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The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Strain Information

Former Names NOD.MRL-Tnfrsf6lpr/Dvs    (Changed: 26-JAN-05 )
Type Congenic; Spontaneous Mutation;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Additional information on Congenic nomenclature.
Specieslaboratory mouse
Background Strain NOD/LtDvs
Donor Strain MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/J

The Faslpr mutation was backcrossed from MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/J onto NOD/LtDvs for 13 backcross generations in the laboratory of Dr. David Serreze. The strain was then intercrossed and made homozygous for Faslpr. It was cryopreserved in 2006 at generation N13F8.

Control Information

   001976 NOD/ShiLtJ
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Related Strains

Strains carrying   Faslpr allele
000482   B6.MRL-Faslpr/J
000480   C3.MRL-Faslpr/J
002455   MRL.Cg-B2mtm1Unc Faslpr
022350   MRL.Cg-Nos2tm1Lau Faslpr/J
022760   MRL.Cg-Nos3tm1Unc Faslpr/J
003896   MRL/MpJ Faslpr-Foxq1sa-J/J
006825   MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/2J
000485   MRL/MpJ-Faslpr/J
004519   NOD.MRL(C3)-Faslpr/DoiJ
View Strains carrying   Faslpr     (9 strains)

Strains carrying other alleles of Fas
003233   B6.129P2-Fastm1Osa/J
026643   B6.Cg-Fastm1.1(ALPP)Chnd/J
007895   C57BL/6-Fastm1Cgn/J
001876   CBA/KlJms-Faslpr-cg/J
003234   MRL.129P2(B6)-Fastm1Osa/J
002983   MRL.CBAJms-Faslpr-cg/J
View Strains carrying other alleles of Fas     (6 strains)


Phenotype Information

View Related Disease (OMIM) Terms

Related Disease (OMIM) Terms provided by MGI
- No similarity to the expected human disease phenotype was found. One or more human genes are associated with this human disease. The mouse genotype may involve mutations to orthologs of one or more of these genes, but the phenotype did not resemble the disease.
Diabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent; IDDM
- Potential model based on gene homology relationships. Phenotypic similarity to the human disease has not been tested.
Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; ALPS   (FAS)
View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype


  • immune system phenotype
  • decreased susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes
    • during the 24 week period, no animals show diabetes or insulitis (mice are considered diabetic after a blood glucose measure of >300 mg/dl)   (MGI Ref ID J:64051)


  • immune system phenotype
  • decreased susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes
    • when mice are injected with islet specific CD8+ T cell clones, Faslpr mice are resistant to diabetogenic effect of injected T cells; 0/5 of Fas mutants are diabetic within 20 day observation period, while control NOD littermates become diabetic within 6 days   (MGI Ref ID J:78679)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Faslpr related

Apoptosis Research
Death Receptors

Cancer Research
Genes Regulating Growth and Proliferation

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
      lupus erythematosus
      lupus erythematosus: rheumatoid arthritis
      rheumatoid arthritis

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

Allele Symbol Faslpr
Allele Name lymphoproliferation
Allele Type Spontaneous (Hypomorph)
Common Name(s) Fas-; Fas-def; MRL/lpr; Tnfrf6lpr; Tnfrsf6lpr; Tnfrsf6lpr; lpr;
Strain of OriginMRL/Mp
Gene Symbol and Name Fas, Fas (TNF receptor superfamily member 6)
Chromosome 19
Gene Common Name(s) AI196731; ALPS1A; APO-1; APT1; CD95; FAS1; FASTM; TNF receptor superfamily member 6; TNFR6; TNFRSF6; Tnfrsf6; expressed sequence AI196731; lpr; lymphoproliferation;
General Note Faslpr, lymphoproliferation, recessive. This mutation was found during inbreeding of a strain MRL/Mp derived from crosses among strains LG, AKR, C3H, and C57BL/6. The resemblance has led to extensive use of Faslpr mice in attemptsto determine the etiology of SLE and to evaluate therapies. However, the human APT1 gene (OMIM 134637) encodes the FAS antigen; Tnfrsf6 is not the homolog of the human (SLE) gene.The Cd72c haplotype is a modifier of Faslpr-induced autoimmune disease. J:204782
Molecular Note Southern blotting experiments indicated that the mutation is a genomic rearrangement within the gene, probably within the second intron. Sequencing of genomic DNA and RT-PCR products from homozygous mutant mice revealed the insertion of an early transposable element (ETn) into intron 2. RT-PCR analysis of liver and thymus mRNA showed that the presence of the ETn leads to premature termination of transcription at the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the ETn and aberrant mRNA splicing. The mutation is "leaky," however, as full-length mRNA and a longer splice product incorporating a segment of the ETn as an extra intron are detected in the thymus at low levels. [MGI Ref ID J:1181] [MGI Ref ID J:14206] [MGI Ref ID J:14503] [MGI Ref ID J:15429] [MGI Ref ID J:4166] [MGI Ref ID J:4342]


Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

Faslpr, Standard PCR

Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting


References provided by MGI

Additional References

Faslpr related

Adachi K; Tsutsui H; Kashiwamura S; Seki E; Nakano H; Takeuchi O; Takeda K; Okumura K; Van Kaer L; Okamura H; Akira S; Nakanishi K. 2001. Plasmodium berghei infection in mice induces liver injury by an IL-12- and toll-like receptor/myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent mechanism. J Immunol 167(10):5928-34. [PubMed: 11698470]  [MGI Ref ID J:118004]

Adachi M; Watanabe-Fukunaga R; Nagata S. 1993. Aberrant transcription caused by the insertion of an early transposable element in an intron of the Fas antigen gene of lpr mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(5):1756-60. [PubMed: 7680478]  [MGI Ref ID J:4342]

Affourtit C; Jastroch M; Brand MD. 2011. Uncoupling protein-2 attenuates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1E insulinoma cells by lowering mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Free Radic Biol Med 50(5):609-16. [PubMed: 21172424]  [MGI Ref ID J:168471]

Ahuja A; Teichmann LL; Wang H; Dunn R; Kehry MR; Shlomchik MJ. 2011. An acquired defect in IgG-dependent phagocytosis explains the impairment in antibody-mediated cellular depletion in Lupus. J Immunol 187(7):3888-94. [PubMed: 21873531]  [MGI Ref ID J:179332]

Aicher WK; Fujihashi K; Yamamoto M; Kiyono H; Pitts AM; McGhee JR. 1992. Effects of the lpr/lpr mutation on T and B cell populations in the lamina propria of the small intestine, a mucosal effector site. Int Immunol 4(9):959-68. [PubMed: 1390438]  [MGI Ref ID J:3154]

Ait-Azzouzene D; Kono DH; Gonzalez-Quintial R; McHeyzer-Williams LJ; Lim M; Wickramarachchi D; Gerdes T; Gavin AL; Skog P; McHeyzer-Williams MG; Nemazee D; Theofilopoulos AN. 2010. Deletion of IgG-switched autoreactive B cells and defects in Fas(lpr) lupus mice. J Immunol 185(2):1015-27. [PubMed: 20554953]  [MGI Ref ID J:161936]

Akashi T; Nagafuchi S; Anzai K; Kitamura D; Wang J; Taniuchi I; Niho Y; Watanabe T. 1998. Proliferation of CD3+ B220- single-positive normal T cells was suppressed in B-cell-deficient lpr mice. Immunology 93(2):238-48. [PubMed: 9616374]  [MGI Ref ID J:45808]

Akiyama K; Chen C; Wang D; Xu X; Qu C; Yamaza T; Cai T; Chen W; Sun L; Shi S. 2012. Mesenchymal-stem-cell-induced immunoregulation involves FAS-ligand-/FAS-mediated T cell apoptosis. Cell Stem Cell 10(5):544-55. [PubMed: 22542159]  [MGI Ref ID J:185809]

Al Gadban MM; German J; Truman JP; Soodavar F; Riemer EC; Twal WO; Smith KJ; Heller D; Hofbauer AF; Oates JC; Hammad SM. 2012. Lack of nitric oxide synthases increases lipoprotein immune complex deposition in the aorta and elevates plasma sphingolipid levels in lupus. Cell Immunol 276(1-2):42-51. [PubMed: 22560558]  [MGI Ref ID J:188295]

Al-Shami A; Crisostomo J; Wilkins C; Xu N; Humphries J; Chang WC; Anderson SJ; Oravecz T. 2013. Integrin-alpha FG-GAP repeat-containing protein 2 is critical for normal B cell differentiation and controls disease development in a lupus model. J Immunol 191(7):3789-98. [PubMed: 23997217]  [MGI Ref ID J:205951]

Alarcon-Riquelme ME; Fernandez C. 1995. CDR3 regions in the preimmune VH B cell repertoire of lpr mice. Clin Exp Immunol 101(1):73-7. [PubMed: 7621595]  [MGI Ref ID J:26829]

Alarcon-Riquelme ME; Fernandez C. 1995. Expression of the B cell repertoire in lpr mice; abnormal expansion of a few VHJ558 germ-line genes. Clin Exp Immunol 99(2):262-8. [PubMed: 7851020]  [MGI Ref ID J:22861]

Alenzi FQ; Marley SB; Lewis JL; Chandrashekran A; Warrens AN; Goldman JM; Gordon MY. 2002. A role for the Fas/Fas ligand apoptotic pathway in regulating myeloid progenitor cell kinetics. Exp Hematol 30(12):1428-35. [PubMed: 12482505]  [MGI Ref ID J:118008]

Alexander JJ; Jacob A; Bao L; Macdonald RL; Quigg RJ. 2005. Complement-dependent apoptosis and inflammatory gene changes in murine lupus cerebritis. J Immunol 175(12):8312-9. [PubMed: 16339572]  [MGI Ref ID J:122254]

Alexander JJ; Jacob A; Vezina P; Sekine H; Gilkeson GS; Quigg RJ. 2007. Absence of functional alternative complement pathway alleviates lupus cerebritis. Eur J Immunol 37(6):1691-701. [PubMed: 17523212]  [MGI Ref ID J:123511]

Alexander JJ; Zwingmann C; Jacob A; Quigg R. 2007. Alteration in kidney glucose and amino acids are implicated in renal pathology in MRL/lpr mice. Biochim Biophys Acta 1772(10):1143-9. [PubMed: 17942282]  [MGI Ref ID J:130687]

Alexander JJ; Zwingmann C; Quigg R. 2005. MRL/lpr mice have alterations in brain metabolism as shown with [1H-13C] NMR spectroscopy. Neurochem Int 47(1-2):143-51. [PubMed: 15893408]  [MGI Ref ID J:129820]

Ali M; Weinreich M; Balcaitis S; Cooper CJ; Fink PJ. 2003. Differential regulation of peripheral CD4+ T cell tolerance induced by deletion and TCR revision. J Immunol 171(11):6290-6. [PubMed: 14634147]  [MGI Ref ID J:132828]

Allam R; Pawar RD; Kulkarni OP; Hornung V; Hartmann G; Segerer S; Akira S; Endres S; Anders HJ. 2008. Viral 5'-triphosphate RNA and non-CpG DNA aggravate autoimmunity and lupus nephritis via distinct TLR-independent immune responses. Eur J Immunol 38(12):3487-3498. [PubMed: 19009528]  [MGI Ref ID J:141388]

Allison J; Thomas HE; Catterall T; Kay TW; Strasser A. 2005. Transgenic expression of dominant-negative Fas-associated death domain protein in beta cells protects against Fas ligand-induced apoptosis and reduces spontaneous diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol 175(1):293-301. [PubMed: 15972661]  [MGI Ref ID J:100606]

Alsharifi M; Lobigs M; Simon MM; Kersten A; Muller K; Koskinen A; Lee E; Mullbacher A. 2006. NK cell-mediated immunopathology during an acute viral infection of the CNS. Eur J Immunol 36(4):887-96. [PubMed: 16541469]  [MGI Ref ID J:114787]

Altman A. 1994. Abnormal antigen receptor-initiated signal transduction in lpr T lymphocytes. Semin Immunol 6(1):9-17. [PubMed: 7513195]  [MGI Ref ID J:19053]

Amital H; Heilweil M; Ulmansky R; Szafer F; Bar-Tana R; Morel L; Foster MH; Mostoslavsky G; Eilat D; Pizov G; Naparstek Y. 2005. Treatment with a laminin-derived peptide suppresses lupus nephritis. J Immunol 175(8):5516-23. [PubMed: 16210660]  [MGI Ref ID J:119103]

Anderson CC; Mukherjee R; Sinclair NR; Jevnikar AM. 1997. Hypogammaglobulinaemia occurs in Fas-deficient MRL-lpr mice following deletion of MHC class II molecules. Clin Exp Immunol 109(3):473-9. [PubMed: 9328125]  [MGI Ref ID J:42959]

Andrews BS; Eisenberg RA; Theofilopoulos AN; Izui S; Wilson CB; McConahey PJ; Murphy ED; Roths JB; Dixon FJ. 1978. Spontaneous murine lupus-like syndromes. Clinical and immunopathological manifestations in several strains. J Exp Med 148(5):1198-215. [PubMed: 309911]  [MGI Ref ID J:27634]

Andrews SF; Zhang Q; Lim S; Li L; Lee JH; Zheng NY; Huang M; Taylor WM; Farris AD; Ni D; Meng W; Luning Prak ET; Wilson PC. 2013. Global analysis of B cell selection using an immunoglobulin light chain-mediated model of autoreactivity. J Exp Med 210(1):125-42. [PubMed: 23267014]  [MGI Ref ID J:194594]

Andryushkova AA; Kuznetsova IA; Orlovskaya IA; Buneva VN; Nevinsky GA. 2009. Nucleotide-hydrolyzing antibodies from the sera of autoimmune-prone MRL-lpr/lpr mice. Int Immunol 21(8):935-45. [PubMed: 19556305]  [MGI Ref ID J:151679]

Antoni A; Patel VA; Fan H; Lee DJ; Graham LH; Rosch CL; Spiegel DS; Rauch J; Levine JS. 2011. Macrophages from lupus-prone MRL mice have a conditional signaling abnormality that leads to dysregulated expression of numerous genes. Immunogenetics 63(5):291-308. [PubMed: 21229240]  [MGI Ref ID J:192148]

Aprahamian T; Bonegio RG; Richez C; Yasuda K; Chiang LK; Sato K; Walsh K; Rifkin IR. 2009. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist rosiglitazone ameliorates murine lupus by induction of adiponectin. J Immunol 182(1):340-6. [PubMed: 19109165]  [MGI Ref ID J:142895]

Apte RS; Richter J; Herndon J; Ferguson TA. 2006. Macrophages inhibit neovascularization in a murine model of age-related macular degeneration. PLoS Med 3(8):e310. [PubMed: 16903779]  [MGI Ref ID J:134144]

Arens R; Baars PA; Jak M; Tesselaar K; van der Valk M; van Oers MH; van Lier RA. 2005. Cutting edge: CD95 maintains effector T cell homeostasis in chronic immune activation. J Immunol 174(10):5915-20. [PubMed: 15879081]  [MGI Ref ID J:98994]

Arnold CN; Pirie E; Dosenovic P; McInerney GM; Xia Y; Wang N; Li X; Siggs OM; Karlsson Hedestam GB; Beutler B. 2012. A forward genetic screen reveals roles for Nfkbid, Zeb1, and Ruvbl2 in humoral immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A :. [PubMed: 22761313]  [MGI Ref ID J:185495]

Ashany D; Savir A; Bhardwaj N; Elkon KB. 1999. Dendritic cells are resistant to apoptosis through the Fas (CD95/APO-1) pathway. J Immunol 163(10):5303-11. [PubMed: 10553053]  [MGI Ref ID J:118433]

Baccala R; Gonzalez-Quintial R; Blasius AL; Rimann I; Ozato K; Kono DH; Beutler B; Theofilopoulos AN. 2013. Essential requirement for IRF8 and SLC15A4 implicates plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of lupus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(8):2940-5. [PubMed: 23382217]  [MGI Ref ID J:194543]

Baccala R; Gonzalez-Quintial R; Schreiber RD; Lawson BR; Kono DH; Theofilopoulos AN. 2012. Anti-IFN-alpha/beta Receptor Antibody Treatment Ameliorates Disease in Lupus-Predisposed Mice. J Immunol 189(12):5976-84. [PubMed: 23175700]  [MGI Ref ID J:190844]

Balasa B; Van Gunst K; Jung N; Balakrishna D; Santamaria P; Hanafusa T; Itoh N; Sarvetnick N. 2000. Islet-specific expression of IL-10 promotes diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice independent of Fas, perforin, TNF receptor-1, and TNF receptor-2 molecules. J Immunol 165(5):2841-9. [PubMed: 10946317]  [MGI Ref ID J:64051]

Balkow S; Kersten A; Tran TT; Stehle T; Grosse P; Museteanu C; Utermohlen O; Pircher H; von Weizsacker F; Wallich R; Mullbacher A; Simon MM. 2001. Concerted action of the FasL/Fas and perforin/granzyme A and B pathways is mandatory for the development of early viral hepatitis but not for recovery from viral infection. J Virol 75(18):8781-91. [PubMed: 11507223]  [MGI Ref ID J:71217]

Bao L; Haas M; Boackle SA; Kraus DM; Cunningham PN; Park P; Alexander JJ; Anderson RK; Culhane K; Holers VM; Quigg RJ. 2002. Transgenic expression of a soluble complement inhibitor protects against renal disease and promotes survival in MRL/lpr mice. J Immunol 168(7):3601-7. [PubMed: 11907125]  [MGI Ref ID J:75572]

Bao L; Haas M; Quigg RJ. 2011. Complement factor H deficiency accelerates development of lupus nephritis. J Am Soc Nephrol 22(2):285-95. [PubMed: 21148254]  [MGI Ref ID J:185884]

Bao L; Osawe I; Haas M; Quigg RJ. 2005. Signaling through up-regulated C3a receptor is key to the development of experimental lupus nephritis. J Immunol 175(3):1947-55. [PubMed: 16034139]  [MGI Ref ID J:107265]

Barazzone C; Horowitz S; Donati YR; Rodriguez I; Piguet PF. 1998. Oxygen toxicity in mouse lung: pathways to cell death. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 19(4):573-81. [PubMed: 9761753]  [MGI Ref ID J:51593]

Barker TT; Lee PY; Kelly-Scumpia KM; Weinstein JS; Nacionales DC; Kumagai Y; Akira S; Croker BP; Sobel ES; Reeves WH; Satoh M. 2011. Pathogenic role of B cells in the development of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage induced by pristane. Lab Invest 91(10):1540-50. [PubMed: 21808234]  [MGI Ref ID J:176270]

Barreiro R; Luker G; Herndon J; Ferguson TA. 2004. Termination of antigen-specific immunity by CD95 ligand (Fas ligand) and IL-10. J Immunol 173(3):1519-25. [PubMed: 15265879]  [MGI Ref ID J:92022]

Barrington RA; Zhang M; Zhong X; Jonsson H; Holodick N; Cherukuri A; Pierce SK; Rothstein TL; Carroll MC. 2005. CD21/CD19 coreceptor signaling promotes B cell survival during primary immune responses. J Immunol 175(5):2859-67. [PubMed: 16116172]  [MGI Ref ID J:113242]

Bashratyan R; Sheng H; Regn D; Rahman MJ; Dai YD. 2013. Insulinoma-released exosomes activate autoreactive marginal zone-like B cells that expand endogenously in prediabetic NOD mice. Eur J Immunol 43(10):2588-97. [PubMed: 23817982]  [MGI Ref ID J:201680]

Bernstein KA; Bolshoun D; Lefkowith JB. 1993. Serum glomerular binding activity is highly correlated with renal disease in MRL/lpr mice. Clin Exp Immunol 93(3):418-23. [PubMed: 8370169]  [MGI Ref ID J:15039]

Bhandoola A; Yui K; Siegel RM; Zerva L; Greene MI. 1994. Gld and lpr mice: single gene mutant models for failed self tolerance. Int Rev Immunol 11(3):231-44. [PubMed: 7930847]  [MGI Ref ID J:21989]

Blair PA; Chavez-Rueda KA; Evans JG; Shlomchik MJ; Eddaoudi A; Isenberg DA; Ehrenstein MR; Mauri C. 2009. Selective targeting of B cells with agonistic anti-CD40 is an efficacious strategy for the generation of induced regulatory T2-like B cells and for the suppression of lupus in MRL/lpr mice. J Immunol 182(6):3492-502. [PubMed: 19265127]  [MGI Ref ID J:145926]

Bloch DB; Rabkina D; Bloch KD. 1995. The cell proliferation-associated protein Ki-67 is a target of autoantibodies in the serum of MRL mice. Lab Invest 73(3):366-71. [PubMed: 7564269]  [MGI Ref ID J:28749]

Bloom DD; Davignon JL; Cohen PL; Eisenberg RA; Clarke SH. 1993. Overlap of the anti-Sm and anti-DNA responses of MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice. J Immunol 150(4):1579-90. [PubMed: 8432994]  [MGI Ref ID J:3924]

Boggio E; Clemente N; Mondino A; Cappellano G; Orilieri E; Gigliotti CL; Toth E; Ramenghi U; Dianzani U; Chiocchetti A. 2014. IL-17 protects T cells from apoptosis and contributes to development of ALPS-like phenotypes. Blood 123(8):1178-86. [PubMed: 24363402]  [MGI Ref ID J:208695]

Bokers S; Urbat A; Daniel C; Amann K; Smith KG; Espeli M; Nitschke L. 2014. Siglec-G deficiency leads to more severe collagen-induced arthritis and earlier onset of lupus-like symptoms in MRL/lpr mice. J Immunol 192(7):2994-3002. [PubMed: 24600033]  [MGI Ref ID J:210020]

Bolland S; Yim YS; Tus K; Wakeland EK; Ravetch JV. 2002. Genetic modifiers of systemic lupus erythematosus in FcgammaRIIB(-/-) mice. J Exp Med 195(9):1167-74. [PubMed: 11994421]  [MGI Ref ID J:76486]

Bonardelle D; Benihoud K; Kiger N; Bobe P. 2005. B lymphocytes mediate Fas-dependent cytotoxicity in MRL/lpr mice. J Leukoc Biol 78(5):1052-1059. [PubMed: 16204618]  [MGI Ref ID J:102764]

Booker JK; Reap EA; Cohen PL. 1998. Expression and function of Fas on cells damaged by gamma-irradiation in B6 and B6/lpr mice. J Immunol 161(9):4536-41. [PubMed: 9794379]  [MGI Ref ID J:112150]

Boone DL; Dassopoulos T; Chai S; Chien M; Lodolce J; Ma A. 2003. Fas is not essential for lamina propria T lymphocyte homeostasis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 285(2):G382-8. [PubMed: 12702495]  [MGI Ref ID J:84826]

Bossaller L; Chiang PI; Schmidt-Lauber C; Ganesan S; Kaiser WJ; Rathinam VA; Mocarski ES; Subramanian D; Green DR; Silverman N; Fitzgerald KA; Marshak-Rothstein A; Latz E. 2012. Cutting Edge: FAS (CD95) Mediates Noncanonical IL-1beta and IL-18 Maturation via Caspase-8 in an RIP3-Independent Manner. J Immunol 189(12):5508-12. [PubMed: 23144495]  [MGI Ref ID J:190865]

Bossu P; Singer GG; Andres P; Ettinger R; Marshak-Rothstein A; Abbas AK. 1993. Mature CD4+ T lymphocytes from MRL/lpr mice are resistant to receptor-mediated tolerance and apoptosis. J Immunol 151(12):7233-9. [PubMed: 7903104]  [MGI Ref ID J:16035]

Bour-Jordan H; Thompson HL; Bluestone JA. 2005. Distinct effector mechanisms in the development of autoimmune neuropathy versus diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol 175(9):5649-55. [PubMed: 16237054]  [MGI Ref ID J:119359]

Bowen DG; Warren A; Davis T; Hoffmann MW; McCaughan GW; De St Groth BF; Bertolino P. 2002. Cytokine-dependent bystander hepatitis due to intrahepatic murine CD8 T-cell activation by bone marrow-derived cells. Gastroenterology 123(4):1252-64. [PubMed: 12360486]  [MGI Ref ID J:79335]

Bradshaw S; Zheng WJ; Tsoi LC; Gilkeson G; Zhang XK. 2008. A role for Fli-1 in B cell proliferation: implications for SLE pathogenesis. Clin Immunol 129(1):19-30. [PubMed: 18692443]  [MGI Ref ID J:140403]

Brard F; Shannon M; Prak EL; Litwin S; Weigert M. 1999. Somatic mutation and light chain rearrangement generate autoimmunity in anti-single-stranded DNA transgenic MRL/lpr mice. J Exp Med 190(5):691-704. [PubMed: 10477553]  [MGI Ref ID J:57612]

Braun D; Geraldes P; Demengeot J. 2003. Type I Interferon controls the onset and severity of autoimmune manifestations in lpr mice. J Autoimmun 20(1):15-25. [PubMed: 12604309]  [MGI Ref ID J:82338]

Breneman SM; Moynihan JA; Grota LJ; Felten DL; Felten SY. 1993. Splenic norepinephrine is decreased in MRL-lpr/lpr mice. Brain Behav Immun 7(2):135-43. [PubMed: 8347895]  [MGI Ref ID J:12758]

Brien JD; Uhrlaub JL; Nikolich-Zugich J. 2008. West nile virus-specific CD4 T cells exhibit direct antiviral cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity and are sufficient for antiviral protection. J Immunol 181(12):8568-75. [PubMed: 19050276]  [MGI Ref ID J:142059]

Brown NJ; Hutcheson J; Bickel E; Scatizzi JC; Albee LD; Haines GK 3rd; Eslick J; Bradley K; Taricone E; Perlman H. 2004. Fas death receptor signaling represses monocyte numbers and macrophage activation in vivo. J Immunol 173(12):7584-93. [PubMed: 15585886]  [MGI Ref ID J:94851]

Brownlie RJ; Lawlor KE; Niederer HA; Cutler AJ; Xiang Z; Clatworthy MR; Floto RA; Greaves DR; Lyons PA; Smith KG. 2008. Distinct cell-specific control of autoimmunity and infection by FcgammaRIIb. J Exp Med 205(4):883-95. [PubMed: 18362174]  [MGI Ref ID J:133975]

Brummel R; Roberts TL; Stacey KJ; Lenert P. 2006. Higher-order CpG-DNA stimulation reveals distinct activation requirements for marginal zone and follicular B cells in lupus mice. Eur J Immunol 36(7):1951-62. [PubMed: 16791898]  [MGI Ref ID J:115797]

Budd RC; Van Houten N; Clements J; Mixter PF. 1994. Parallels in T lymphocyte development between lpr and normal mice. Semin Immunol 6(1):43-8. [PubMed: 8167306]  [MGI Ref ID J:19056]

Bullard DC; King PD; Hicks MJ; Dupont B; Beaudet AL; Elkon KB. 1997. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 deficiency protects MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) mice from early lethality. J Immunol 159(4):2058-67. [PubMed: 9257874]  [MGI Ref ID J:42669]

Buonocore S; Haddou NO; Moore F; Florquin S; Paulart F; Heirman C; Thielemans K; Goldman M; Flamand V. 2008. Neutrophil-dependent tumor rejection and priming of tumoricidal CD8+ T cell response induced by dendritic cells overexpressing CD95L. J Leukoc Biol 84(3):713-20. [PubMed: 18567840]  [MGI Ref ID J:138270]

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Yang JQ; Chun T; Liu H; Hong S; Bui H; Van Kaer L; Wang CR; Singh RR. 2004. CD1d deficiency exacerbates inflammatory dermatitis in MRL-lpr/lpr mice. Eur J Immunol 34(6):1723-32. [PubMed: 15162443]  [MGI Ref ID J:90394]

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Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Production of mice from cryopreserved embryos or sperm occurs in a maximum barrier room, G200.

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls

Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing


Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $2625.00
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing


Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $3412.50
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Control Information

   001976 NOD/ShiLtJ
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.

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Terms are granted by individual review and stated on the customer invoice(s) and account statement. These transactions are payable in U.S. currency within the granted terms. Payment for services, products, shipping containers, and shipping costs that are rendered are expected within the payment terms indicated on the invoice or stated by contract. Invoices and account balances in arrears of stated terms may result in The Jackson Laboratory pursuing collection activities including but not limited to outside agencies and court filings.

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The Jackson Laboratory's Genotype Promise

The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use

"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCTS" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or services provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than the internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE or PRODUCTS from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON's prior written authorization.

No Warranty


In case of dissatisfaction for a valid reason and claimed in writing by a purchaser within ninety (90) days of receipt of mice, products or services, JACKSON will, at its option, provide credit or replacement for the mice or product received or the services provided.

No Liability

In no event shall JACKSON, its trustees, directors, officers, employees, and affiliates be liable for any causes of action or damages, including any direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages, arising out of the provision of MICE, PRODUCTS or services, including economic damage or injury to property and lost profits, and including any damage arising from acts or negligence on the part of JACKSON, its agents or employees. Unless prohibited by law, in purchasing or receiving MICE, PRODUCTS or services from JACKSON, purchaser or recipient, or any party claiming by or through them, expressly releases and discharges JACKSON from all such causes of action or damages, and further agrees to defend and indemnify JACKSON from any costs or damages arising out of any third party claims.

MICE and PRODUCTS are to be used in a safe manner and in accordance with all applicable governmental rules and regulations.

The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or services. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS or services may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and services by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.

Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or services shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or services by JACKSON.