Strain Name:

B6.129P2-Esr1tm1Ksk/J

Stock Number:

004744

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Female mice homozygous for this mutation exhibit ovaries that lack corpora lutea and hypoplastic uteri that are unresponsive to estrogen. Homozygous males show reduced testis weight associated with diminished sperm count.

Description

Strain Information

Type Congenic; Mutant Strain; Targeted Mutation;
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Mating SystemHeterozygote x Heterozygote         (Female x Male)   01-MAR-06
Specieslaboratory mouse
GenerationN11F7 (17-JUL-13)
Generation Definitions
 
Donating Investigator Kenneth Korach,   LRDT, NIEHS, NIH

Description
At birth, mice homozygous for the targeted allele are viable and normal in size and appearence. Female mice exhibit ovaries that lack corpora lutea and hypoplastic uteri that are unresponsive to estrogen. In males, below normal testis weight is associated with a diminished sperm count (10% of normal). Homozygous females are infertile. The fertility of homozygous males is greatly reduced, but not abolished.

Development
A targeting vector containing a neomycin resistance gene driven by the mouse phosphoglycerate kinase promoter was used to disrupt the second exon of the targeted gene. A herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase was used for negative selection. The construct was electroporated into 129P2/OlaHsd-derived E14TG2a embryonic stem (ES) cells. Correctly targeted ES cells were injected into C57BL/6 blastocysts. Correctly targeted ES cells were injected into C57BL/6J blastocysts to obtain chimeric animals. This strain originated on a B6;129P2 background and has been backcrossed to C57BL/6 for ten generations.

Control Information

  Control
   Wild-type from the colony
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

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Parkinson's Disease Models
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004322   B6.129S1-Mapk10tm1Flv/J
003190   B6.129S2-Drd2tm1Low/J
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017946   B6.129S4-Pink1tm1Shn/J
005934   B6.129S4-Ucp2tm1Lowl/J
004936   B6.129S6(Cg)-Spp1tm1Blh/J
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008321   B6.Cg-Tg(Npy-MAPT/Sapphire)1Rck/J
008324   B6.Cg-Tg(Pmch-MAPT/CFP)1Rck/J
008322   B6.Cg-Tg(Pomc-MAPT/Topaz)1Rck/J
007894   B6.Cg-Tg(Rgs4-EGFP)4Lvt/J
012588   B6.Cg-Tg(TH-ALPP)1Erav/J
012265   B6.Cg-Tg(THY1-SNCA*A30P)TS2Sud/J
008859   B6.Cg-Tg(THY1-SNCA*A53T)F53Sud/J
008135   B6.Cg-Tg(THY1-SNCA*A53T)M53Sud/J
008601   B6.Cg-Tg(Th-cre)1Tmd/J
013583   B6.Cg-Tg(tetO-LRRK2)C7874Cai/J
000544   B6.D2-Cacna1atg/J
012445   B6.FVB-Tg(LRRK2)WT1Mjfa/J
012446   B6.FVB-Tg(LRRK2*G2019S)1Mjfa/J
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008889   B6;129-Gt(ROSA)26Sortm2(SNCA*119)Djmo/TmdJ
008886   B6;129-Gt(ROSA)26Sortm3(SNCA*E46K)Djmo/TmdJ
009347   B6;129-Lrrk2tm1.1Shn/J
016209   B6;129-Lrrk2tm2.1Shn/J
016210   B6;129-Lrrk2tm3.1Shn/J
013050   B6;129-Pink1tm1Aub/J
004807   B6;129-Psen1tm1Mpm Tg(APPSwe,tauP301L)1Lfa/Mmjax
006390   B6;129-Sncatm1Sud Sncbtm1.1Sud/J
008532   B6;129-Thtm1(cre/Esr1)Nat/J
008333   B6;129P2-Dldtm1Ptl/J
008333   B6;129P2-Dldtm1Ptl/J
002596   B6;129P2-Nos2tm1Lau/J
003243   B6;129S-Tnfrsf1atm1Imx Tnfrsf1btm1Imx/J
003692   B6;129X1-Sncatm1Rosl/J
016575   B6;C3-Tg(PDGFB-LRRK2*G2019S)340Djmo/J
016576   B6;C3-Tg(PDGFB-LRRK2*R1441C)574Djmo/J
008169   B6;C3-Tg(Prnp-MAPT*P301S)PS19Vle/J
004479   B6;C3-Tg(Prnp-SNCA*A53T)83Vle/J
000231   B6;C3Fe a/a-Csf1op/J
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016976   B6C3-Tg(tetO-SNCA*A53T)33Vle/J
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012769   C57BL/6-Tg(Thy1-Sncg)HvP36Putt/J
005706   C57BL/6-Tg(tetO-CDK5R1/GFP)337Lht/J
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018786   C57BL/6J-Tg(LRRK2*R1441G)3IMjff/J
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016121   C57BL/6N-Lrrk2tm1.1Mjff/J
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012442   STOCK Tg(tetO-SNCA*A53T)E2Cai/J
012449   STOCK Tg(teto-LRRK2)C7874Cai/J
View Parkinson's Disease Models     (112 strains)

Strains carrying other alleles of Esr1
017911   B6N.129S6(Cg)-Esr1tm1.1(cre)And/J
View Strains carrying other alleles of Esr1     (1 strain)

Additional Web Information

Visit the Parkinson's Disease Resource site for helpful information on Parkinson's and research resources.

Phenotype

Phenotype Information

View Related Disease (OMIM) Terms

Related Disease (OMIM) Terms provided by MGI
- Potential model based on gene homology relationships. Phenotypic similarity to the human disease has not been tested.
Breast Cancer   (ESR1)
Estrogen Receptor 1; ESR1   (ESR1)
Estrogen Resistance; ESTRR   (ESR1)
Migraine with or without Aura, Susceptibility to, 1   (ESR1)
Myocardial Infarction, Susceptibility to   (ESR1)
View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

Esr1tm1Ksk/Esr1tm1Ksk

        B6.129P2-Esr1tm1Ksk/J
  • reproductive system phenotype
  • oligozoospermia
  • seminiferous tubule degeneration
  • endocrine/exocrine gland phenotype
  • seminiferous tubule degeneration

Esr1tm1Ksk/Esr1tm1Ksk

        B6.129P2-Esr1tm1Ksk
  • adipose tissue phenotype
  • *normal* adipose tissue phenotype
    • no significant difference in the amount of brown adipose tissue is detected in male or females at any age   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
    • increased epididymal fat pad weight
      • in males at 30 and 90 days of age   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
    • increased inguinal fat pad weight
      • in males and females at 90 days of age   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
    • increased parametrial fat pad weight
      • at 90 days of age   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
    • increased renal fat pad weight
      • in males at between 270 and 360 days of age   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
      • in females at 90 days of age   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
    • increased white adipose tissue amount
      • progressive increase in the amount of white adipose tissue with age in males   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
    • increased white fat cell number
      • at 180 days of age the numbers of adipocytes in the perirenal and epididymal fat pads are significantly increased   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
      • at 90 days of age the number of adipocytes is increased in females   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
    • increased white fat cell size
      • at 180 days of age the areas of adipocytes from the perirenal and epididymal fat pads are significantly increased   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
      • at 90 days of age the size of adipocytes is increased in females   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • decreased energy expenditure
    • in males compared to wild-type littermate controls   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
  • impaired glucose tolerance
    • glucose levels are higher at 30, 60 and 120 min after a glucose challenge in males compared to similarly treated wild-type males   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
    • glucose tolerance is also impaired in females   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
  • insulin resistance
    • following a glucose challenge insulin levels are significantly increased in males and females compared to wild-type controls   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
  • behavior/neurological phenotype
  • *normal* behavior/neurological phenotype
    • no increase in food intake is seen despite the increase in the amount of white adipose tissue   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
    • abnormal nociception after inflammation
      • female mice exhibit an increased threshold to mechanical nociception following inflammation compared with similarly treated wild-type female mice   (MGI Ref ID J:151022)
      • however, male mice exhibit normal mechanical nociception after inflammation   (MGI Ref ID J:151022)
    • hyporesponsive to tactile stimuli
      • female mice exhibit an increased threshold to mechanical nociception compared with similarly treated wild-type female mice   (MGI Ref ID J:151022)
      • however, male mice exhibit normal mechanical nociception   (MGI Ref ID J:151022)
    • impaired passive avoidance behavior
      • retention is impaired in an inhibitory avoidance assay   (MGI Ref ID J:65785)
      • treatment with estradiol improves retention to a level similar to that in estradiol treated wild-type controls   (MGI Ref ID J:65785)
  • growth/size/body phenotype
  • decreased birth weight
  • increased body weight
    • by 11 months of age males weigh 16% more than wild-type males   (MGI Ref ID J:65806)
  • integument phenotype
  • abnormal nociception after inflammation
    • female mice exhibit an increased threshold to mechanical nociception following inflammation compared with similarly treated wild-type female mice   (MGI Ref ID J:151022)
    • however, male mice exhibit normal mechanical nociception after inflammation   (MGI Ref ID J:151022)
  • hyporesponsive to tactile stimuli
    • female mice exhibit an increased threshold to mechanical nociception compared with similarly treated wild-type female mice   (MGI Ref ID J:151022)
    • however, male mice exhibit normal mechanical nociception   (MGI Ref ID J:151022)

The following phenotype information is associated with a similar, but not exact match to this JAX® Mice strain.

Esr1tm1Ksk/Esr1+

        involves: 129P2/OlaHsd
  • reproductive system phenotype
  • abnormal testis morphology
    • at 21 to 25 weeks of age in 4 males 5 of 8 testis were retracted up to near the bladder neck   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)
    • however, external examination did not reveal any defect in testicular descent   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)
  • muscle phenotype
  • abnormal cremaster muscle morphology
    • the cremaster sac is smaller in length and width and has a much thicker layer of cremaster muscle   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)
    • cross sectional width of the cremaster muscle at its abdominal wall attachment and at its tip is about twice that of wild-type controls   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)
  • endocrine/exocrine gland phenotype
  • abnormal testis morphology
    • at 21 to 25 weeks of age in 4 males 5 of 8 testis were retracted up to near the bladder neck   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)
    • however, external examination did not reveal any defect in testicular descent   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)

Esr1tm1Ksk/Esr1tm1Ksk

        involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6J
  • behavior/neurological phenotype
  • abnormal maternal nurturing
    • gondadally intact and gonadectomized females showed greatly reduced levels of parental behavior toward newborn pups placed in their home cage   (MGI Ref ID J:51468)
    • abnormal pup retrieval
      • noninfanticidal female mutants displayed reduced levels of retrieving behavior   (MGI Ref ID J:51468)
    • pup cannibalization
      • about 40% of mutant females displayed infanticidal behavior   (MGI Ref ID J:51468)
  • abnormal mating receptivity
    • females fail to show lordosis posture or receptiveness to wild-type males even when treated with estrogen   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
    • gonadectomized females showed rejections toward male sexual behavior about 80% of the time   (MGI Ref ID J:51468)
    • estrogen or estrogen plus progesterone-treated gonadectomized females showed prereceptive posture but did not display lordosis behavior   (MGI Ref ID J:51468)
  • decreased aggression
    • male mice showed a decrease in aggressive behavior relative to wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:38600)
    • decreased aggression towards males
      • in a resident intruder assay aggressive behaviors toward the intruder male are greatly reduced   (MGI Ref ID J:66582)
      • loss of offensive attacks is also seen when males are tested in a neutral cage   (MGI Ref ID J:66582)
  • hyperactivity
    • male mice exhibited female-type open field behavior including increased activity   (MGI Ref ID J:38600)
  • increased aggression towards females
    • gonadally intact females exhibit higher levels of aggression toward gonadectomized and steroid-primed female intruders, however gonadectomized mutant females do not show increased aggression   (MGI Ref ID J:51468)
  • increased vertical activity
    • male mice exhibited female-type open field behavior including increased rearing   (MGI Ref ID J:38600)
  • reduced male mating frequency   (MGI Ref ID J:51468)
    • males mounted females but made fewer intromissions   (MGI Ref ID J:38600)
    • males housed overnight with hormone-primed wild-type females produced significantly fewer copulatory plugs than heterozygous or wild-type males   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
  • reproductive system phenotype
  • abnormal epididymis morphology
    • by 20-24 weeks of age, epididymides were often hypospermic esp. in the caput and corpus regions   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
  • abnormal female reproductive system physiology
    • females fail to respond to estrogen treatment   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
    • female infertility   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
  • abnormal ovary morphology
    • containing few granulosa cells   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
    • hyperemic cystic ovaries   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
    • absent corpus luteum   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
    • ovarian follicular cyst
      • hemorrhagic ovarian cysts   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
  • abnormal seminiferous tubule morphology
    • by 20-24 weeks of age, seminiferous tubules either had a dilated lumen and a thin layer of Sertoli cells or a disorganized epithelium with few spermatogonia or lacked a lumen and contained mostly Sertoli cells   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
    • abnormal seminiferous tubule epithelium morphology
      • at 20 days after birth, the seminiferous epithelium is thinner than normal   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
    • dilated seminiferous tubules
      • at 20 days after birth, the lumen of seminiferous tubules was significantly dilated   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
      • tubule dilation progressed with age and became more pronounced at 60 days after birth   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
    • seminiferous tubule degeneration
      • degenerating seminiferous tubules were observed beginning at 10 to 12 weeks of age   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
      • degeneration was initiated at the caudal pole of the testis and progressed in a wave to the cranial pole between 3-6 months of age   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
      • only a few partially intact tubules were noted at the cranial pole at 6 months of age   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
  • abnormal spermatogenesis
    • disruption of spermatogenesis evident after 10 weeks of age   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
    • spermatogenesis occurs in the seminiferous tubules of some mutants at 3-5 months of age   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
    • oligozoospermia
      • sperm count was 10% that of wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
      • a reduced concentration of epididymal sperm was noted in the caput region at 10 weeks of age, and in more distal regions at 20 weeks of age   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
      • sperm counts declined and became significantly lower than those of wild-type controls by 12-13 weeks of age   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
    • teratozoospermia
      • sperm with retroflexed bending in the midpiece region were commonly observed   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
      • however, no major sperm head abnormalities were found to occur   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
      • detached sperm flagellum
        • sperm heads were commonly detached from the flagellum   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
  • abnormal uterus morphology
    • the percentage area of the uterus innervated by PGP 9.5 and DBH immunoreactive nerves is increased even when normalized for the decrease in uterine size   (MGI Ref ID J:85911)
    • abnormal endometrium morphology
      • endometrial stroma is less dense, approaching a mesh like morphology in extreme cases   (MGI Ref ID J:85911)
    • small uterus   (MGI Ref ID J:85911)
      • decreased uterus weight
        • at 118 days of age   (MGI Ref ID J:114164)
      • uterus hypoplasia
        • stromal, epithelial, and myometrial tissue compartments are all reduced   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
        • however, all major cell types are present   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
  • asthenozoospermia
    • the sperm motility of 8-16-wk-old males declines from 20% to less than 1% during a 90-min period of in vitro capacitation   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
    • mutant sperm beat less vigorously and display less forward progression than wild-type sperm   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
  • decreased testis weight   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
    • at 20-23 weeks of age, the weight of mutant testis was significantly lower than that of wild-type or heterozygous males   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
    • in contrast, the weights of the seminal glands, coagulating glands, and epididymi remained normal at 5-6 months of age   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
  • dilated rete testis
    • the lumen of the rete testis became significantly dilated at 60 days after birth   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
    • however, the efferent ductules and epididymides showed no signs of dilation or dysmorphology in young or adult mice   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
  • failure of ejaculation
    • ejaculations were never observed in mutants   (MGI Ref ID J:38600)
    • when place with a receptive female for 90 min, males display mounts and intromissions but fail to ejaculate   (MGI Ref ID J:66582)
  • impaired fertilization
    • sperm from 8-16-wk-old male mutants display a significantly reduced in vitro fertilization capacity relative to wild-type sperm   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
  • male infertility
    • males sired no offspring during a 2-month mating period   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
  • reduced male fertility
    • 3 of 15 males sired offspring   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
    • males that did not sire offspring also did not produce vaginal plugs   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • abnormal circulating protein level
    • decrease in the concentration of osteocalcin, a marker of bone formation, in the serum at 110 days of age   (MGI Ref ID J:62222)
  • abnormal response/metabolism to endogenous compounds
    • 17beta-estradiol-treated castrated mice fail to exhibit a decrease in bone marrow cellularity, immunoglobulin switching, or increased production of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM) and exhibit a reduced decrease in the frequency of B cells unlike similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:82423)
    • 17beta-estradiol-treated castrated mice fail to exhibit a decrease in pre-B cells and newly formed B cells unlike similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:82423)
    • however, 17beta-estradiol-treated castrated mice exhibit a decrease in pro-B cell   (MGI Ref ID J:82423)
  • decreased circulating insulin-like growth factor I level   (MGI Ref ID J:62222)
    • levels are 23% lower than in wild-type controls at 118 days of age   (MGI Ref ID J:114164)
  • increased circulating cholesterol level
    • in adult males   (MGI Ref ID J:66077)
    • increased circulating HDL cholesterol level
      • in adult males   (MGI Ref ID J:66077)
  • increased circulating estradiol level
    • about a 10 fold increase in 17beta estradiol levels in females   (MGI Ref ID J:112080)
  • increased circulating leptin level
    • in males at 4 months of age but not at 1 or 2 months of age   (MGI Ref ID J:66077)
  • increased circulating testosterone level
    • at 20-23 weeks of age, serum testosterone levels are moderately increased relative to wild-type and heterozygous levels   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
    • in contrast, serum LH and FSH levels are slightly but not significantly increased   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
  • increased urine protein level
    • in males and females at 1 year of age   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
  • insulin resistance
    • in males at 4 months of age the insulin x free fatty acid product is increased suggesting the mice are insulin resistant   (MGI Ref ID J:66077)
  • cardiovascular system phenotype
  • decreased heart weight   (MGI Ref ID J:62222)
  • growth/size/body phenotype
  • decreased body weight
    • late pubertal and young adult body weight is decreased compared to controls   (MGI Ref ID J:62222)
  • increased body weight
    • in adult mice (over 44 days of age)   (MGI Ref ID J:114164)
    • obese
      • males at 4 months of age are obese   (MGI Ref ID J:66077)
  • increased total body fat amount
    • in males at 4 months of age but not at 1 or 2 months of age   (MGI Ref ID J:66077)
  • respiratory system phenotype
  • decreased lung weight   (MGI Ref ID J:62222)
  • skeleton phenotype
  • *normal* skeleton phenotype
    • unlike for the appendicular skeleton, no difference in the length of the axial skeleton is detected   (MGI Ref ID J:114164)
    • abnormal bone ossification
      • under non-loading condition, mice exhibit reduced bone formation compared with wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:91765)
      • load-induced periosteal and endosteal bone formation rates are 60% lower than in similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:91765)
      • abnormal bone mineralization
        • under non-loading condition, mice exhibit reduced endosteal mineralizing surface compared with wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:91765)
        • load-induced increase in periosteal mineralization is decreased 40% compared to in similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:91765)
        • load-induced endosteal mineral apposition rate is 50% lower than in similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:91765)
    • decreased bone mineral content
      • bone mineral content normalized to body weight is decreased in the total body, femur and spine   (MGI Ref ID J:62222)
    • decreased bone mineral density
      • total areal bone mineral density is slightly decreased and femur bone mineral density is decreased in adults   (MGI Ref ID J:62222)
    • decreased bone strength
      • decrease in maximal load   (MGI Ref ID J:62222)
      • however, other parameters, such as maximal stress and elastic modulus, are not significantly different from controls   (MGI Ref ID J:62222)
    • decreased compact bone area
      • decrease in mid-diaphyseal bone mineral content in the femur and tibia mainly as a result of a decrease in cross-sectional area associated with a decrease in periosteal and endosteal circumference   (MGI Ref ID J:62222)
    • decreased length of long bones   (MGI Ref ID J:114164)
      • short femur
        • in post-pubertal mice   (MGI Ref ID J:62222)
        • at 118 days of age but not at 31 or 65 days of age   (MGI Ref ID J:114164)
      • short tibia
        • at 118 days of age but not at 31 or 65 days of age   (MGI Ref ID J:114164)
      • short ulna
        • ulnae are 4% shorter and straighter than in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:91765)
    • decreased osteoblast cell number
      • after 10 minutes of mechanical stress, the number of osteoblast-like cells is decreased unlike in similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:91765)
      • however, transfection of the endogenous gene restores the increase in load-induced osteoblast cells to levels greater than in similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:91765)
    • increased compact bone area
      • under non-loading condition, cortical area is 12% greater than in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:91765)
      • load-induced increase in cortical area is reduced 3-fold compared to in similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:91765)
      • under non-loading condition, periosteal perimeter is 6% greater than in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:91765)
  • embryogenesis phenotype
  • abnormal mesonephros morphology
    • at P23 the efferent ductules are enlarged and dilated in females   (MGI Ref ID J:108807)
    • in adult females well developed and enlarged ductules with occasional epididymal-like initial segments are seen   (MGI Ref ID J:108807)
  • immune system phenotype
  • abnormal B cell number
    • 17beta-estradiol-treated castrated mice exhibit a reduced decrease in the frequency of B cells compared with similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:82423)
    • 17beta-estradiol-treated castrated mice fail to exhibit a decrease in pre-B cells and newly formed B cells unlike similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:82423)
    • increased plasma cell number
      • display plasmacytosis of the spleen and kidney   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
      • lymph nodes also display an accumulation of plasma cells   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
  • abnormal class switch recombination
    • 17beta-estradiol-treated castrated mice fail to exhibit immunoglobulin switching unlike similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:82423)
  • abnormal immunoglobulin level
    • 17beta-estradiol-treated castrated mice fail to exhibit an increase in production of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM) compared with similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:82423)
    • increased IgG3 level
      • in females   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
  • abnormal lymph node cell ratio
    • display an accumulation of plasma cells   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
  • abnormal spleen physiology
    • display plasmacytosis of the spleen   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
  • decreased CD4-positive, alpha beta T cell number
    • mice have fewer single positive CD4+ and CD8+ thymocytes compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:110416)
  • decreased CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cell number
    • mice have fewer single positive CD4+ and CD8+ thymocytes compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:110416)
  • glomerulonephritis
    • seen in males and females by 1 year of age   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
    • deposits of IgG are detected in the glomeruli   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
  • increased anti-double stranded DNA antibody level
    • in males and females   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
  • increased double-positive T cell number
    • mice have increased double positive CD4+CD8+ thymocytes compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:110416)
  • increased spleen germinal center number
    • despite being kept in a specific pathogen free environment mice spontaneously develop germinal centers   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
  • thymus hypoplasia   (MGI Ref ID J:110416)
  • renal/urinary system phenotype
  • abnormal kidney physiology
    • display plasmacytosis of the kidney   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
    • glomerulonephritis
      • seen in males and females by 1 year of age   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
      • deposits of IgG are detected in the glomeruli   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
  • cortical renal glomerulopathies
    • show some degree of mesangial sclerosis at 1 year of age   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
    • glomerulonephritis
      • seen in males and females by 1 year of age   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
      • deposits of IgG are detected in the glomeruli   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
  • increased urine protein level
    • in males and females at 1 year of age   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal hypothalamus morphology
    • in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus the number of TH positive neurons is increased in males compared to wild-type males   (MGI Ref ID J:99716)
  • abnormal innervation
    • the percentage area of the uterus innervated by PGP 9.5 and DBH immunoreactive nerves is increased even when normalized for the decrease in uterine size   (MGI Ref ID J:85911)
  • adipose tissue phenotype
  • increased gonadal fat pad weight
    • in males at 4 months of age   (MGI Ref ID J:66077)
  • increased retroperitoneal fat pad weight
    • in males at 4 months of age   (MGI Ref ID J:66077)
  • increased total body fat amount
    • in males at 4 months of age but not at 1 or 2 months of age   (MGI Ref ID J:66077)
  • endocrine/exocrine gland phenotype
  • abnormal ovary morphology
    • containing few granulosa cells   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
    • hyperemic cystic ovaries   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
    • absent corpus luteum   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
    • ovarian follicular cyst
      • hemorrhagic ovarian cysts   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
  • abnormal seminiferous tubule morphology
    • by 20-24 weeks of age, seminiferous tubules either had a dilated lumen and a thin layer of Sertoli cells or a disorganized epithelium with few spermatogonia or lacked a lumen and contained mostly Sertoli cells   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
    • abnormal seminiferous tubule epithelium morphology
      • at 20 days after birth, the seminiferous epithelium is thinner than normal   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
    • dilated seminiferous tubules
      • at 20 days after birth, the lumen of seminiferous tubules was significantly dilated   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
      • tubule dilation progressed with age and became more pronounced at 60 days after birth   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
    • seminiferous tubule degeneration
      • degenerating seminiferous tubules were observed beginning at 10 to 12 weeks of age   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
      • degeneration was initiated at the caudal pole of the testis and progressed in a wave to the cranial pole between 3-6 months of age   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
      • only a few partially intact tubules were noted at the cranial pole at 6 months of age   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
  • decreased testis weight   (MGI Ref ID J:16338)
    • at 20-23 weeks of age, the weight of mutant testis was significantly lower than that of wild-type or heterozygous males   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
    • in contrast, the weights of the seminal glands, coagulating glands, and epididymi remained normal at 5-6 months of age   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
  • dilated rete testis
    • the lumen of the rete testis became significantly dilated at 60 days after birth   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
    • however, the efferent ductules and epididymides showed no signs of dilation or dysmorphology in young or adult mice   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)
  • thymus hypoplasia   (MGI Ref ID J:110416)
  • limbs/digits/tail phenotype
  • short femur
    • in post-pubertal mice   (MGI Ref ID J:62222)
    • at 118 days of age but not at 31 or 65 days of age   (MGI Ref ID J:114164)
  • short tibia
    • at 118 days of age but not at 31 or 65 days of age   (MGI Ref ID J:114164)
  • short ulna
    • ulnae are 4% shorter and straighter than in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:91765)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • abnormal B cell number
    • 17beta-estradiol-treated castrated mice exhibit a reduced decrease in the frequency of B cells compared with similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:82423)
    • 17beta-estradiol-treated castrated mice fail to exhibit a decrease in pre-B cells and newly formed B cells unlike similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:82423)
    • increased plasma cell number
      • display plasmacytosis of the spleen and kidney   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
      • lymph nodes also display an accumulation of plasma cells   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
  • abnormal bone marrow cell number
    • 17beta-estradiol-treated castrated mice fail to exhibit a decrease in bone marrow cellularity unlike similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:82423)
  • abnormal class switch recombination
    • 17beta-estradiol-treated castrated mice fail to exhibit immunoglobulin switching unlike similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:82423)
  • abnormal immunoglobulin level
    • 17beta-estradiol-treated castrated mice fail to exhibit an increase in production of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM) compared with similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:82423)
    • increased IgG3 level
      • in females   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
  • decreased CD4-positive, alpha beta T cell number
    • mice have fewer single positive CD4+ and CD8+ thymocytes compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:110416)
  • decreased CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cell number
    • mice have fewer single positive CD4+ and CD8+ thymocytes compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:110416)
  • increased double-positive T cell number
    • mice have increased double positive CD4+CD8+ thymocytes compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:110416)
  • increased spleen germinal center number
    • despite being kept in a specific pathogen free environment mice spontaneously develop germinal centers   (MGI Ref ID J:88156)
  • thymus hypoplasia   (MGI Ref ID J:110416)
  • cellular phenotype
  • detached sperm flagellum
    • sperm heads were commonly detached from the flagellum   (MGI Ref ID J:36658)

Esr1tm1Ksk/Esr1tm1Ksk

        involves: 129P2/OlaHsd
  • reproductive system phenotype
  • abnormal internal male genitalia morphology
    • descended testes are higher in the cremaster sac compared to wild-type littermates   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)
    • the cremaster sac is smaller in length and width and has a much thicker layer of cremaster muscle   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)
    • abnormal epididymis morphology
      • increase in the prevalence of blind-ending efferent tubules   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
      • tubular diameters of the initial segment epididymides are dilated   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
      • apical, narrow, and clear cells of the epididymis are abnormal in some regions   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
      • abnormal epididymis epithelium morphology
        • initial segment epithelium is displaced into regions adjacent to the rete tesis and in short segments of the common region of efferent ductule   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
        • endocytotic vesicles and large PAS+ lysosomal granules are reduced or missing in the epithelium of the epididymis   (MGI Ref ID J:83231)
        • epididymal epithelium is decreased in height by 45%   (MGI Ref ID J:83231)
      • spermatic granuloma
        • sperm granulomas are seen in the corpus and cauda regions of 1/3 of mutant males   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
    • abnormal testis morphology
      • mutants exhibit glycogen-containing cells at the rete testis-efferent ductile junction   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
      • at 21 to 25 weeks of age in 4 males 6 of 8 testis were retracted up to near the bladder neck   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)
      • however, external examination did not reveal any defect in testicular descent   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)
      • abnormal efferent ductules of testis morphology
        • increase in the prevalence of blind-ending efferent tubules; these blind-ending tubules have an empty and collapsaed lumen, and epithelial cells contain fewer cytoplasmic organelles, particularly lysosomes and endocytotic vesicles   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
        • the blind-ending tubules often contain enlarged bulbous endings that are never seen in wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
        • efferent ductule epithelial height is reduced by 48%   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
        • number of cilia per epithelial cell is reduced and the cilia do not show the typical parallel arrangement   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
        • microvilli of nonciliated cells of efferent ductules along the apical border are often missing and when present, are 64% shorter in length   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
        • nonciliated cells have missing or greatly reduced endocytotic apparatus   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
        • dilated efferent ductules of testis   (MGI Ref ID J:125658)
          • efferent ductules are swollen, with luminal areas more than twice the size of wild-type males   (MGI Ref ID J:83231)
          • efferent tubules are dilated between 130 to 300% over wild-type ductules   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
      • abnormal testis weight
        • transient increase in testis weight between 32 and 81 days of age and a decrease by 185 days   (MGI Ref ID J:83231)
        • after ductal occlusion testes of mutants weigh 30% more than wild-type, due to luminal fluid accumulation   (MGI Ref ID J:83231)
      • dilated rete testis   (MGI Ref ID J:83231)
        • dilated rete testis compared to wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:125658)
      • seminiferous tubule degeneration
        • degenerate, empty tubules   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)
  • abnormal male reproductive system physiology
    • after unilateral occlusion, rete testes secretes significantly less fluid in 24 hours than wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:83231)
    • efferent ductules from mutants treated with an anti-estorgen compound are incapable of reabsorbing luminal fluid while wild-type ductules remove most of the fluid within 3 hours   (MGI Ref ID J:83231)
    • male infertility
      • males are sterile   (MGI Ref ID J:125658)
  • abnormal ovary morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
    • absent corpus luteum   (MGI Ref ID J:55147)
      • in untreated females   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
      • however, females grafted with a heterozygous pituitary gland display hypertrophied luteal cells that are highly vacuolated with lipid droplets indicating steroidogenesis   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
    • impaired ovarian folliculogenesis
      • follicles develop to the large antral stage but fail to progress further   (MGI Ref ID J:55147)
      • antral stage follicles contain apoptotic granulosa cells and degenerating oocytes   (MGI Ref ID J:55147)
    • ovarian follicular cyst   (MGI Ref ID J:55147)
      • atretic hemorrhagic follicular cysts   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
  • abnormal superovulation
    • treatment with exogenous pregnant mare serum gonadotropin followed by human chorionic gonadotropin fails to induce ovulation   (MGI Ref ID J:55147)
  • abnormal vagina epithelium morphology
    • epithelium is not cornified   (MGI Ref ID J:72221)
  • anovulation   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
  • decreased uterus weight   (MGI Ref ID J:152738)
    • in untreated mice   (MGI Ref ID J:72221)
    • however, mice do not display diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced reduction in uterine weight   (MGI Ref ID J:72221)
  • failure of embryo implantation
    • transplanted wild-type embryos fail to implant in ovariectomized hormone treated females   (MGI Ref ID J:108638)
    • nodules that do form contain only decidualized uterine tissue   (MGI Ref ID J:108638)
  • oligozoospermia
    • cauda epididymides show a reduced concentration of sperm   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
  • ovary hemorrhage
    • hemorrhagic ovarian follicles   (MGI Ref ID J:55147)
    • atretic hemorrhagic follicular cysts   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
  • uterus hypoplasia   (MGI Ref ID J:72221)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal pituitary gland physiology
    • patterns of staining for a gonadotropin subunit proteins are altered   (MGI Ref ID J:40607)
  • decreased lactotroph cell number
    • modest decrease in lactotroph cell density   (MGI Ref ID J:40607)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • *normal* hematopoietic system phenotype
    • despite absence of Esr1, cultured bone marrow stromal cells respond to estrogen to depress B cell precursor expansion   (MGI Ref ID J:110923)
    • abnormal bone marrow cell number
      • decrease in the percentages of mature and CD45R+, sIgM+ B cells in the bone marrow   (MGI Ref ID J:110923)
    • decreased immature B cell number
      • decrease in the percentage of CD45R+, sIgM+ B cells in the bone marrow   (MGI Ref ID J:110923)
    • decreased mature B cell number
      • decrease in the percentage of mature B cells in the bone marrow   (MGI Ref ID J:110923)
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • abnormal physiological response to xenobiotic
    • treatment with PPT (propyl(1H) pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl-trisphenol) protects mice from accoustic trauma unlike similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:135833)
    • decreased physiological sensitivity to xenobiotic
      • do not display diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced reduction in uterine weight, increase in body weight, or pathological changes in reproductive tissues   (MGI Ref ID J:72221)
  • abnormal response/metabolism to endogenous compounds
    • thymic atrophy induced by E2 treatment is attenuated compared to in similarly treated wild type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:131313)
    • E2 induced accumulation of DN1 and reduction of DN2 thymocytes is completely abrogated compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:131313)
    • following treatment with 17beta-estradiol, female mice does not exhibit an increase in uterine weight unlike similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:152738)
  • albuminuria
    • around 7 to 8 months, female mice exhibit increased albumin excretion compared with wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:152738)
    • however, male mice and ovariectomized female mice exhibit normal albumin excretion   (MGI Ref ID J:152738)
  • decreased circulating estradiol level
    • in ovariectomized female mice   (MGI Ref ID J:152738)
  • decreased circulating prolactin level
    • in adult females   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
    • in ovariectomized females treated with estradiol prolactin levels remain low unlike in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
  • decreased circulating testosterone level
    • in ovariectomized female mice   (MGI Ref ID J:152738)
  • impaired glucose tolerance
    • prior to and after tamoxifen treatment   (MGI Ref ID J:151012)
  • increased circulating estradiol level   (MGI Ref ID J:72221)
  • increased circulating glucose level   (MGI Ref ID J:151012)
  • increased circulating testosterone level
    • 8 times higher in female mice compared with wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:152738)
  • insulin resistance
    • mice exhibit insulin resistance compared with wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:151012)
    • treatment with tamoxifen increases insulin sensitivity but mice remain insulin resistant compared with wild-type mice 15 and 30 minutes after treatment   (MGI Ref ID J:151012)
    • however, tamoxifen-treatment eventually restores normal insulin sensitivity   (MGI Ref ID J:151012)
  • cardiovascular system phenotype
  • *normal* cardiovascular system phenotype
    • mice exhibit normal estrogen- and estrogen-dendrimer conjugate (EDC)-induced reendothelialization following arterial denudation   (MGI Ref ID J:163783)
    • ovary hemorrhage
      • hemorrhagic ovarian follicles   (MGI Ref ID J:55147)
      • atretic hemorrhagic follicular cysts   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
  • muscle phenotype
  • abnormal cremaster muscle morphology
    • the cremaster sac is smaller in length and width and has a much thicker layer of cremaster muscle   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)
    • cross sectional width of the cremaster muscle at its abdominal wall attachment and at its tip is about twice that of wild-type controls   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)
  • immune system phenotype
  • decreased immature B cell number
    • decrease in the percentage of CD45R+, sIgM+ B cells in the bone marrow   (MGI Ref ID J:110923)
  • decreased mature B cell number
    • decrease in the percentage of mature B cells in the bone marrow   (MGI Ref ID J:110923)
  • spermatic granuloma
    • sperm granulomas are seen in the corpus and cauda regions of 1/3 of mutant males   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
  • endocrine/exocrine gland phenotype
  • abnormal mammary gland development
    • only a rudimentary ductal structure is present   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
    • in ovariectomized females treated with estradiol mammary glands do not exhibit any growth   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
    • restoring prolactin levels by grafting half a heterozygous pituitary gland induces dramatic mammary gland growth in ovary intact females   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
    • hormone treatment with estradiol and progesterone stimulates ductal branching and lobuloalveolar development and terminal end bud formation   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
  • abnormal ovary morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
    • absent corpus luteum   (MGI Ref ID J:55147)
      • in untreated females   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
      • however, females grafted with a heterozygous pituitary gland display hypertrophied luteal cells that are highly vacuolated with lipid droplets indicating steroidogenesis   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
    • impaired ovarian folliculogenesis
      • follicles develop to the large antral stage but fail to progress further   (MGI Ref ID J:55147)
      • antral stage follicles contain apoptotic granulosa cells and degenerating oocytes   (MGI Ref ID J:55147)
    • ovarian follicular cyst   (MGI Ref ID J:55147)
      • atretic hemorrhagic follicular cysts   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
  • abnormal pituitary gland physiology
    • patterns of staining for a gonadotropin subunit proteins are altered   (MGI Ref ID J:40607)
  • abnormal testis morphology
    • mutants exhibit glycogen-containing cells at the rete testis-efferent ductile junction   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
    • at 21 to 25 weeks of age in 4 males 6 of 8 testis were retracted up to near the bladder neck   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)
    • however, external examination did not reveal any defect in testicular descent   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)
    • abnormal efferent ductules of testis morphology
      • increase in the prevalence of blind-ending efferent tubules; these blind-ending tubules have an empty and collapsaed lumen, and epithelial cells contain fewer cytoplasmic organelles, particularly lysosomes and endocytotic vesicles   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
      • the blind-ending tubules often contain enlarged bulbous endings that are never seen in wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
      • efferent ductule epithelial height is reduced by 48%   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
      • number of cilia per epithelial cell is reduced and the cilia do not show the typical parallel arrangement   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
      • microvilli of nonciliated cells of efferent ductules along the apical border are often missing and when present, are 64% shorter in length   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
      • nonciliated cells have missing or greatly reduced endocytotic apparatus   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
      • dilated efferent ductules of testis   (MGI Ref ID J:125658)
        • efferent ductules are swollen, with luminal areas more than twice the size of wild-type males   (MGI Ref ID J:83231)
        • efferent tubules are dilated between 130 to 300% over wild-type ductules   (MGI Ref ID J:60490)
    • abnormal testis weight
      • transient increase in testis weight between 32 and 81 days of age and a decrease by 185 days   (MGI Ref ID J:83231)
      • after ductal occlusion testes of mutants weigh 30% more than wild-type, due to luminal fluid accumulation   (MGI Ref ID J:83231)
    • dilated rete testis   (MGI Ref ID J:83231)
      • dilated rete testis compared to wild-type   (MGI Ref ID J:125658)
    • seminiferous tubule degeneration
      • degenerate, empty tubules   (MGI Ref ID J:112350)
  • decreased lactotroph cell number
    • modest decrease in lactotroph cell density   (MGI Ref ID J:40607)
  • ovary hemorrhage
    • hemorrhagic ovarian follicles   (MGI Ref ID J:55147)
    • atretic hemorrhagic follicular cysts   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
  • growth/size/body phenotype
  • decreased body length
    • at 9 and 18 months, crown to rump length is decreased compared to Esr1tm1Ksk Esr2tm1Unc homozygotes   (MGI Ref ID J:111108)
  • increased body weight
    • in female mice   (MGI Ref ID J:152738)
    • in untreated females   (MGI Ref ID J:72221)
    • however, mice do not display diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced increase in body weight   (MGI Ref ID J:72221)
  • limbs/digits/tail phenotype
  • short femur
    • at 4, 9, and 18 months, femur length is decreased compared to in Esr1tm1Ksk Esr2tm1Unc homozygotes   (MGI Ref ID J:111108)
  • skeleton phenotype
  • abnormal chondrocyte physiology
    • chondrocyte proliferation in the femur is increased compared to in Esr1tm1Ksk Esr2tm1Unc homozygotes   (MGI Ref ID J:111108)
    • however, chondrocyte proliferation in the tibia and vertebra is normal   (MGI Ref ID J:111108)
  • abnormal skeleton development
    • at 4 months, femur growth velocity is reduced compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:111108)
    • abnormal long bone epiphyseal plate morphology
      • at 18 months, the growth plates in the femur and tibia are fused unlike in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:111108)
      • column density is decreased compared to in Esr1tm1Ksk Esr2tm1Unc homozygotes   (MGI Ref ID J:111108)
      • decreased long bone epiphyseal plate size
        • at 4 months, the femur growth plate exhibit decreased height compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:111108)
        • at 18 months, the tibia and femur growth plates exhibit decreased height compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:111108)
  • abnormal vertebrae morphology
    • at 18 months, vertebra height is decreased compared to in Esr1tm1Ksk Esr2tm1Unc homozygotes   (MGI Ref ID J:111108)
  • short femur
    • at 4, 9, and 18 months, femur length is decreased compared to in Esr1tm1Ksk Esr2tm1Unc homozygotes   (MGI Ref ID J:111108)
  • renal/urinary system phenotype
  • albuminuria
    • around 7 to 8 months, female mice exhibit increased albumin excretion compared with wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:152738)
    • however, male mice and ovariectomized female mice exhibit normal albumin excretion   (MGI Ref ID J:152738)
  • expanded mesangial matrix
    • female mice exhibit diffuse mesangial matrix expansion compared with wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:152738)
  • renal glomerulus hypertrophy
    • at 9 months, female mice exhibit an increase in glomerular size compared with wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:152738)
    • however, ovariectomized female mice exhibit normal glomerular size   (MGI Ref ID J:152738)
  • integument phenotype
  • abnormal mammary gland development
    • only a rudimentary ductal structure is present   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
    • in ovariectomized females treated with estradiol mammary glands do not exhibit any growth   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
    • restoring prolactin levels by grafting half a heterozygous pituitary gland induces dramatic mammary gland growth in ovary intact females   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)
    • hormone treatment with estradiol and progesterone stimulates ductal branching and lobuloalveolar development and terminal end bud formation   (MGI Ref ID J:64639)

Esr1tm1Ksk/Esr1tm1Ksk

        involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6N
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • abnormal hematopoiesis
    • following estradiol treatment hematopoietic progenitor subsets that are decreased in number in wild-type mice are not decreased in mutants   (MGI Ref ID J:63462)
    • abnormal B cell differentiation
      • unlike in wild-type mice, estradiol treatment does not change the numbers of immature or mature B cells   (MGI Ref ID J:63462)
      • decreased immature B cell number
        • decrease in the number of pre/pro and immature B cells   (MGI Ref ID J:63462)
    • decreased B cell number   (MGI Ref ID J:63462)
      • decreased immature B cell number
        • decrease in the number of pre/pro and immature B cells   (MGI Ref ID J:63462)
      • decreased mature B cell number   (MGI Ref ID J:63462)
    • decreased thymocyte number   (MGI Ref ID J:111590)
  • abnormal thymus physiology
    • estradiol induced thymic atrophy is reduced compared to wild-type controls and the subpopulation profile is not altered unlike in wild-type controls   (MGI Ref ID J:111590)
  • decreased thymus weight
    • about a 50% reduction in thymus weight   (MGI Ref ID J:111590)
  • immune system phenotype
  • abnormal B cell differentiation
    • unlike in wild-type mice, estradiol treatment does not change the numbers of immature or mature B cells   (MGI Ref ID J:63462)
    • decreased immature B cell number
      • decrease in the number of pre/pro and immature B cells   (MGI Ref ID J:63462)
  • abnormal thymus physiology
    • estradiol induced thymic atrophy is reduced compared to wild-type controls and the subpopulation profile is not altered unlike in wild-type controls   (MGI Ref ID J:111590)
  • decreased B cell number   (MGI Ref ID J:63462)
    • decreased immature B cell number
      • decrease in the number of pre/pro and immature B cells   (MGI Ref ID J:63462)
    • decreased mature B cell number   (MGI Ref ID J:63462)
  • decreased thymocyte number   (MGI Ref ID J:111590)
  • decreased thymus weight
    • about a 50% reduction in thymus weight   (MGI Ref ID J:111590)
  • endocrine/exocrine gland phenotype
  • abnormal thymus physiology
    • estradiol induced thymic atrophy is reduced compared to wild-type controls and the subpopulation profile is not altered unlike in wild-type controls   (MGI Ref ID J:111590)
  • decreased thymocyte number   (MGI Ref ID J:111590)
  • decreased thymus weight
    • about a 50% reduction in thymus weight   (MGI Ref ID J:111590)

Esr1tm1Ksk/Esr1tm1Ksk

        involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6
  • cardiovascular system phenotype
  • altered response of heart to induced stress
    • following induced ischemia hearts take longer to resume regular beating, produce more nitrite, accumulate more calcium, reduce less MTT indicting a more severe impairment of mitochondrial respiratory function, and show more extensive and intense cellular damage   (MGI Ref ID J:62353)
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • altered response of heart to induced stress
    • following induced ischemia hearts take longer to resume regular beating, produce more nitrite, accumulate more calcium, reduce less MTT indicting a more severe impairment of mitochondrial respiratory function, and show more extensive and intense cellular damage   (MGI Ref ID J:62353)

Esr1tm1Ksk/Esr1tm1Ksk

        involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * 129S6/SvEvTac
  • reproductive system phenotype
  • dilated seminiferous tubules   (MGI Ref ID J:84989)
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • increased circulating estradiol level   (MGI Ref ID J:84989)
  • endocrine/exocrine gland phenotype
  • dilated seminiferous tubules   (MGI Ref ID J:84989)

Esr1tm1Ksk/Esr1tm1Ksk

        involves: 129P2/OlaHsd * C57BL/6 * SJL
  • endocrine/exocrine gland phenotype
  • abnormal mammary gland development
    • underdeveloped at 10 weeks of age with a rudimentary ductal network confined to the nipple region   (MGI Ref ID J:54215)
  • integument phenotype
  • abnormal mammary gland development
    • underdeveloped at 10 weeks of age with a rudimentary ductal network confined to the nipple region   (MGI Ref ID J:54215)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Neurobiology Research
Parkinson's Disease
      increased vulnerability to MPTP

Esr1tm1Ksk related

Developmental Biology Research
Internal/Organ Defects
      ovary; uterus

Internal/Organ Research
Other Organ Defects

Reproductive Biology Research
Developmental Defects Affecting Gonads
      germ cell deficient
Fertility Defects

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

 
Allele Symbol Esr1tm1Ksk
Allele Name targeted mutation 1, Kenneth S Korach
Allele Type Targeted (Null/Knockout)
Common Name(s) AERKO; ER-alpha-; ER1KO; ERKO; ERa-Neo; ERalpha-; ERalpha-KO; ERalphaKO; ERalphaKOCH; Esr1tm1Unc; Esr1tm1Ksk; alpha-ERKO; alphaERKO;
Mutation Made By Kenneth Korach,   LRDT, NIEHS, NIH
Strain of Origin129P2/OlaHsd
ES Cell Line NameE14TG2a
ES Cell Line Strain129P2/OlaHsd
Gene Symbol and Name Esr1, estrogen receptor 1 (alpha)
Chromosome 10
Gene Common Name(s) AA420328; AU041214; ER; ER-alpha; ER[a]; ERa; ERalpha; ESR; ESRA; ESTRR; Estr; Estra; NR3A1; RNESTROR; estrogen receptor; estrogen receptor alpha; expressed sequence AA420328; expressed sequence AU041214;
Molecular Note Insertion of a PGK-neomycin resistance cassette into exon 2 disrupted the reading frame downstream of the ATG start site. ELISA studies using antibodies to the carboxy terminus detected low concentrations of endogenous protein in uterine tissue from homozygous mutant mice. RT-PCR analysis detected two truncated mutant transcripts in uterine tissue from homozygous mice. Western blot analysis detected a 61 kDa protein in uterine tissue from homozygotes. Transient transfection assays confirmed that this protein retains some transactivation activity in the presence of estradiol. [MGI Ref ID J:105821] [MGI Ref ID J:112080] [MGI Ref ID J:16338]

Genotyping

Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

Esr1tm1Ksk-Alterante 2,

MELT



Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting

References

References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Lubahn DB; Moyer JS; Golding TS; Couse JF; Korach KS; Smithies O. 1993. Alteration of reproductive function but not prenatal sexual development after insertional disruption of the mouse estrogen receptor gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(23):11162-6. [PubMed: 8248223]  [MGI Ref ID J:16338]

Additional References

Esr1tm1Ksk related

Abraham IM; Todman MG; Korach KS; Herbison AE. 2004. Critical in vivo roles for classical estrogen receptors in rapid estrogen actions on intracellular signaling in mouse brain. Endocrinology 145(7):3055-61. [PubMed: 14976146]  [MGI Ref ID J:105631]

Agmo A; Choleris E; Kavaliers M; Pfaff DW; Ogawa S. 2008. Social and sexual incentive properties of estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta, or oxytocin knockout mice. Genes Brain Behav 7(1):70-7. [PubMed: 17504245]  [MGI Ref ID J:145605]

Akingbemi BT; Ge R; Rosenfeld CS; Newton LG; Hardy DO; Catterall JF; Lubahn DB; Korach KS; Hardy MP. 2003. Estrogen receptor-alpha gene deficiency enhances androgen biosynthesis in the mouse Leydig cell. Endocrinology 144(1):84-93. [PubMed: 12488333]  [MGI Ref ID J:115529]

Al Sweidi S; Morissette M; Rouillard C; Di Paolo T. 2013. Estrogen receptors and lesion-induced response of striatal dopamine receptors. Neuroscience 236:99-109. [PubMed: 23357113]  [MGI Ref ID J:201379]

Allred KF; Smart EJ; Wilson ME. 2006. Estrogen receptor-alpha mediates gender differences in atherosclerosis induced by HIV protease inhibitors. J Biol Chem 281(3):1419-25. [PubMed: 16299001]  [MGI Ref ID J:107322]

Alves SE; McEwen BS; Hayashi S; Korach KS; Pfaff DW; Ogawa S. 2000. Estrogen-regulated progestin receptors are found in the midbrain raphe but not hippocampus of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) gene-disrupted mice J Comp Neurol 427(2):185-95. [PubMed: 11054687]  [MGI Ref ID J:65530]

Barros RP; Gabbi C; Morani A; Warner M; Gustafsson JA. 2009. Participation of ERalpha and ERbeta in glucose homeostasis in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297(1):E124-33. [PubMed: 19366879]  [MGI Ref ID J:151012]

Barros RP; Machado UF; Warner M; Gustafsson JA. 2006. Muscle GLUT4 regulation by estrogen receptors ERbeta and ERalpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(5):1605-8. [PubMed: 16423895]  [MGI Ref ID J:105982]

Bebo BF Jr; Dehghani B; Foster S; Kurniawan A; Lopez FJ; Sherman LS. 2009. Treatment with selective estrogen receptor modulators regulates myelin specific T-cells and suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Glia 57(7):777-90. [PubMed: 19031437]  [MGI Ref ID J:156215]

Bigsby RM; Caperell-Grant A. 2011. The role for estrogen receptor-alpha and prolactin receptor in sex-dependent DEN-induced liver tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis 32(8):1162-6. [PubMed: 21606321]  [MGI Ref ID J:174984]

Bocchinfuso WP; Hively WP; Couse JF; Varmus HE; Korach KS. 1999. A mouse mammary tumor virus-Wnt-1 transgene induces mammary gland hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in mice lacking estrogen receptor-alpha. Cancer Res 59(8):1869-76. [PubMed: 10213494]  [MGI Ref ID J:54215]

Bocchinfuso WP; Korach KS. 1997. Mammary gland development and tumorigenesis in estrogen receptor knockout mice. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2(4):323-34. [PubMed: 10935020]  [MGI Ref ID J:64643]

Bocchinfuso WP; Lindzey JK; Hewitt SC; Clark JA; Myers PH; Cooper R; Korach KS. 2000. Induction of mammary gland development in estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mice. Endocrinology 141(8):2982-94. [PubMed: 10919287]  [MGI Ref ID J:64639]

Borzychowski AM; Chantakru S; Minhas K; Paffaro VA; Yamada AT; He H; Korach KS; Croy BA. 2003. Functional analysis of murine uterine natural killer cells genetically devoid of oestrogen receptors. Placenta 24(4):403-11. [PubMed: 12657515]  [MGI Ref ID J:117832]

Brown CM; Mulcahey TA; Filipek NC; Wise PM. 2010. Production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines during neuroinflammation: novel roles for estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Endocrinology 151(10):4916-25. [PubMed: 20685874]  [MGI Ref ID J:165675]

Brown M; Ning J; Ferreira JA; Bogener JL; Lubahn DB. 2009. Estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta and aromatase knockout effects on lower limb muscle mass and contractile function in female mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 296(4):E854-61. [PubMed: 19176355]  [MGI Ref ID J:148129]

Bryzgalova G; Gao H; Ahren B; Zierath JR; Galuska D; Steiler TL; Dahlman-Wright K; Nilsson S; Gustafsson JA; Efendic S; Khan A. 2006. Evidence that oestrogen receptor-alpha plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in mice: insulin sensitivity in the liver. Diabetologia 49(3):588-97. [PubMed: 16463047]  [MGI Ref ID J:107888]

Buchanan DL; Kurita T; Taylor JA; Lubahn DB; Cunha GR; Cooke PS. 1998. Role of stromal and epithelial estrogen receptors in vaginal epithelial proliferation, stratification, and cornification. Endocrinology 139(10):4345-52. [PubMed: 9751518]  [MGI Ref ID J:108803]

Burns KH; Agno JE; Chen L; Haupt B; Ogbonna SC; Korach KS; Matzuk MM. 2003. Sexually dimorphic roles of steroid hormone receptor signaling in gonadal tumorigenesis. Mol Endocrinol 17(10):2039-52. [PubMed: 12855748]  [MGI Ref ID J:84989]

Callewaert F; Bakker A; Schrooten J; Van Meerbeek B; Verhoeven G; Boonen S; Vanderschueren D. 2010. Androgen receptor disruption increases the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in male mice. J Bone Miner Res 25(1):124-31. [PubMed: 19821763]  [MGI Ref ID J:179870]

Callewaert F; Venken K; Ophoff J; De Gendt K; Torcasio A; van Lenthe GH; Van Oosterwyck H; Boonen S; Bouillon R; Verhoeven G; Vanderschueren D. 2009. Differential regulation of bone and body composition in male mice with combined inactivation of androgen and estrogen receptor-alpha. FASEB J 23(1):232-40. [PubMed: 18809737]  [MGI Ref ID J:146033]

Carey MA; Card JW; Bradbury JA; Moorman MP; Haykal-Coates N; Gavett SH; Graves JP; Walker VR; Flake GP; Voltz JW; Zhu D; Jacobs ER; Dakhama A; Larsen GL; Loader JE; Gelfand EW; Germolec DR; Korach KS; Zeldin DC. 2007. Spontaneous airway hyperresponsiveness in estrogen receptor-alpha-deficient mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175(2):126-35. [PubMed: 17095746]  [MGI Ref ID J:135930]

Carreras E; Turner S; Frank MB; Knowlton N; Osban J; Centola M; Park CG; Simmons A; Alberola-Ila J; Kovats S. 2010. Estrogen receptor signaling promotes dendritic cell differentiation by increasing expression of the transcription factor IRF4. Blood 115(2):238-46. [PubMed: 19880499]  [MGI Ref ID J:156316]

Carreras E; Turner S; Paharkova-Vatchkova V; Mao A; Dascher C; Kovats S. 2008. Estradiol acts directly on bone marrow myeloid progenitors to differentially regulate GM-CSF or Flt3 ligand-mediated dendritic cell differentiation. J Immunol 180(2):727-38. [PubMed: 18178810]  [MGI Ref ID J:130951]

Chagin AS; Lindberg MK; Andersson N; Moverare S; Gustafsson JA; Savendahl L; Ohlsson C. 2004. Estrogen receptor-beta inhibits skeletal growth and has the capacity to mediate growth plate fusion in female mice. J Bone Miner Res 19(1):72-7. [PubMed: 14753739]  [MGI Ref ID J:111108]

Chambliss KL; Wu Q; Oltmann S; Konaniah ES; Umetani M; Korach KS; Thomas GD; Mineo C; Yuhanna IS; Kim SH; Madak-Erdogan Z; Maggi A; Dineen SP; Roland CL; Hui DY; Brekken RA; Katzenellenbogen JA; Katzenellenbogen BS; Shaul PW. 2010. Non-nuclear estrogen receptor alpha signaling promotes cardiovascular protection but not uterine or breast cancer growth in mice. J Clin Invest 120(7):2319-30. [PubMed: 20577047]  [MGI Ref ID J:163783]

Chen L; Bi J; Nakai M; Bunick D; Couse JF; Korach KS; Nowak RA. 2010. Expression of basigin in reproductive tissues of estrogen receptor-{alpha} or -{beta} null mice. Reproduction 139(6):1057-66. [PubMed: 20388736]  [MGI Ref ID J:162946]

Chen M; Hsu I; Wolfe A; Radovick S; Huang K; Yu S; Chang C; Messing EM; Yeh S. 2009. Defects of prostate development and reproductive system in the estrogen receptor-alpha null male mice. Endocrinology 150(1):251-9. [PubMed: 18755802]  [MGI Ref ID J:147000]

Choleris E; Gustafsson JA; Korach KS; Muglia LJ; Pfaff DW; Ogawa S. 2003. An estrogen-dependent four-gene micronet regulating social recognition: a study with oxytocin and estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(10):6192-7. [PubMed: 12730370]  [MGI Ref ID J:83406]

Choleris E; Ogawa S; Kavaliers M; Gustafsson JA; Korach KS; Muglia LJ; Pfaff DW. 2006. Involvement of estrogen receptor alpha, beta and oxytocin in social discrimination: A detailed behavioral analysis with knockout female mice. Genes Brain Behav 5(7):528-39. [PubMed: 17010099]  [MGI Ref ID J:126499]

Chou YC; Uehara N; Lowry JR; Shyamala G. 2003. Mammary epithelial cells of PR-A transgenic mice exhibit distinct alterations in gene expression and growth potential associated with transformation. Carcinogenesis 24(3):403-9. [PubMed: 12663498]  [MGI Ref ID J:82840]

Chung SH; Wiedmeyer K; Shai A; Korach KS; Lambert PF. 2008. Requirement for estrogen receptor alpha in a mouse model for human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer. Cancer Res 68(23):9928-34. [PubMed: 19047174]  [MGI Ref ID J:142089]

Cleveland AG; Oikarinen SI; Bynote KK; Marttinen M; Rafter JJ; Gustafsson JA; Roy SK; Pitot HC; Korach KS; Lubahn DB; Mutanen M; Gould KA. 2009. Disruption of estrogen receptor signaling enhances intestinal neoplasia in Apc(Min/+) mice. Carcinogenesis 30(9):1581-90. [PubMed: 19520794]  [MGI Ref ID J:152202]

Corbacho AM; Eiserich JP; Zuniga LA; Valacchi G; Villablanca AC. 2007. Compromised aortic vasoreactivity in male estrogen receptor-alpha-deficient mice during acute lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Endocrinology 148(3):1403-11. [PubMed: 17158209]  [MGI Ref ID J:129588]

Coulombe MA; Spooner MF; Gaumond I; Carrier JC; Marchand S. 2011. Estrogen receptors beta and alpha have specific pro- and anti-nociceptive actions. Neuroscience 184:172-82. [PubMed: 21377511]  [MGI Ref ID J:173844]

Couse JF; Bunch DO; Lindzey J; Schomberg DW; Korach KS. 1999. Prevention of the polycystic ovarian phenotype and characterization of ovulatory capacity in the estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mouse. Endocrinology 140(12):5855-65. [PubMed: 10579351]  [MGI Ref ID J:58578]

Couse JF; Curtis Hewitt S; Korach KS. 2000. Receptor null mice reveal contrasting roles for estrogen receptor alpha and beta in reproductive tissues. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 74(5):287-96. [PubMed: 11162937]  [MGI Ref ID J:66741]

Couse JF; Curtis SW; Washburn TF; Eddy EM; Schomberg DW; Korach KS. 1995. Disruption of the mouse oestrogen receptor gene: resulting phenotypes and experimental findings. Biochem Soc Trans 23(4):929-35. [PubMed: 8654869]  [MGI Ref ID J:31065]

Couse JF; Curtis SW; Washburn TF; Lindzey J; Golding TS; Lubahn DB; Smithies O; Korach KS. 1995. Analysis of transcription and estrogen insensitivity in the female mouse after targeted disruption of the estrogen receptor gene. Mol Endocrinol 9(11):1441-54. [PubMed: 8584021]  [MGI Ref ID J:112080]

Couse JF; Dixon D; Yates M; Moore AB; Ma L; Maas R; Korach KS. 2001. Estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mice exhibit resistance to the developmental effects of neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure on the female reproductive tract. Dev Biol 238(2):224-38. [PubMed: 11784006]  [MGI Ref ID J:72221]

Couse JF; Hewitt SC; Bunch DO; Sar M; Walker VR; Davis BJ; Korach KS. 1999. Postnatal sex reversal of the ovaries in mice lacking estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Science 286(5448):2328-31. [PubMed: 10600740]  [MGI Ref ID J:59105]

Couse JF; Korach KS. 1999. Reproductive phenotypes in the estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mouse. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 60(2):143-8. [PubMed: 10456188]  [MGI Ref ID J:57398]

Couse JF; Lindzey J; Grandien K; Gustafsson JA; Korach KS. 1997. Tissue distribution and quantitative analysis of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) messenger ribonucleic acid in the wild-type and ERalpha-knockout mouse. Endocrinology 138(11):4613-21. [PubMed: 9348186]  [MGI Ref ID J:43861]

Couse JF; Yates MM; Deroo BJ; Korach KS. 2005. Estrogen receptor-beta is critical to granulosa cell differentiation and the ovulatory response to gonadotropins. Endocrinology 146(8):3247-62. [PubMed: 15831568]  [MGI Ref ID J:129823]

Couse JF; Yates MM; Rodriguez KF; Johnson JA; Poirier D; Korach KS. 2006. The intraovarian actions of estrogen receptor-alpha are necessary to repress the formation of morphological and functional Leydig-like cells in the female gonad. Endocrinology 147(8):3666-78. [PubMed: 16627580]  [MGI Ref ID J:111680]

Couse JF; Yates MM; Sanford R; Nyska A; Nilson JH; Korach KS. 2004. Formation of cystic ovarian follicles associated with elevated luteinizing hormone requires estrogen receptor-beta. Endocrinology 145(10):4693-702. [PubMed: 15231698]  [MGI Ref ID J:92628]

Couse JF; Yates MM; Walker VR; Korach KS. 2003. Characterization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in estrogen receptor (ER) Null mice reveals hypergonadism and endocrine sex reversal in females lacking ERalpha but not ERbeta. Mol Endocrinol 17(6):1039-53. [PubMed: 12624116]  [MGI Ref ID J:83626]

Cunningham MA; Naga OS; Eudaly JG; Scott JL; Gilkeson GS. 2012. Estrogen receptor alpha modulates toll-like receptor signaling in murine lupus. Clin Immunol 144(1):1-12. [PubMed: 22659029]  [MGI Ref ID J:184829]

Curran EM; Berghaus LJ; Vernetti NJ; Saporita AJ; Lubahn DB; Estes DM. 2001. Natural killer cells express estrogen receptor-alpha and estrogen receptor-beta and can respond to estrogen via a non-estrogen receptor-alpha-mediated pathway. Cell Immunol 214(1):12-20. [PubMed: 11902825]  [MGI Ref ID J:115367]

Curran EM; Judy BM; Newton LG; Lubahn DB; Rottinghaus GE; Macdonald RS; Franklin C; Estes DM. 2004. Dietary soy phytoestrogens and ERalpha signalling modulate interferon gamma production in response to bacterial infection. Clin Exp Immunol 135(2):219-25. [PubMed: 14738448]  [MGI Ref ID J:88475]

Curtis Hewitt S; Goulding EH; Eddy EM; Korach KS. 2002. Studies using the estrogen receptor alpha knockout uterus demonstrate that implantation but not decidualization-associated signaling is estrogen dependent. Biol Reprod 67(4):1268-77. [PubMed: 12297545]  [MGI Ref ID J:108638]

Curtis SW; Clark J; Myers P; Korach KS. 1999. Disruption of estrogen signaling does not prevent progesterone action in the estrogen receptor alpha knockout mouse uterus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(7):3646-51. [PubMed: 10097091]  [MGI Ref ID J:54077]

Curtis SW; Washburn T; Sewall C; DiAugustine R; Lindzey J; Couse JF; Korach KS. 1996. Physiological coupling of growth factor and steroid receptor signaling pathways: estrogen receptor knockout mice lack estrogen-like response to epidermal growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(22):12626-30. [PubMed: 8901633]  [MGI Ref ID J:36257]

Day JK; Besch-Williford C; McMann TR; Hufford MG; Lubahn DB; MacDonald RS. 2001. Dietary genistein increased DMBA-induced mammary adenocarcinoma in wild-type, but not ER alpha KO, mice. Nutr Cancer 39(2):226-32. [PubMed: 11759285]  [MGI Ref ID J:73536]

Dellovade TL; Merchenthaler I. 2004. Estrogen regulation of neurokinin B gene expression in the mouse arcuate nucleus is mediated by estrogen receptor alpha. Endocrinology 145(2):736-42. [PubMed: 14592957]  [MGI Ref ID J:105513]

Dominguez R; Micevych P. 2010. Estradiol rapidly regulates membrane estrogen receptor alpha levels in hypothalamic neurons. J Neurosci 30(38):12589-96. [PubMed: 20861365]  [MGI Ref ID J:164653]

Dominguez-Salazar E; Bateman HL; Rissman EF. 2004. Background matters: the effects of estrogen receptor alpha gene disruption on male sexual behavior are modified by background strain. Horm Behav 46(4):482-90. [PubMed: 15465535]  [MGI Ref ID J:101958]

Donaldson KM; Tong SY; Washburn T; Lubahn DB; Eddy EM; Hutson JM; Korach KS. 1996. Morphometric study of the gubernaculum in male estrogen receptor mutant mice. J Androl 17(2):91-5. [PubMed: 8723431]  [MGI Ref ID J:112350]

Doublier S; Lupia E; Catanuto P; Periera-Simon S; Xia X; Korach K; Berho M; Elliot SJ; Karl M. 2011. Testosterone and 17beta-estradiol have opposite effects on podocyte apoptosis that precedes glomerulosclerosis in female estrogen receptor knockout mice. Kidney Int 79(4):404-13. [PubMed: 20962747]  [MGI Ref ID J:186886]

Dupont S; Dennefeld C; Krust A; Chambon P; Mark M. 2003. Expression of Sox9 in granulosa cells lacking the estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. Dev Dyn 226(1):103-6. [PubMed: 12508230]  [MGI Ref ID J:107788]

Eddy EM; Washburn TF; Bunch DO; Goulding EH; Gladen BC; Lubahn DB; Korach KS. 1996. Targeted disruption of the estrogen receptor gene in male mice causes alteration of spermatogenesis and infertility. Endocrinology 137(11):4796-805. [PubMed: 8895349]  [MGI Ref ID J:36658]

Elliot SJ; Berho M; Korach K; Doublier S; Lupia E; Striker GE; Karl M. 2007. Gender-specific effects of endogenous testosterone: female alpha-estrogen receptor-deficient C57Bl/6J mice develop glomerulosclerosis. Kidney Int 72(4):464-72. [PubMed: 17495854]  [MGI Ref ID J:152738]

Emmen JM; Couse JF; Elmore SA; Yates MM; Kissling GE; Korach KS. 2005. In vitro growth and ovulation of follicles from ovaries of estrogen receptor (ER){alpha} and ER{beta} null mice indicate a role for ER{beta} in follicular maturation. Endocrinology 146(6):2817-26. [PubMed: 15731357]  [MGI Ref ID J:109466]

Erlandsson MC; Jonsson CA; Islander U; Ohlsson C; Carlsten H. 2003. Oestrogen receptor specificity in oestradiol-mediated effects on B lymphopoiesis and immunoglobulin production in male mice. Immunology 108(3):346-51. [PubMed: 12603601]  [MGI Ref ID J:82423]

Erlandsson MC; Ohlsson C; Gustafsson JA; Carlsten H. 2001. Role of oestrogen receptors alpha and beta in immune organ development and in oestrogen-mediated effects on thymus. Immunology 103(1):17-25. [PubMed: 11380688]  [MGI Ref ID J:110416]

Fan X; Gabbi C; Kim HJ; Cheng G; Andersson LC; Warner M; Gustafsson JA. 2010. Gonadotropin-positive pituitary tumors accompanied by ovarian tumors in aging female ERbeta-/- mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(14):6453-8. [PubMed: 20308571]  [MGI Ref ID J:159314]

Feng F; Nyland J; Banyai M; Tatum A; Silverstone AE; Gavalchin J. 2010. The induction of the lupus phenotype by estrogen is via an estrogen receptor-alpha-dependent pathway. Clin Immunol 134(2):226-36. [PubMed: 19926524]  [MGI Ref ID J:158484]

Fugger HN; Foster TC; Gustafsson J; Rissman EF. 2000. Novel effects of estradiol and estrogen receptor alpha and beta on cognitive function(1) Brain Res 883(2):258-64. [PubMed: 11074057]  [MGI Ref ID J:65785]

Gabel SA; Walker VR; London RE; Steenbergen C; Korach KS; Murphy E. 2005. Estrogen receptor beta mediates gender differences in ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Mol Cell Cardiol 38(2):289-97. [PubMed: 15698835]  [MGI Ref ID J:101968]

Geary N; Asarian L; Korach KS; Pfaff DW; Ogawa S. 2001. Deficits in e2-dependent control of feeding, weight gain, and cholecystokinin satiation in er-alpha null mice. Endocrinology 142(11):4751-7. [PubMed: 11606440]  [MGI Ref ID J:72792]

Ghosh D; Taylor JA; Green JA; Lubahn DB. 1999. Methoxychlor stimulates estrogen-responsive messenger ribonucleic acids in mouse uterus through a non-estrogen receptor (non-ER) alpha and non-ER beta mechanism. Endocrinology 140(8):3526-33. [PubMed: 10433208]  [MGI Ref ID J:56920]

Gore AC; Wersinger SR; Rissman EF. 2000. Effects of female pheromones on gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression and luteinizing hormone release in male wild-type and oestrogen receptor-alpha knockout mice. J Neuroendocrinol 12(12):1200-4. [PubMed: 11106978]  [MGI Ref ID J:103676]

Gould ML; Hurst PR; Nicholson HD. 2007. The effects of oestrogen receptors {alpha} and {beta} on testicular cell number and steroidogenesis in mice. Reproduction 134(2):271-9. [PubMed: 17660237]  [MGI Ref ID J:123340]

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Rissman EF; Early AH; Taylor JA; Korach KS; Lubahn DB. 1997. Estrogen receptors are essential for female sexual receptivity. Endocrinology 138(1):507-10. [PubMed: 8977441]  [MGI Ref ID J:39739]

Rissman EF; Wersinger SR; Taylor JA; Lubahn DB. 1997. Estrogen receptor function as revealed by knockout studies: neuroendocrine and behavioral aspects. Horm Behav 31(3):232-43. [PubMed: 9213137]  [MGI Ref ID J:42635]

Rosenfeld CS; Cooke PS; Welsh TH Jr; Simmer G; Hufford MG; Gustafsson JA; Hess RA; Lubahn DB. 2000. The differential fate of mesonephric tubular-derived efferent ductules in estrogen receptor-alpha knockout versus wild-type female mice. Endocrinology 141(10):3792-8. [PubMed: 11014235]  [MGI Ref ID J:108807]

Rosenfeld CS; Ganjam VK; Taylor JA; Yuan X; Stiehr JR; Hardy MP ; Lubahn DB. 1998. Transcription and translation of estrogen receptor-beta in the male reproductive tract of estrogen receptor-alpha knock-out and wild-type mice. Endocrinology 139(6):2982-7. [PubMed: 9607809]  [MGI Ref ID J:48220]

Rosenfeld CS; Murray AA; Simmer G; Hufford MG; Smith MF; Spears N; Lubahn DB. 2000. Gonadotropin induction of ovulation and corpus luteum formation in young estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mice. Biol Reprod 62(3):599-605. [PubMed: 10684800]  [MGI Ref ID J:108586]

Rubanyi GM; Freay AD; Kauser K; Sukovich D; Burton G; Lubahn DB; Couse JF; Curtis SW; Korach KS. 1997. Vascular estrogen receptors and endothelium-derived nitric oxide production in the mouse aorta. Gender difference and effect of estrogen receptor gene disruption. J Clin Invest 99(10):2429-37. [PubMed: 9153286]  [MGI Ref ID J:40474]

Ruz R; Gregory M; Smith CE; Cyr DG; Lubahn DB; Hess RA; Hermo L. 2006. Expression of aquaporins in the efferent ductules, sperm counts, and sperm motility in estrogen receptor-alpha deficient mice fed lab chow versus casein. Mol Reprod Dev 73(2):226-37. [PubMed: 16261609]  [MGI Ref ID J:104867]

Sato T; Matsumoto T; Kawano H; Watanabe T; Uematsu Y; Sekine K; Fukuda T; Aihara K; Krust A; Yamada T; Nakamichi Y; Yamamoto Y; Nakamura T; Yoshimura K; Yoshizawa T; Metzger D; Chambon P; Kato S. 2004. Brain masculinization requires androgen receptor function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(6):1673-8. [PubMed: 14747651]  [MGI Ref ID J:88153]

Savolainen S; Santti R; Streng T; Gustafsson JA; Harkonen P; Makela S. 2005. Sex specific expression of progesterone receptor in mouse lower urinary tract. Mol Cell Endocrinol 230(1-2):17-21. [PubMed: 15664447]  [MGI Ref ID J:104822]

Schackmann RC; van Amersfoort M; Haarhuis JH; Vlug EJ; Halim VA; Roodhart JM; Vermaat JS; Voest EE; van der Groep P; van Diest PJ; Jonkers J; Derksen PW. 2011. Cytosolic p120-catenin regulates growth of metastatic lobular carcinoma through Rock1-mediated anoikis resistance. J Clin Invest 121(8):3176-88. [PubMed: 21747168]  [MGI Ref ID J:176161]

Schomberg DW; Couse JF; Mukherjee A; Lubahn DB; Sar M; Mayo KE; Korach KS. 1999. Targeted disruption of the estrogen receptor-alpha gene in female mice: characterization of ovarian responses and phenotype in the adult. Endocrinology 140(6):2733-44. [PubMed: 10342864]  [MGI Ref ID J:55147]

Scordalakes EM; Rissman EF. 2004. Aggression and arginine vasopressin immunoreactivity regulation by androgen receptor and estrogen receptor alpha. Genes Brain Behav 3(1):20-6. [PubMed: 14960012]  [MGI Ref ID J:104808]

Scordalakes EM; Shetty SJ; Rissman EF. 2002. Roles of estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor in the regulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. J Comp Neurol 453(4):336-44. [PubMed: 12389206]  [MGI Ref ID J:113953]

Scully KM; Gleiberman AS; Lindzey J; Lubahn DB; Korach KS; Rosenfeld MG. 1997. Role of estrogen receptor-alpha in the anterior pituitary gland. Mol Endocrinol 11(6):674-81. [PubMed: 9171231]  [MGI Ref ID J:40607]

Shim GJ; Kis LL; Warner M; Gustafsson JA. 2004. Autoimmune glomerulonephritis with spontaneous formation of splenic germinal centers in mice lacking the estrogen receptor alpha gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(6):1720-4. [PubMed: 14745006]  [MGI Ref ID J:88156]

Shughrue PJ; Askew GR; Dellovade TL; Merchenthaler I. 2002. Estrogen-binding sites and their functional capacity in estrogen receptor double knockout mouse brain. Endocrinology 143(5):1643-50. [PubMed: 11956145]  [MGI Ref ID J:76322]

Shughrue PJ; Lubahn DB; Negro-Vilar A; Korach KS; Merchenthaler I. 1997. Responses in the brain of estrogen receptor alpha-disrupted mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94(20):11008-12. [PubMed: 9380750]  [MGI Ref ID J:43491]

Simerly RB; Zee MC; Pendleton JW; Lubahn DB; Korach KS. 1997. Estrogen receptor-dependent sexual differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in the preoptic region of the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94(25):14077-82. [PubMed: 9391155]  [MGI Ref ID J:99716]

Singh M; Setalo G Jr; Guan X; Frail DE; Toran-Allerand CD. 2000. Estrogen-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in the cerebral cortex of estrogen receptor-alpha knock-out mice. J Neurosci 20(5):1694-700. [PubMed: 10684871]  [MGI Ref ID J:60587]

Siracusa MC; Overstreet MG; Housseau F; Scott AL; Klein SL. 2008. 17beta-estradiol alters the activity of conventional and IFN-producing killer dendritic cells. J Immunol 180(3):1423-31. [PubMed: 18209037]  [MGI Ref ID J:131352]

Skavdahl M; Steenbergen C; Clark J; Myers P; Demianenko T; Mao L; Rockman HA; Korach KS; Murphy E. 2005. Estrogen receptor-beta mediates male-female differences in the development of pressure overload hypertrophy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 288(2):H469-76. [PubMed: 15374829]  [MGI Ref ID J:96155]

Slusarz A; Jackson GA; Day JK; Shenouda NS; Bogener JL; Browning JD; Fritsche KL; MacDonald RS; Besch-Williford CL; Lubahn DB. 2012. Aggressive prostate cancer is prevented in ERalphaKO mice and stimulated in ERbetaKO TRAMP mice. Endocrinology 153(9):4160-70. [PubMed: 22753646]  [MGI Ref ID J:189182]

Smithson G; Couse JF; Lubahn DB; Korach KS; Kincade PW. 1998. The role of estrogen receptors and androgen receptors in sex steroid regulation of B lymphopoiesis. J Immunol 161(1):27-34. [PubMed: 9647203]  [MGI Ref ID J:110923]

Son J; Park JW; Lambert PF; Chung SH. 2014. Requirement of estrogen receptor alpha DNA-binding domain for HPV oncogene-induced cervical carcinogenesis in mice. Carcinogenesis 35(2):489-96. [PubMed: 24148821]  [MGI Ref ID J:206522]

Soriano S; Ropero AB; Alonso-Magdalena P; Ripoll C; Quesada I; Gassner B; Kuhn M; Gustafsson JA; Nadal A. 2009. Rapid regulation of K(ATP) channel activity by 17{beta}-estradiol in pancreatic {beta}-cells involves the estrogen receptor {beta} and the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor. Mol Endocrinol 23(12):1973-82. [PubMed: 19855088]  [MGI Ref ID J:154658]

Spencer-Segal JL; Tsuda MC; Mattei L; Waters EM; Romeo RD; Milner TA; McEwen BS; Ogawa S. 2012. Estradiol acts via estrogen receptors alpha and beta on pathways important for synaptic plasticity in the mouse hippocampal formation. Neuroscience 202:131-46. [PubMed: 22133892]  [MGI Ref ID J:184411]

Staples JE; Gasiewicz TA; Fiore NC; Lubahn DB; Korach KS; Silverstone AE. 1999. Estrogen receptor alpha is necessary in thymic development and estradiol-induced thymic alterations. J Immunol 163(8):4168-74. [PubMed: 10510352]  [MGI Ref ID J:111590]

Sun D; Yan C; Jacobson A; Jiang H; Carroll MA; Huang A. 2007. Contribution of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids to flow-induced dilation in arteries of male ERalpha knockout mice: role of aromatase. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 293(3):R1239-46. [PubMed: 17634204]  [MGI Ref ID J:145132]

Sun J; Langer WJ; Devish K; Lane PH. 2006. Compensatory kidney growth in estrogen receptor-alpha null mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290(2):F319-23. [PubMed: 16159896]  [MGI Ref ID J:104674]

Sun X; Jackson L; Dey SK; Daikoku T. 2009. In pursuit of leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor-5 regulation and function in the uterus. Endocrinology 150(11):5065-73. [PubMed: 19797400]  [MGI Ref ID J:157315]

Susiarjo M; Hassold TJ; Freeman E; Hunt PA. 2007. Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse. PLoS Genet 3(1):e5. [PubMed: 17222059]  [MGI Ref ID J:120279]

Svenson JL; EuDaly J; Ruiz P; Korach KS; Gilkeson GS. 2008. Impact of estrogen receptor deficiency on disease expression in the NZM2410 lupus prone mouse. Clin Immunol 128(2):259-68. [PubMed: 18514033]  [MGI Ref ID J:137724]

Tekmal RR; Liu YG; Nair HB; Jones J; Perla RP; Lubahn DB; Korach KS; Kirma N. 2005. Estrogen receptor alpha is required for mammary development and the induction of mammary hyperplasia and epigenetic alterations in the aromatase transgenic mice. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 95(1-5):9-15. [PubMed: 15955696]  [MGI Ref ID J:100292]

Thammacharoen S; Geary N; Lutz TA; Ogawa S; Asarian L. 2009. Divergent effects of estradiol and the estrogen receptor-alpha agonist PPT on eating and activation of PVN CRH neurons in ovariectomized rats and mice. Brain Res 1268:88-96. [PubMed: 19281799]  [MGI Ref ID J:148114]

Thurmond TS; Murante FG; Staples JE; Silverstone AE; Korach KS; Gasiewicz TA. 2000. Role of estrogen receptor alpha in hematopoietic stem cell development and B lymphocyte maturation in the male mouse. Endocrinology 141(7):2309-18. [PubMed: 10875230]  [MGI Ref ID J:63462]

Tian J; Berton TR; Shirley SH; Lambertz I; Gimenez-Conti IB; DiGiovanni J; Korach KS; Conti CJ; Fuchs-Young R. 2012. Developmental stage determines estrogen receptor alpha expression and non-genomic mechanisms that control IGF-1 signaling and mammary proliferation in mice. J Clin Invest 122(1):192-204. [PubMed: 22182837]  [MGI Ref ID J:184400]

Tomihara K; Kaitsuka T; Soga T; Korach KS; Pfaff DW; Takahama K; Ogawa S. 2006. Abolition of sex-dependent effects of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol on emotional behavior in estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mice. Neuroreport 17(11):1169-73. [PubMed: 16837848]  [MGI Ref ID J:111819]

Ullrich ND; Krust A; Collins P; MacLeod KT. 2008. Genomic deletion of estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta does not alter estrogen-mediated inhibition of Ca2+ influx and contraction in murine cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 294(6):H2421-7. [PubMed: 18441199]  [MGI Ref ID J:136662]

Umetani M; Domoto H; Gormley AK; Yuhanna IS; Cummins CL; Javitt NB; Korach KS; Shaul PW; Mangelsdorf DJ. 2007. 27-Hydroxycholesterol is an endogenous SERM that inhibits the cardiovascular effects of estrogen. Nat Med 13(10):1185-92. [PubMed: 17873880]  [MGI Ref ID J:129931]

Van Cromphaut SJ; Rummens K; Stockmans I; Van Herck E; Dijcks FA; Ederveen AG; Carmeliet P; Verhaeghe J; Bouillon R; Carmeliet G. 2003. Intestinal calcium transporter genes are upregulated by estrogens and the reproductive cycle through vitamin D receptor-independent mechanisms. J Bone Miner Res 18(10):1725-36. [PubMed: 14584880]  [MGI Ref ID J:111515]

Van Kempen TA; Kahlid S; Gonzalez AD; Spencer-Segal JL; Tsuda MC; Ogawa S; McEwen BS; Waters EM; Milner TA. 2013. Sex and estrogen receptor expression influence opioid peptide levels in the mouse hippocampal mossy fiber pathway. Neurosci Lett 552:66-70. [PubMed: 23933204]  [MGI Ref ID J:201650]

Vandenput L; Ederveen AG; Erben RG; Stahr K; Swinnen JV; Van Herck E; Verstuyf A; Boonen S; Bouillon R; Vanderschueren D. 2001. Testosterone prevents orchidectomy-induced bone loss in estrogen receptor-alpha knockout mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 285(1):70-6. [PubMed: 11437374]  [MGI Ref ID J:70361]

Vidal O; Lindberg M; Savendahl L; Lubahn DB; Ritzen EM; Gustafsson JA; Ohlsson C. 1999. Disproportional body growth in female estrogen receptor-alpha-inactivated mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 265(2):569-71. [PubMed: 10558910]  [MGI Ref ID J:114164]

Vidal O; Lindberg MK; Hollberg K; Baylink DJ; Andersson G; Lubahn DB; Mohan S; Gustafsson JA; Ohlsson C. 2000. Estrogen receptor specificity in the regulation of skeletal growth and maturation in male mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(10):5474-9. [PubMed: 10805804]  [MGI Ref ID J:62222]

Villablanca A; Lubahn D; Shelby L; Lloyd K; Barthold S. 2004. Susceptibility to early atherosclerosis in male mice is mediated by estrogen receptor alpha. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24(6):1055-61. [PubMed: 15117737]  [MGI Ref ID J:102338]

Voltz JW; Card JW; Carey MA; Degraff LM; Ferguson CD; Flake GP; Bonner JC; Korach KS; Zeldin DC. 2008. Male sex hormones exacerbate lung function impairment after bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 39(1):45-52. [PubMed: 18276795]  [MGI Ref ID J:151063]

Wang C; Dehghani B; Magrisso IJ; Rick EA; Bonhomme E; Cody DB; Elenich LA; Subramanian S; Murphy SJ; Kelly MJ; Rosenbaum JS; Vandenbark AA; Offner H. 2008. GPR30 Contributes to Estrogen-Induced Thymic Atrophy. Mol Endocrinol 22(3):636-48. [PubMed: 18063692]  [MGI Ref ID J:131313]

Wang J; Scully K; Zhu X; Cai L; Zhang J; Prefontaine GG; Krones A; Ohgi KA; Zhu P; Garcia-Bassets I; Liu F; Taylor H; Lozach J; Jayes FL; Korach KS; Glass CK; Fu XD; Rosenfeld MG. 2007. Opposing LSD1 complexes function in developmental gene activation and repression programmes. Nature 446(7138):882-7. [PubMed: 17392792]  [MGI Ref ID J:121427]

Wang M; Crisostomo P; Wairiuko GM; Meldrum DR. 2006. Estrogen receptor-alpha mediates acute myocardial protection in females. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 290(6):H2204-9. [PubMed: 16415070]  [MGI Ref ID J:111852]

Watanabe H; Suzuki A; Mizutani T; Khono S; Lubahn DB; Handa H; Iguchi T. 2002. Genome-wide analysis of changes in early gene expression induced by oestrogen. Genes Cells 7(5):497-507. [PubMed: 12047351]  [MGI Ref ID J:80265]

Wersinger SR; Haisenleder DJ; Lubahn DB; Rissman EF. 1999. Steroid feedback on gonadotropin release and pituitary gonadotropin subunit mRNA in mice lacking a functional estrogen receptor alpha Endocrine 11(2):137-43. [PubMed: 10709760]  [MGI Ref ID J:61298]

Wersinger SR; Rissman EF. 2000. Dopamine activates masculine sexual behavior independent of the estrogen receptor alpha. J Neurosci 20(11):4248-54. [PubMed: 10818161]  [MGI Ref ID J:62233]

Wersinger SR; Rissman EF. 2000. Neuroendocrinology briefings: oestrogen receptor alpha is essential for female-directed chemo-investigatory behaviour but is not required for the pheromone-induced luteinizing hormone surge in male mice J Neuroendocrinol 12(2):103-10. [PubMed: 10718905]  [MGI Ref ID J:61264]

Wintermantel TM; Campbell RE; Porteous R; Bock D; Grone HJ; Todman MG; Korach KS; Greiner E; Perez CA; Schutz G; Herbison AE. 2006. Definition of estrogen receptor pathway critical for estrogen positive feedback to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and fertility. Neuron 52(2):271-80. [PubMed: 17046690]  [MGI Ref ID J:117231]

Wong WP; Tiano JP; Liu S; Hewitt SC; Le May C; Dalle S; Katzenellenbogen JA; Katzenellenbogen BS; Korach KS; Mauvais-Jarvis F. 2010. Extranuclear estrogen receptor-alpha stimulates NeuroD1 binding to the insulin promoter and favors insulin synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(29):13057-62. [PubMed: 20616010]  [MGI Ref ID J:162410]

Xue B; Pamidimukkala J; Lubahn DB; Hay M. 2007. Estrogen receptor-alpha mediates estrogen protection from angiotensin II-induced hypertension in conscious female mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 292(4):H1770-6. [PubMed: 17142339]  [MGI Ref ID J:125828]

Yamamoto Y; Moore R; Hess HA; Guo GL; Gonzalez FJ; Korach KS; Maronpot RR; Negishi M. 2006. Estrogen receptor alpha mediates 17alpha-ethynylestradiol causing hepatotoxicity. J Biol Chem 281(24):16625-31. [PubMed: 16606610]  [MGI Ref ID J:113721]

Yin Y; Huang WW; Lin C; Chen H; Mackenzie A; Ma L. 2008. Estrogen suppresses uterine epithelial apoptosis by inducing birc1 expression. Mol Endocrinol 22(1):113-25. [PubMed: 17901126]  [MGI Ref ID J:130045]

Yoshikawa Y; Miyashita T; Higuchi S; Tsuneyama K; Endo S; Tsukui T; Toyoda Y; Fukami T; Nakajima M; Yokoi T. 2012. Mechanisms of the hepatoprotective effects of tamoxifen against drug-induced and chemical-induced acute liver injuries. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 264(1):42-50. [PubMed: 22841776]  [MGI Ref ID J:187886]

Yue W; Santen RJ; Wang JP; Li Y; Verderame MF; Bocchinfuso WP; Korach KS; Devanesan P; Todorovic R; Rogan EG; Cavalieri EL. 2003. Genotoxic metabolites of estradiol in breast: potential mechanism of estradiol induced carcinogenesis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 86(3-5):477-86. [PubMed: 14623547]  [MGI Ref ID J:86738]

Zhai P; Eurell TE; Cooke PS; Lubahn DB; Gross DR. 2000. Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in estrogen receptor-alpha knockout and wild-type mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 278(5):H1640-7. [PubMed: 10775144]  [MGI Ref ID J:62353]

Zheng Z; Cohn MJ. 2011. Developmental basis of sexually dimorphic digit ratios. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(39):16289-94. [PubMed: 21896736]  [MGI Ref ID J:176585]

Zhou Q; Clarke L; Nie R; Carnes K; Lai LW; Lien YH; Verkman A; Lubahn D; Fisher JS; Katzenellenbogen BS; Hess RA. 2001. Estrogen action and male fertility: roles of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger-3 and fluid reabsorption in reproductive tract function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(24):14132-7. [PubMed: 11698654]  [MGI Ref ID J:125658]

Zoubina EV; Smith PG. 2001. Sympathetic hyperinnervation of the uterus in the estrogen receptor alpha knock-out mouse. Neuroscience 103(1):237-44. [PubMed: 11311804]  [MGI Ref ID J:85911]

Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Room Number           AX11

Colony Maintenance

Breeding & HusbandryThe colony is maintained by mating heterozygous carrier mice. The expected coat color is black.
Mating SystemHeterozygote x Heterozygote         (Female x Male)   01-MAR-06
Diet Information LabDiet® 5K52/5K67

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls


Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $232.00Female or MaleHeterozygous for Esr1tm1Ksk  
$232.00Female or MaleHomozygous for Esr1tm1Ksk  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$464.00Heterozygous for Esr1tm1Ksk x Heterozygous for Esr1tm1Ksk  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $301.60Female or MaleHeterozygous for Esr1tm1Ksk  
$301.60Female or MaleHomozygous for Esr1tm1Ksk  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$603.20Heterozygous for Esr1tm1Ksk x Heterozygous for Esr1tm1Ksk  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

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   Wild-type from the colony
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.
 

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The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCTS" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or services provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than the internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE or PRODUCTS from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON's prior written authorization.

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Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or services shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or services by JACKSON.


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