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The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Strain Information

Type Inbred Strain;
Additional information on Inbred Strains.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Specieslaboratory mouse
H2 Haplotypek

Related Genotype: A/A

Important Note
This strain is homozygous for Pde6brd1 and Tlr4Lps-d.

Under conventional housing conditions, C3H/HeJBirLtJ mice develop spontaneous colitis. It should be noted that the phenotype of cecocolitis in this strain requires an interaction with an as yet undefined component of the enteric flora. Inflammation is present mainly in the cecum and right colon. Colitis develops early in life and resolves by three months of age. The colitis is characterized by acute and chronic inflammation, ulcerations, crypt abscesses, regenerative hyperplasia and submucosal scarring. A mild recurrence of the disease can occur after one year. Small lesions at the anorectal junction are common throughout life.

C3H/HeJ mice (at F204-208) were initially obtained from The Jackson Laboratory production facility. Mice were selectively bred for a high incidence of perianal ulceration, soft feces and positive Hemoccult test results. Over a period of a year, beginning in 1992, a pedigreed substrain was established starting with one severely affected female and one clinically normal male. Once the colony was established, affected mice were sibling mated and the pedigree with the highest incidence of disease was selected for further study. (Sundberg JP, et al., 1994) The new substrain was developed in the laboratory of Dr. Edward Birkenmeier and named C3H/HeJBir. The colony was transferred to Dr. Ed Leiter in the mid 1990's. The Jackson Laboratory Repository imported this strain from the research laboratory of Dr. Ed Leiter in 2006 at generation F52.

Related Strains

C3H Strains
000659   C3H/HeJ
001824   C3H/HeJSxJ
000635   C3H/HeOuJ
000474   C3H/HeSn
000661   C3H/HeSnJ
000658   C3HeB/FeJ
001908   C3HfB/BiJ
View C3H Strains     (7 strains)

Strains carrying   Pde6brd1 allele
004202   B6.C3 Pde6brd1 Hps4le/+ +-Lmx1adr-8J/J
000002   B6.C3-Pde6brd1 Hps4le/J
001022   B6C3FeF1/J a/a
000652   BDP/J
000653   BUB/BnJ
002439   C3.129P2(B6)-B2mtm1Unc/J
005494   C3.129S1(B6)-Grm1rcw/J
000509   C3.Cg-Lystbg-2J/J
000480   C3.MRL-Faslpr/J
001957   C3A Pde6brd1.O20/A-Prph2Rd2/J
004326   C3Bir.129P2(B6)-Il10tm1Cgn/Lt
003968   C3Bir.129P2(B6)-Il10tm1Cgn/LtJ
006435   C3Fe.SW-Soaa/MonJ
001904   C3H-Atcayji-hes/J
000659   C3H/HeJ
000511   C3H/HeJ-Ap3d1mh-2J/J
000784   C3H/HeJ-Faslgld/J
002433   C3H/HeJ-Sptbn4qv-lnd2J/J
001824   C3H/HeJSxJ
000635   C3H/HeOuJ
000474   C3H/HeSn
001431   C3H/HeSn-ocd/J
000661   C3H/HeSnJ
002333   C3H/HeSnJ-gri/J
001576   C3He-Atp7btx-J/J
000658   C3HeB/FeJ
002588   C3HeB/FeJ-Eya1bor/J
001533   C3HeB/FeJ-Mc1rE-so Gli3Xt-J/J
001908   C3HfB/BiJ
001502   C3Sn.B6-Epha4rb/EiGrsrJ
002235   C3Sn.C3-Ctnna2cdf/J
001547   C3Sn.Cg-Cm/J
001906   C3fBAnl.Cg-Catb/AnlJ
000656   CBA/J
000813   CBA/J-Atp7aMo-pew/J
000660   DA/HuSnJ
000023   FL/1ReJ
000025   FL/4ReJ
003024   FVB.129P2(B6)-Fmr1tm1Cgr/J
002539   FVB.129P2-Abcb4tm1Bor/J
002935   FVB.129S2(B6)-Ccnd1tm1Wbg/J
002953   FVB.Cg-Tg(MMTVTGFA)254Rjc/J
003170   FVB.Cg-Tg(Myh6-tTA)6Smbf/J
003078   FVB.Cg-Tg(WapIgf1)39Dlr/J
003487   FVB.Cg-Tg(XGFAP-lacZ)3Mes/J
003257   FVB/N-Tg(GFAPGFP)14Mes/J
002856   FVB/N-Tg(TIE2-lacZ)182Sato/J
002384   FVB/N-Tg(UcpDta)1Kz/J
001800   FVB/NJ
001491   FVB/NMob
000804   HPG/BmJ
000734   MOLD/RkJ
000550   MOLF/EiJ
002423   NON/ShiLtJ
000679   P/J
000680   PL/J
000268   RSV/LeJ
000269   SB/LeJ
010968   SB;C3Sn-Lrp4mdig-2J/GrsrJ
005651   SJL.AK-Thy1a/TseJ
000686   SJL/J
000688   ST/bJ
004808   STOCK Mapttm1(EGFP)Klt Tg(MAPT)8cPdav/J
002648   STOCK a/a Cln6nclf/J
000279   STOCK gr +/+ Ap3d1mh/J
005965   STOCK Tg(Pomc1-cre)16Lowl/J
004770   SW.B6-Soab/J
002023   SWR.M-Emv21 Emv22/J
000689   SWR/J
000939   SWR/J-Clcn1adr-mto/J
000692   WB/ReJ KitW/J
100410   WBB6F1/J-KitW/KitW-v/J
000693   WC/ReJ KitlSl/J
View Strains carrying   Pde6brd1     (73 strains)

Strains carrying   Tlr4Lps-d allele
002930   C.C3-Tlr4Lps-d/J
005973   C3Bir.129P2(B6)-Il10C3Bir/LtJ
004326   C3Bir.129P2(B6)-Il10tm1Cgn/Lt
003968   C3Bir.129P2(B6)-Il10tm1Cgn/LtJ
000659   C3H/HeJ
View Strains carrying   Tlr4Lps-d     (5 strains)

View Strains carrying other alleles of Pde6b     (15 strains)

Strains carrying other alleles of Tlr4
024872   B6(Cg)-Tlr4tm1.1Karp/J
007227   B6.B10ScN-Tlr4lps-del/JthJ
000029   BXD29-Tlr4lps-2J/J
003752   C57BL/10ScNJ
View Strains carrying other alleles of Tlr4     (4 strains)

Additional Web Information

JAX® NOTES, Spring 2002; 485. Genetic Background Effects: Can Your Mice See?


Phenotype Information

View Phenotypic Data

View Related Disease (OMIM) Terms

Related Disease (OMIM) Terms provided by MGI
- Model with phenotypic similarity to human disease where etiologies involve orthologs. Human genes are associated with this disease. Orthologs of those genes appear in the mouse genotype(s).
Toll-Like Receptor 4; TLR4
- Potential model based on gene homology relationships. Phenotypic similarity to the human disease has not been tested.
Macular Degeneration, Age-Related, 10; ARMD10   (TLR4)
Night Blindness, Congenital Stationary, Autosomal Dominant 2; CSNBAD2   (PDE6B)
Retinitis Pigmentosa 40; RP40   (PDE6B)
View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

The following phenotype information is associated with a similar, but not exact match to this JAX® Mice strain.


        involves: C3H/HeJ
  • immune system phenotype
  • abnormal T-helper 2 physiology
    • Th2 responses elevated after induction of autoimmune arthritis   (MGI Ref ID J:96356)
  • abnormal osteoclast differentiation
    • lipopolysaccharide fails to inhibit RANKL induced osteoclast formation as it does in controls   (MGI Ref ID J:131353)
    • antibody to IFN-beta or to IFNAR1 reverses inhibition of osteoclast formation induced by RANKL   (MGI Ref ID J:131353)
  • abnormal tumor necrosis factor level
    • diminished TNF alpha expression after 90 minutes of liver ischemia followed by 6 hours of reperfusion   (MGI Ref ID J:114368)
    • macrophage primary but not secondary necrotic cells with residual stimulatory affect on TNF alpha production by macrophage   (MGI Ref ID J:124334)
  • increased susceptibility to bacterial infection
    • low responsiveness of spleen cells to lipopolysaccharides   (MGI Ref ID J:5721)
    • increased sensitivity to gram (-) infection   (MGI Ref ID J:51522)
    • significantly shortened survival after infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae   (MGI Ref ID J:87807)
    • increased K. pneumoniae levels in the lung   (MGI Ref ID J:87807)
  • increased susceptibility to induced arthritis
    • reduced susceptibility to arthritis induced by type II collagen   (MGI Ref ID J:96356)
  • behavior/neurological phenotype
  • hyporesponsive to tactile stimuli
    • reduced mechanical allodynia after nerve injury   (MGI Ref ID J:97819)
  • increased thermal nociceptive threshold
    • attenuated response to heat   (MGI Ref ID J:97819)
  • skeleton phenotype
  • abnormal osteoclast differentiation
    • lipopolysaccharide fails to inhibit RANKL induced osteoclast formation as it does in controls   (MGI Ref ID J:131353)
    • antibody to IFN-beta or to IFNAR1 reverses inhibition of osteoclast formation induced by RANKL   (MGI Ref ID J:131353)
  • increased susceptibility to induced arthritis
    • reduced susceptibility to arthritis induced by type II collagen   (MGI Ref ID J:96356)
  • muscle phenotype
  • *normal* muscle phenotype
    • MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) release from isolated mouse aorta smooth muscle cells (MAoSMC) by stimulation with dsRNA is normal relative to controls   (MGI Ref ID J:116310)
  • integument phenotype
  • hyporesponsive to tactile stimuli
    • reduced mechanical allodynia after nerve injury   (MGI Ref ID J:97819)
  • increased thermal nociceptive threshold
    • attenuated response to heat   (MGI Ref ID J:97819)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal glial cell apoptosis
    • isolated microglia exposed to LPS are resistant to apoptosis   (MGI Ref ID J:99051)
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • abnormal circulating enzyme level
    • myeloperoxidase levels are reduced after 90 minutes of liver ischemia followed by 6 hours of reperfusion   (MGI Ref ID J:114368)
    • increased HO-1 expression   (MGI Ref ID J:114368)
    • decreased circulating alanine transaminase level
      • serum levels decreased after 90 minutes of liver ischemia followed by 6 hours of reperfusion   (MGI Ref ID J:114368)
  • abnormal tumor necrosis factor level
    • diminished TNF alpha expression after 90 minutes of liver ischemia followed by 6 hours of reperfusion   (MGI Ref ID J:114368)
    • macrophage primary but not secondary necrotic cells with residual stimulatory affect on TNF alpha production by macrophage   (MGI Ref ID J:124334)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • abnormal T-helper 2 physiology
    • Th2 responses elevated after induction of autoimmune arthritis   (MGI Ref ID J:96356)
  • abnormal osteoclast differentiation
    • lipopolysaccharide fails to inhibit RANKL induced osteoclast formation as it does in controls   (MGI Ref ID J:131353)
    • antibody to IFN-beta or to IFNAR1 reverses inhibition of osteoclast formation induced by RANKL   (MGI Ref ID J:131353)
  • cellular phenotype
  • abnormal glial cell apoptosis
    • isolated microglia exposed to LPS are resistant to apoptosis   (MGI Ref ID J:99051)
  • abnormal osteoclast differentiation
    • lipopolysaccharide fails to inhibit RANKL induced osteoclast formation as it does in controls   (MGI Ref ID J:131353)
    • antibody to IFN-beta or to IFNAR1 reverses inhibition of osteoclast formation induced by RANKL   (MGI Ref ID J:131353)
  • hearing/vestibular/ear phenotype
  • *normal* hearing/vestibular/ear phenotype
    • cisplatin and lipopolysaccharide treatment does not lead to significant increases in auditory brainstem response as is observed in controls   (MGI Ref ID J:168789)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
      Inflammatory bowel disease

Internal/Organ Research
Gastrointestinal Defects

Pde6brd1 related

Sensorineural Research
Retinal Degeneration

Tlr4Lps-d related

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
CD Antigens, Antigen Receptors, and Histocompatibility Markers
      Tlr deficiency
      Tlr deficiency
      Tlr deficiency

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

Allele Symbol Pde6brd1
Allele Name retinal degeneration 1
Allele Type Spontaneous
Common Name(s) Pdebrd1; rd; rd-1; rd1; rodless retina;
Strain of Originvarious
Gene Symbol and Name Pde6b, phosphodiesterase 6B, cGMP, rod receptor, beta polypeptide
Chromosome 5
Gene Common Name(s) CSNB3; CSNBAD2; PDEB; Pdeb; RP40; nmf137; phosphodiesterase, cGMP, rod receptor, beta polypeptide; r; rd; rd-1; rd1; rd10; retinal degeneration; retinal degeneration 1; retinal degeneration 10;
General Note The following inbred strains are known to be homozygous for Pde6b: C3H sublines, CBA/J, FVB/NJ, PL/J, SB, SJL/J, and SWR/J.
Molecular Note Two mutations have been identified in rd1 mice. A murine leukimia virus (Xmv-28) insertion in reverse orientation in intron 1 is found in all mouse strains with the rd1 phenotype. Further, a nonsense mutation (C to A transversion) in codon 347 that results in a truncation eliminating more than half of the predicted encoded protein, including the catalytic domain has also been identified in all rd1 strains of mice. A specific degradation of mutant transcript during or after pre-mRNA splicing is suggested. [MGI Ref ID J:11513] [MGI Ref ID J:4366] [MGI Ref ID J:51361]
Allele Symbol Tlr4Lps-d
Allele Name defective lipopolysaccharide response
Allele Type Spontaneous
Common Name(s) TLR4-M; TLR4-Mu; TLR4lps-def; TLR4d; Tlr4-; Tlr4d; TlrLps-d; lpsd; mutant TLR4;
Strain of OriginC3H/HeJ
Gene Symbol and Name Tlr4, toll-like receptor 4
Chromosome 4
Gene Common Name(s) ARMD10; CD284; Lps; RAS-like, family 2, locus 8; Rasl2-8; TLR-4; TOLL; lipopolysaccharide response;
General Note C3H/HeJ mice carry this allele. Various combinations of Lps-associated traits have been followed in crosses between C3H/HeJ and other C3H substrains, and the traits have in all cases segregated together (J:30692, J:5557, J:5593, J:5938). Some of the traits show dominance of the Tlr4lps-n allele; others, including Tlr4Lps-d, show codominance.

Genbank ID for this allele: AF095353

Molecular Note This allele corresponds to a mutation in the third exon of the gene. A C to A substitution at nucleotide position 2342 results in an amino acid substitution that replaces proline with histidine at position 712. [MGI Ref ID J:51522] [MGI Ref ID J:53519] [MGI Ref ID J:57938]


Genotyping Information

Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting


References provided by MGI

Additional References

Pde6brd1 related

Acosta ML; Fletcher EL; Azizoglu S; Foster LE; Farber DB; Kalloniatis M. 2005. Early markers of retinal degeneration in rd/rd mice. Mol Vis 11:717-28. [PubMed: 16163270]  [MGI Ref ID J:103970]

Aftab U; Jiang C; Tucker B; Kim JY; Klassen H; Miljan E; Sinden J; Young M. 2009. Growth kinetics and transplantation of human retinal progenitor cells. Exp Eye Res 89(3):301-10. [PubMed: 19524569]  [MGI Ref ID J:151412]

Ahuja S; Ahuja-Jensen P; Johnson LE; Caffe AR; Abrahamson M; Ekstrom PA; van Veen T. 2008. rd1 Mouse retina shows an imbalance in the activity of cysteine protease cathepsins and their endogenous inhibitor cystatin C. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49(3):1089-96. [PubMed: 18326735]  [MGI Ref ID J:133024]

Ahuja-Jensen P; Johnsen-Soriano S; Ahuja S; Bosch-Morell F; Sancho-Tello M; Romero FJ; Abrahamson M; van Veen T. 2007. Low glutathione peroxidase in rd1 mouse retina increases oxidative stress and proteases. Neuroreport 18(8):797-801. [PubMed: 17471069]  [MGI Ref ID J:122802]

Alavi MV; Bette S; Schimpf S; Schuettauf F; Schraermeyer U; Wehrl HF; Ruttiger L; Beck SC; Tonagel F; Pichler BJ; Knipper M; Peters T; Laufs J; Wissinger B. 2007. A splice site mutation in the murine Opa1 gene features pathology of autosomal dominant optic atrophy. Brain 130(Pt 4):1029-42. [PubMed: 17314202]  [MGI Ref ID J:154966]

Allen AE; Brown TM; Lucas RJ. 2011. A distinct contribution of short-wavelength-sensitive cones to light-evoked activity in the mouse pretectal olivary nucleus. J Neurosci 31(46):16833-43. [PubMed: 22090509]  [MGI Ref ID J:177906]

Allen AE; Cameron MA; Brown TM; Vugler AA; Lucas RJ. 2010. Visual responses in mice lacking critical components of all known retinal phototransduction cascades. PLoS One 5(11):e15063. [PubMed: 21124780]  [MGI Ref ID J:167121]

Alvarez-Lopez C; Cernuda-Cernuda R; Alcorta E; Alvarez-Viejo M; Manuel Garcia-Fernandez J. 2004. Altered endogenous activation of CREB in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of mice with retinal degeneration. Brain Res 1024(1-2):137-45. [PubMed: 15451375]  [MGI Ref ID J:92980]

Alvarez-Lopez C; Cernuda-Cernuda R; Garcia-Fernandez JM. 2006. The mPer1 clock gene expression in the rd mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus is affected by the retinal degeneration. Brain Res 1087(1):134-41. [PubMed: 16626665]  [MGI Ref ID J:109668]

Alvarez-Lopez C; Cernuda-Cernuda R; Paniagua MA; Alvarez-Viejo M; Fernandez-Lopez A; Garcia-Fernandez JM. 2004. The transcription factor CREB is phosphorylated in neurons of the piriform cortex of blind mice in response to illumination of the retina. Neurosci Lett 357(3):223-6. [PubMed: 15003290]  [MGI Ref ID J:121036]

Ardayfio P; Moon J; Leung KK; Youn-Hwang D; Kim KS. 2008. Impaired learning and memory in Pitx3 deficient aphakia mice: A genetic model for striatum-dependent cognitive symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Dis :. [PubMed: 18573342]  [MGI Ref ID J:136304]

Ash J; McLeod DS; Lutty GA. 2005. Transgenic expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) blocks normal vascular development but not pathological neovascularization in the eye. Mol Vis 11:298-308. [PubMed: 15889014]  [MGI Ref ID J:98579]

Ash JA; Velazquez R; Kelley CM; Powers BE; Ginsberg SD; Mufson EJ; Strupp BJ. 2014. Maternal choline supplementation improves spatial mapping and increases basal forebrain cholinergic neuron number and size in aged Ts65Dn mice. Neurobiol Dis 70:32-42. [PubMed: 24932939]  [MGI Ref ID J:218355]

Audo I; Bujakowska K; Orhan E; Poloschek CM; Defoort-Dhellemmes S; Drumare I; Kohl S; Luu TD; Lecompte O; Zrenner E; Lancelot ME; Antonio A; Germain A; Michiels C; Audier C; Letexier M; Saraiva JP; Leroy BP; Munier FL; Mohand-Said S; Lorenz B; Friedburg C; Preising M; Kellner U; Renner AB; Moskova-Doumanova V; Berger W; Wissinger B; Hamel CP; Schorderet DF; De Baere E; Sharon D; Banin E; Jacobson SG; Bonneau D; Zanlonghi X; Le Meur G; Casteels I; Koenekoop R; Long VW; Meire F; Prescott K; de Ravel T; Simm. 2012. Whole-exome sequencing identifies mutations in GPR179 leading to autosomal-recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness. Am J Hum Genet 90(2):321-30. [PubMed: 22325361]  [MGI Ref ID J:196741]

Azadi S; Paquet-Durand F; Medstrand P; van Veen T; Ekstrom PA. 2006. Up-regulation and increased phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) delta, mu and theta in the degenerating rd1 mouse retina. Mol Cell Neurosci 31(4):759-73. [PubMed: 16503160]  [MGI Ref ID J:108601]

BRUCKNER R. 1951. [Slit-lamp microscopy and ophthalmoscopy in rat and mouse.] Doc Ophthalmol 5-6:452-554. [PubMed: 14896883]  [MGI Ref ID J:25576]

Ball SL; Powers PA; Shin HS; Morgans CW; Peachey NS; Gregg RG. 2002. Role of the beta(2) subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels in the retinal outer plexiform layer. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43(5):1595-603. [PubMed: 11980879]  [MGI Ref ID J:80080]

Barabas P; Liu A; Xing W; Chen CK; Tong Z; Watt CB; Jones BW; Bernstein PS; Krizaj D. 2013. Role of ELOVL4 and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mouse models of Stargardt type 3 retinal degeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(13):5181-6. [PubMed: 23479632]  [MGI Ref ID J:194246]

Barber AC; Hippert C; Duran Y; West EL; Bainbridge JW; Warre-Cornish K; Luhmann UF; Lakowski J; Sowden JC; Ali RR; Pearson RA. 2013. Repair of the degenerate retina by photoreceptor transplantation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(1):354-9. [PubMed: 23248312]  [MGI Ref ID J:192521]

Bi A; Cui J; Ma YP; Olshevskaya E; Pu M; Dizhoor AM; Pan ZH. 2006. Ectopic expression of a microbial-type rhodopsin restores visual responses in mice with photoreceptor degeneration. Neuron 50(1):23-33. [PubMed: 16600853]  [MGI Ref ID J:122947]

Blanks JC; Bok D. 1977. An autoradiographic analysis of postnatal cell proliferation in the normal and degenerative mouse retina. J Comp Neurol 174(2):317-27. [PubMed: 864040]  [MGI Ref ID J:5812]

Borowska J; Trenholm S; Awatramani GB. 2011. An intrinsic neural oscillator in the degenerating mouse retina. J Neurosci 31(13):5000-12. [PubMed: 21451038]  [MGI Ref ID J:171202]

Bowes C; Danciger M; Kozak CA; Farber DB. 1989. Isolation of a candidate cDNA for the gene causing retinal degeneration in the rd mouse [published erratum appears in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1990 Feb;87(4):1625] Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86(24):9722-6. [PubMed: 2481314]  [MGI Ref ID J:10184]

Bowes C; Li T; Danciger M; Baxter LC; Applebury ML; Farber DB. 1990. Retinal degeneration in the rd mouse is caused by a defect in the beta subunit of rod cGMP-phosphodiesterase [see comments] Nature 347(6294):677-80. [PubMed: 1977087]  [MGI Ref ID J:10777]

Bowes C; Li T; Frankel WN; Danciger M; Coffin JM; Applebury ML; Farber DB. 1993. Localization of a retroviral element within the rd gene coding for the beta subunit of cGMP phosphodiesterase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(7):2955-9. [PubMed: 8385352]  [MGI Ref ID J:4366]

Bramall AN; Szego MJ; Pacione LR; Chang I; Diez E; D'Orleans-Juste P; Stewart DJ; Hauswirth WW; Yanagisawa M; McInnes RR. 2013. Endothelin-2-mediated protection of mutant photoreceptors in inherited photoreceptor degeneration. PLoS One 8(2):e58023. [PubMed: 23469133]  [MGI Ref ID J:198395]

Brown TM; Gias C; Hatori M; Keding SR; Semo M; Coffey PJ; Gigg J; Piggins HD; Panda S; Lucas RJ. 2010. Melanopsin contributions to irradiance coding in the thalamo-cortical visual system. PLoS Biol 8(12):e1000558. [PubMed: 21151887]  [MGI Ref ID J:170401]

Buhr ED; Van Gelder RN. 2014. Local photic entrainment of the retinal circadian oscillator in the absence of rods, cones, and melanopsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(23):8625-30. [PubMed: 24843129]  [MGI Ref ID J:211359]

Bumsted KM; Rizzolo LJ; Barnstable CJ. 2001. Defects in the MITF(mi/mi) apical surface are associated with a failure of outer segment elongation. Exp Eye Res 73(3):383-92. [PubMed: 11520113]  [MGI Ref ID J:115620]

Busskamp V; Duebel J; Balya D; Fradot M; Viney TJ; Siegert S; Groner AC; Cabuy E; Forster V; Seeliger M; Biel M; Humphries P; Paques M; Mohand-Said S; Trono D; Deisseroth K; Sahel JA; Picaud S; Roska B. 2010. Genetic reactivation of cone photoreceptors restores visual responses in retinitis pigmentosa. Science 329(5990):413-7. [PubMed: 20576849]  [MGI Ref ID J:162017]

Caley DW; Johnson C; Liebelt RA. 1972. The postnatal development of the retina in the normal and rodless CBA mouse: a light and electron microscopic study. Am J Anat 133(2):179-212. [PubMed: 5009246]  [MGI Ref ID J:5250]

Cameron MA; Pozdeyev N; Vugler AA; Cooper H; Iuvone PM; Lucas RJ. 2009. Light regulation of retinal dopamine that is independent of melanopsin phototransduction. Eur J Neurosci 29(4):761-7. [PubMed: 19200071]  [MGI Ref ID J:146469]

Carter-Dawson LD; LaVail MM; Sidman RL. 1978. Differential effect of the rd mutation on rods and cones in the mouse retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 17(6):489-98. [PubMed: 659071]  [MGI Ref ID J:5988]

Cayouette M; Gravel C. 1997. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of ciliary neurotrophic factor can prevent photoreceptor degeneration in the retinal degeneration (rd) mouse. Hum Gene Ther 8(4):423-30. [PubMed: 9054517]  [MGI Ref ID J:39262]

Cayouette M; Smith SB; Becerra SP; Gravel C. 1999. Pigment epithelium-derived factor delays the death of photoreceptors in mouse models of inherited retinal degenerations. Neurobiol Dis 6(6):523-32. [PubMed: 10600408]  [MGI Ref ID J:59343]

Chang B; Hawes NL; Hurd RE; Davisson MT; Nusinowitz S; Heckenlively JR. 2002. Retinal degeneration mutants in the mouse. Vision Res 42(4):517-25. [PubMed: 11853768]  [MGI Ref ID J:75095]

Chang B; Hawes NL; Hurd RE; Wang J; Howell D; Davisson MT; Roderick TH; Nusinowitz S; Heckenlively JR. 2005. Mouse models of ocular diseases. Vis Neurosci 22(5):587-93. [PubMed: 16332269]  [MGI Ref ID J:156373]

Chang B; Hurd R; Wang J; Nishina P. 2013. Survey of common eye diseases in laboratory mouse strains. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 54(7):4974-81. [PubMed: 23800770]  [MGI Ref ID J:198916]

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Tlr4Lps-d related

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Da Costa CU; Wantia N; Kirschning CJ; Busch DH; Rodriguez N; Wagner H; Miethke T. 2004. Heat shock protein 60 from Chlamydia pneumoniae elicits an unusual set of inflammatory responses via Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 in vivo. Eur J Immunol 34(10):2874. [PubMed: 15368304]  [MGI Ref ID J:92331]

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Sokol CL; Chu NQ; Yu S; Nish SA; Laufer TM; Medzhitov R. 2009. Basophils function as antigen-presenting cells for an allergen-induced T helper type 2 response. Nat Immunol 10(7):713-20. [PubMed: 19465907]  [MGI Ref ID J:150141]

Sorgi CA; Secatto A; Fontanari C; Turato WM; Belanger C; de Medeiros AI; Kashima S; Marleau S; Covas DT; Bozza PT; Faccioli LH. 2009. Histoplasma capsulatum cell wall {beta}-glucan induces lipid body formation through CD18, TLR2, and dectin-1 receptors: correlation with leukotriene B4 generation and role in HIV-1 infection. J Immunol 182(7):4025-35. [PubMed: 19299700]  [MGI Ref ID J:147134]

Spiller S; Dreher S; Meng G; Grabiec A; Thomas W; Hartung T; Pfeffer K; Hochrein H; Brade H; Bessler W; Wagner H; Kirschning CJ. 2007. Cellular recognition of trimyristoylated peptide or enterobacterial lipopolysaccharide via both TLR2 and TLR4. J Biol Chem 282(18):13190-8. [PubMed: 17353199]  [MGI Ref ID J:121930]

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Suganami T; Yuan X; Shimoda Y; Uchio-Yamada K; Nakagawa N; Shirakawa I; Usami T; Tsukahara T; Nakayama K; Miyamoto Y; Yasuda K; Matsuda J; Kamei Y; Kitajima S; Ogawa Y. 2009. Activating transcription factor 3 constitutes a negative feedback mechanism that attenuates saturated Fatty acid/toll-like receptor 4 signaling and macrophage activation in obese adipose tissue. Circ Res 105(1):25-32. [PubMed: 19478204]  [MGI Ref ID J:164755]

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Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Production of mice from cryopreserved embryos or sperm occurs in a maximum barrier room, G200.

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls

Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing


Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $2625.00
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Frozen Products

Price (US dollars $)
Frozen Embryo $1725.00

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryopreserved Embryos
    Available to most shipping destinations1
    This strain is also available as cryopreserved embryos2. Orders for cryopreserved embryos may be placed with our Customer Service Department. Experienced technicians at The Jackson Laboratory have recovered frozen embryos of this strain successfully. We will provide you enough embryos to perform two embryo transfers. The Jackson Laboratory does not guarantee successful recovery at your facility. For complete information on purchasing embryos, please visit our Cryopreserved Embryos web page.

    1 Shipments cannot be made to Australia due to Australian government import restrictions.
    2 Embryos for most strains are cryopreserved at the two cell stage while some strains are cryopreserved at the eight cell stage. If this information is important to you, please contact Customer Service.
  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing


Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $3412.50
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Frozen Products

Price (US dollars $)
Frozen Embryo $2242.50

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryopreserved Embryos
    Available to most shipping destinations1
    This strain is also available as cryopreserved embryos2. Orders for cryopreserved embryos may be placed with our Customer Service Department. Experienced technicians at The Jackson Laboratory have recovered frozen embryos of this strain successfully. We will provide you enough embryos to perform two embryo transfers. The Jackson Laboratory does not guarantee successful recovery at your facility. For complete information on purchasing embryos, please visit our Cryopreserved Embryos web page.

    1 Shipments cannot be made to Australia due to Australian government import restrictions.
    2 Embryos for most strains are cryopreserved at the two cell stage while some strains are cryopreserved at the eight cell stage. If this information is important to you, please contact Customer Service.
  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

General Supply Notes

  • View the complete collection of spontaneous mutants in the Mouse Mutant Resource.

Important Note

This strain is homozygous for Pde6brd1 and Tlr4Lps-d.

Payment Terms and Conditions

Terms are granted by individual review and stated on the customer invoice(s) and account statement. These transactions are payable in U.S. currency within the granted terms. Payment for services, products, shipping containers, and shipping costs that are rendered are expected within the payment terms indicated on the invoice or stated by contract. Invoices and account balances in arrears of stated terms may result in The Jackson Laboratory pursuing collection activities including but not limited to outside agencies and court filings.

See Terms of Use tab for General Terms and Conditions

The Jackson Laboratory's Genotype Promise

The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
Ordering Information
JAX® Mice
Surgical and Preconditioning Services
JAX® Services
Customer Services and Support
Tel: 1-800-422-6423 or 1-207-288-5845
Fax: 1-207-288-6150
Technical Support Email Form

Terms of Use

Terms of Use

General Terms and Conditions

Contact information

General inquiries regarding Terms of Use

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JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use

"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCTS" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or services provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than the internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE or PRODUCTS from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON's prior written authorization.

No Warranty


In case of dissatisfaction for a valid reason and claimed in writing by a purchaser within ninety (90) days of receipt of mice, products or services, JACKSON will, at its option, provide credit or replacement for the mice or product received or the services provided.

No Liability

In no event shall JACKSON, its trustees, directors, officers, employees, and affiliates be liable for any causes of action or damages, including any direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages, arising out of the provision of MICE, PRODUCTS or services, including economic damage or injury to property and lost profits, and including any damage arising from acts or negligence on the part of JACKSON, its agents or employees. Unless prohibited by law, in purchasing or receiving MICE, PRODUCTS or services from JACKSON, purchaser or recipient, or any party claiming by or through them, expressly releases and discharges JACKSON from all such causes of action or damages, and further agrees to defend and indemnify JACKSON from any costs or damages arising out of any third party claims.

MICE and PRODUCTS are to be used in a safe manner and in accordance with all applicable governmental rules and regulations.

The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or services. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS or services may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and services by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.

Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or services shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or services by JACKSON.