the murine spleen requires hedgehog signaling. Blood 113(4):911-8. [PubMed: 18927434]  [MGI Ref ID J:144571]

Petrova R; Garcia AD; Joyner AL. 2013. Titration of GLI3 repressor activity by sonic hedgehog signaling is critical for maintaining multiple adult neural stem cell and astrocyte functions. J Neurosci 33(44):17490-505. [PubMed: 24174682]  [MGI Ref ID J:204199]

Purcell P; Joo BW; Hu JK; Tran PV; Calicchio ML; O'Connell DJ; Maas RL; Tabin CJ. 2009. Temporomandibular joint formation requires two distinct hedgehog-dependent steps. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(43):18297-302. [PubMed: 19815519]  [MGI Ref ID J:153743]

Regard JB; Malhotra D; Gvozdenovic-Jeremic J; Josey M; Chen M; Weinstein LS; Lu J; Shore EM; Kaplan FS; Yang Y. 2013. Activation of Hedgehog signaling by loss of GNAS causes heterotopic ossification. Nat Med 19(11):1505-12. [PubMed: 24076664]  [MGI Ref ID J:202828]

Rice R; Spencer-Dene B; Connor EC; Gritli-Linde A; McMahon AP; Dickson C; Thesleff I; Rice DP. 2004. Disruption of Fgf10/Fgfr2b-coordinated epithelial-mesenchymal interactions causes cleft palate. J Clin Invest 113(12):1692-700. [PubMed: 15199404]  [MGI Ref ID J:90909]

Rodda SJ; McMahon AP. 2006. Distinct roles for Hedgehog and canonical Wnt signaling in specification, differentiation and maintenance of osteoblast progenitors. Development 133(16):3231-44. [PubMed: 16854976]  [MGI Ref ID J:114494]

Sakagami K; Gan L; Yang XJ. 2009. Distinct effects of Hedgehog signaling on neuronal fate specification and cell cycle progression in the embryonic mouse retina. J Neurosci 29(21):6932-44. [PubMed: 19474320]  [MGI Ref ID J:149518]

Seifert AW; Bouldin CM; Choi KS; Harfe BD; Cohn MJ. 2009. Multiphasic and tissue-specific roles of sonic hedgehog in cloacal septation and external genitalia development. Development 136(23):3949-57. [PubMed: 19906862]  [MGI Ref ID J:154980]

Spassky N; Han YG; Aguilar A; Strehl L; Besse L; Laclef C; Ros MR; Garcia-Verdugo JM; Alvarez-Buylla A. 2008. Primary cilia are required for cerebellar development and Shh-dependent expansion of progenitor pool. Dev Biol 317(1):246-59. [PubMed: 18353302]  [MGI Ref ID J:136079]

Tang M; Luo SX; Tang V; Huang EJ. 2013. Temporal and spatial requirements of Smoothened in ventral midbrain neuronal development. Neural Dev 8:8. [PubMed: 23618354]  [MGI Ref ID J:199133]

Varnat F; Zacchetti G; Ruiz I Altaba A. 2010. Hedgehog pathway activity is required for the lethality and intestinal phenotypes of mice with hyperactive Wnt signaling. Mech Dev 127(1-2):73-81. [PubMed: 19861162]  [MGI Ref ID J:156736]

Vue TY; Bluske K; Alishahi A; Yang LL; Koyano-Nakagawa N; Novitch B; Nakagawa Y. 2009. Sonic hedgehog signaling controls thalamic progenitor identity and nuclei specification in mice. J Neurosci 29(14):4484-97. [PubMed: 19357274]  [MGI Ref ID J:147427]

Wang Q; Huang C; Zeng F; Xue M; Zhang X. 2010. Activation of the Hh pathway in periosteum-derived mesenchymal stem cells induces bone formation in vivo: implication for postnatal bone repair. Am J Pathol 177(6):3100-11. [PubMed: 20971735]  [MGI Ref ID J:167645]

White AC; Lavine KJ; Ornitz DM. 2007. FGF9 and SHH regulate mesenchymal Vegfa expression and development of the pulmonary capillary network. Development 134(20):3743-52. [PubMed: 17881491]  [MGI Ref ID J:128368]

Woo WM; Zhen HH; Oro AE. 2012. Shh maintains dermal papilla identity and hair morphogenesis via a Noggin-Shh regulatory loop. Genes Dev 26(11):1235-46. [PubMed: 22661232]  [MGI Ref ID J:184827]

Xu Q; Guo L; Moore H; Waclaw RR; Campbell K; Anderson SA. 2010. Sonic hedgehog signaling confers ventral telencephalic progenitors with distinct cortical interneuron fates. Neuron 65(3):328-40. [PubMed: 20159447]  [MGI Ref ID J:167654]

Xu Q; Wonders CP; Anderson SA. 2005. Sonic hedgehog maintains the identity of cortical interneuron progenitors in the ventral telencephalon. Development 132(22):4987-98. [PubMed: 16221724]  [MGI Ref ID J:102950]

Yam PT; Kent CB; Morin S; Farmer WT; Alchini R; Lepelletier L; Colman DR; Tessier-Lavigne M; Fournier AE; Charron F. 2012. 14-3-3 proteins regulate a cell-intrinsic switch from sonic hedgehog-mediated commissural axon attraction to repulsion after midline crossing. Neuron 76(4):735-49. [PubMed: 23177959]  [MGI Ref ID J:196985]

Yu K; McGlynn S; Matise MP. 2013. Floor plate-derived sonic hedgehog regulates glial and ependymal cell fates in the developing spinal cord. Development 140(7):1594-604. [PubMed: 23482494]  [MGI Ref ID J:194893]

Zhao C; Chen A; Jamieson CH; Fereshteh M; Abrahamsson A; Blum J; Kwon HY; Kim J; Chute JP; Rizzieri D; Munchhof M; Vanarsdale T; Beachy PA; Reya T. 2009. Hedgehog signalling is essential for maintenance of cancer stem cells in myeloid leukaemia. Nature 458(7239):776-779. [PubMed: 19169242]  [MGI Ref ID J:147298]

Zhao L; Saitsu H; Sun X; Shiota K; Ishibashi M. 2010. Sonic hedgehog is involved in formation of the ventral optic cup by limiting Bmp4 expression to the dorsal domain. Mech Dev 127(1-2):62-72. [PubMed: 19854269]  [MGI Ref ID J:156737]

de la Roche M; Ritter AT; Angus KL; Dinsmore C; Earnshaw CH; Reiter JF; Griffiths GM. 2013. Hedgehog signaling controls T cell killing at the immunological synapse. Science 342(6163):1247-50. [PubMed: 24311692]  [MGI Ref ID J:205261]

Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Room Number           AX11

Colony Maintenance

Mating SystemHomozygote x Homozygote         (Female x Male)   01-MAR-06
Diet Information LabDiet® 5K52/5K67

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls


Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $232.00Female or MaleHomozygous for Smotm2Amc  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$464.00Homozygous for Smotm2Amc x Homozygous for Smotm2Amc  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $301.60Female or MaleHomozygous for Smotm2Amc  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$603.20Homozygous for Smotm2Amc x Homozygous for Smotm2Amc  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

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   None Available
 
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  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.
 

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The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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