Strain Name:

B6.129S2-Oprm1tm1Kff/J

Stock Number:

007559

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Availability:

Repository- Live

Use Restrictions Apply, see Terms of Use
These Oprm1tm1Kff (or MOR-) knock-out mice exhibit a lack of morphine analgesia, reward, and withdrawal. These knock-out mice may be useful in studying the biological activity of opioids, analgesics, and responses to mechanical, chemical and thermal nociception at a supraspinal level.

Description

Strain Information

Type Congenic; Mutant Strain; Targeted Mutation;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Additional information on Congenic nomenclature.
Mating SystemHomozygote x Homozygote         (Female x Male)   05-AUG-09
Specieslaboratory mouse
GenerationN12+N1F12 (28-OCT-13)
Generation Definitions
 
Donating Investigator Brigitte L. Kieffer,   Université Louis Pasteur Strasbourg

Description
Mice homozygous for the mu-opioid receptor mutant allele Oprm1tm1Kff (or MOR-) are viable and fertile. MOR-selective ligand binding is absent on brain membranes from homozygous mice. Homozygous mice exhibit a lack of morphine analgesia, reward, and withdrawal. This is accompanied by decreased mechanical, thermal, and chemical pain thresholds. Homozygous mice also show decreased ethanol self-administration and decreased THC-conditioned place aversion. In contrast to mutant mice deficient of delta- or kappa-opioid receptors (Stock Nos. 007557 or 007558, respectively), Oprm1tm1Kff homozygotes exhibit hypolocomotive spontaneous stress responses. Indeed, the reduced anxiety and depressive-like behavior observed in Oprm1tm1Kff mutants is in stark contrast to kappa-opioid receptor deficient mice. These knock-out mice may be useful in studying the biological activity of opioids, analgesics, and responses to mechanical, chemical and thermal nociception at a supraspinal level.

In an attempt to offer alleles on well-characterized or multiple genetic backgrounds, alleles are frequently moved to a genetic background different from that on which an allele was first characterized. These mutant mice were originally published on a mixed genetic background. It should be noted that the phenotype could vary from that originally described. We will modify the strain description if necessary as published results become available.

Development
A targeting vector was designed to insert a PGK-neo cassette into exon 2 of the targeted gene. The construct was electroporated into 129S2/SvPas-derived P1 embryonic stem (ES) cells. Correctly targeted ES cells were injected into C57BL/6 blastocysts. The resulting chimeric mice were bred with C57BL/6 mice. These mu-opioid receptor (MOR) mutant mice were backcrossed to C57BL/6J inbred mice for at least 12 generations prior to arrival at The Jackson Laboratory. The Y chromosome may not have been fixed to the C57BL/6J genetic background.

Control Information

  Control
   000664 C57BL/6J
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Related Strains

Strains carrying other alleles of Oprm1
008750   B6.Cg-Tg(Th-Oprm1)4Jtw/J
View Strains carrying other alleles of Oprm1     (1 strain)

Phenotype

Phenotype Information

View Related Disease (OMIM) Terms

Related Disease (OMIM) Terms provided by MGI
- Model with phenotypic similarity to human disease where etiologies are distinct. Human genes are associated with this disease. Orthologs of these genes do not appear in the mouse genotype(s).
Autism
View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

The following phenotype information is associated with a similar, but not exact match to this JAX® Mice strain.

Oprm1tm1Kff/Oprm1tm1Kff

        involves: 129S2/SvPas
  • behavior/neurological phenotype
  • abnormal pain threshold
    • administration of morphine does not affect threshold response in tail immersion and hot plate tests   (MGI Ref ID J:36241)
    • attenuated response after foot-shock exposure   (MGI Ref ID J:62551)
  • decreased behavioral withdrawal response
    • prolonged morphine administration does not create symptoms of dependence or withdrawal   (MGI Ref ID J:62551)
  • hypoactivity
    • mild change   (MGI Ref ID J:36241)
  • impaired behavioral response to anesthetic
    • in a tail flick assay, mice treated with morphine-6beta-glucuronide (M6G) or 6-acetyl-morphine exhibit no analgesic response unlike similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:52952)
  • impaired behavioral response to morphine
    • no affect on conditioned place preference induced by morphine no effect on conditioned place preference induced by morphine   (MGI Ref ID J:36241)
    • prolonged morphine administration does not create symptoms of dependence or withdrawal   (MGI Ref ID J:36241)
    • in a tail flick assay, mice treated with morphine-6beta-glucuronide (M6G) or 6-acetyl-morphine exhibit no analgesic response unlike similarly treated wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:52952)
    • morphine-induced analgesia is abolished   (MGI Ref ID J:207536)
    • however, loperamine-induced analgesia is maintained   (MGI Ref ID J:207536)
  • increased coping response
    • slightly decreased immobility time in forced-swim test   (MGI Ref ID J:62551)
  • integument phenotype
  • abnormal pain threshold
    • administration of morphine does not affect threshold response in tail immersion and hot plate tests   (MGI Ref ID J:36241)
    • attenuated response after foot-shock exposure   (MGI Ref ID J:62551)

Oprm1tm1Kff/Oprm1tm1Kff

        involves: 129S2/SvPas * C57BL/6J
  • behavior/neurological phenotype
  • abnormal social investigation
    • males do not show a change in social exploratory activity when exposed to playback of female ultrasonic vocalizations unlike wild-type males that exhibit an increase of exploratory activity   (MGI Ref ID J:204731)
    • males however, exhibit normal behavior in the auditory cued-fear conditioning task   (MGI Ref ID J:204731)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Neurobiology Research
Behavioral and Learning Defects
      genes regulating preferences to alcohol
      genes regulating preferences to alcohol and stress
      mu opioid receptor deficiency
Receptor Defects
      opiod

Research Tools
Sensorineural Research
Toxicology Research
      drug/compound testing

Sensorineural Research
Nociception

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

 
Allele Symbol Oprm1tm1Kff
Allele Name targeted mutation 1, Brigitte L Kieffer
Allele Type Targeted (Null/Knockout)
Common Name(s) MOR-;
Mutation Made By Brigitte Kieffer,   Université Louis Pasteur Strasbourg
Strain of Origin129S2/SvPas
ES Cell Line NameP1
ES Cell Line Strain129S2/SvPas
Gene Symbol and Name Oprm1, opioid receptor, mu 1
Chromosome 10
Gene Common Name(s) LMOR; M-OR-1; MOP; MOP receptor; MOP-R; MOR; MOR-1; MOR1; MORA; OPRM; Oprrm1; muOR;
Molecular Note A neomycin selection cassette was inserted into exon 2. Binding assays on brain of homozygous animals confirmed that no functional protein was made from this allele. [MGI Ref ID J:36241]

Genotyping

Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

Oprm1tm1Kff, Standard PCR


Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting

References

References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Martin M; Matifas A; Maldonado R; Kieffer BL. 2003. Acute antinociceptive responses in single and combinatorial opioid receptor knockout mice: distinct mu, delta and kappa tones. Eur J Neurosci 17(4):701-8. [PubMed: 12603260]  [MGI Ref ID J:108005]

Matthes HW; Maldonado R; Simonin F; Valverde O; Slowe S; Kitchen I; Befort K; Dierich A; Le Meur M; Dolle P; Tzavara E; Hanoune J; Roques BP; Kieffer BL. 1996. Loss of morphine-induced analgesia, reward effect and withdrawal symptoms in mice lacking the mu-opioid-receptor gene [see comments] Nature 383(6603):819-23. [PubMed: 8893006]  [MGI Ref ID J:36241]

Additional References

Oprm1tm1Kff related

Berrendero F; Kieffer BL; Maldonado R. 2002. Attenuation of nicotine-induced antinociception, rewarding effects, and dependence in mu-opioid receptor knock-out mice. J Neurosci 22(24):10935-40. [PubMed: 12486188]  [MGI Ref ID J:91861]

Bigliardi-Qi M; Gaveriaux-Ruff C; Pfaltz K; Bady P; Baumann T; Rufli T; Kieffer BL; Bigliardi PL. 2007. Deletion of mu- and kappa-opioid receptors in mice changes epidermal hypertrophy, density of peripheral nerve endings, and itch behavior. J Invest Dermatol 127(6):1479-88. [PubMed: 17185983]  [MGI Ref ID J:121569]

Burbassi S; Sengupta R; Meucci O. 2010. Alterations of CXCR4 function in mu-opioid receptor-deficient glia. Eur J Neurosci 32(8):1278-88. [PubMed: 20880358]  [MGI Ref ID J:169500]

Cendan CM; Pujalte JM; Portillo-Salido E; Montoliu L; Baeyens JM. 2005. Formalin-induced pain is reduced in sigma(1) receptor knockout mice. Eur J Pharmacol 511(1):73-4. [PubMed: 15777781]  [MGI Ref ID J:101844]

Chefer VI; Denoroy L; Zapata A; Shippenberg TS. 2009. Mu opioid receptor modulation of somatodendritic dopamine overflow: GABAergic and glutamatergic mechanisms. Eur J Neurosci 30(2):272-8. [PubMed: 19614973]  [MGI Ref ID J:151565]

Chefer VI; Kieffer BL; Shippenberg TS. 2003. Basal and morphine-evoked dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens of MOR- and DOR-knockout mice. Eur J Neurosci 18(7):1915-22. [PubMed: 14622224]  [MGI Ref ID J:89630]

Chefer VI; Kieffer BL; Shippenberg TS. 2004. Contrasting effects of micro opioid receptor and delta opioid receptor deletion upon the behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine. Neuroscience 127(2):497-503. [PubMed: 15262338]  [MGI Ref ID J:91973]

Contet C; Matifas A; Kieffer BL. 2004. No evidence for G-protein-coupled epsilon receptor in the brain of triple opioid receptor knockout mouse. Eur J Pharmacol 492(2-3):131-6. [PubMed: 15178356]  [MGI Ref ID J:101864]

Cui Y; Ostlund SB; James AS; Park CS; Ge W; Roberts KW; Mittal N; Murphy NP; Cepeda C; Kieffer BL; Levine MS; Jentsch JD; Walwyn WM; Sun YE; Evans CJ; Maidment NT; Yang XW. 2014. Targeted expression of mu-opioid receptors in a subset of striatal direct-pathway neurons restores opiate reward. Nat Neurosci 17(2):254-61. [PubMed: 24413699]  [MGI Ref ID J:207986]

Dahan A; Sarton E; Teppema L; Olievier C; Nieuwenhuijs D; Matthes HW; Kieffer BL. 2001. Anesthetic potency and influence of morphine and sevoflurane on respiration in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. Anesthesiology 94(5):824-32. [PubMed: 11388534]  [MGI Ref ID J:106575]

Filliol D; Ghozland S; Chluba J; Martin M; Matthes HW; Simonin F; Befort K; Gaveriaux-Ruff C; Dierich A; LeMeur M; Valverde O; Maldonado R; Kieffer BL. 2000. Mice deficient for delta- and mu-opioid receptors exhibit opposing alterations of emotional responses. Nat Genet 25(2):195-200. [PubMed: 10835636]  [MGI Ref ID J:62551]

Garcia-Sevilla JA; Ferrer-Alcon M; Martin M; Kieffer BL; Maldonado R. 2004. Neurofilament proteins and cAMP pathway in brains of mu-, delta- or kappa-opioid receptor gene knock-out mice: effects of chronic morphine administration. Neuropharmacology 46(4):519-30. [PubMed: 14975676]  [MGI Ref ID J:97004]

Gaveriaux-Ruff C; Filliol D; Simonin F; Matthes HW; Kieffer BL. 2001. Immunosuppression by delta-opioid antagonist naltrindole: delta- and triple mu/delta/kappa-opioid receptor knockout mice reveal a nonopioid activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 298(3):1193-8. [PubMed: 11504820]  [MGI Ref ID J:126857]

Gaveriaux-Ruff C; Karchewski LA; Hever X; Matifas A; Kieffer BL. 2008. Inflammatory pain is enhanced in delta opioid receptor-knockout mice. Eur J Neurosci 27(10):2558-67. [PubMed: 18513322]  [MGI Ref ID J:137050]

Gaveriaux-Ruff C; Matthes HW; Peluso J; Kieffer BL. 1998. Abolition of morphine-immunosuppression in mice lacking the mu-opioid receptor gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(11):6326-30. [PubMed: 9600964]  [MGI Ref ID J:48241]

Gaveriaux-Ruff C; Simonin F; Filliol D; Kieffer BL. 2003. Enhanced humoral response in kappa-opioid receptor knockout mice. J Neuroimmunol 134(1-2):72-81. [PubMed: 12507774]  [MGI Ref ID J:119182]

Ghozland S; Chu K; Kieffer BL; Roberts AJ. 2005. Lack of stimulant and anxiolytic-like effects of ethanol and accelerated development of ethanol dependence in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. Neuropharmacology 49(4):493-501. [PubMed: 15961126]  [MGI Ref ID J:106610]

Ghozland S; Matthes HW; Simonin F; Filliol D; Kieffer BL; Maldonado R. 2002. Motivational effects of cannabinoids are mediated by mu-opioid and kappa-opioid receptors. J Neurosci 22(3):1146-54. [PubMed: 11826143]  [MGI Ref ID J:127005]

Jamot L; Matthes HW; Simonin F; Kieffer BL; Roder JC. 2003. Differential involvement of the mu and kappa opioid receptors in spatial learning. Genes Brain Behav 2(2):80-92. [PubMed: 12884965]  [MGI Ref ID J:104908]

Laurent V; Leung B; Maidment N; Balleine BW. 2012. mu- and delta-opioid-related processes in the accumbens core and shell differentially mediate the influence of reward-guided and stimulus-guided decisions on choice. J Neurosci 32(5):1875-83. [PubMed: 22302826]  [MGI Ref ID J:181339]

Lena I; Matthes H; Kieffer B; Kitchen I. 2004. Quantitative autoradiography of dopamine receptors in the brains of micro-opioid receptor knockout mice. Neurosci Lett 356(3):220-4. [PubMed: 15036634]  [MGI Ref ID J:121034]

Majumdar S; Grinnell S; Le Rouzic V; Burgman M; Polikar L; Ansonoff M; Pintar J; Pan YX; Pasternak GW. 2011. Truncated G protein-coupled mu opioid receptor MOR-1 splice variants are targets for highly potent opioid analgesics lacking side effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(49):19778-83. [PubMed: 22106286]  [MGI Ref ID J:180448]

Marquez P; Baliram R; Kieffer BL; Lutfy K. 2007. The mu opioid receptor is involved in buprenorphine-induced locomotor stimulation and conditioned place preference. Neuropharmacology 52(6):1336-41. [PubMed: 17367825]  [MGI Ref ID J:124471]

Matthes HW; Smadja C; Valverde O; Vonesch JL; Foutz AS; Boudinot E; Denavit-Saubie M; Severini C; Negri L; Roques BP; Maldonado R; Kieffer BL. 1998. Activity of the delta-opioid receptor is partially reduced, whereas activity of the kappa-receptor is maintained in mice lacking the mu-receptor. J Neurosci 18(18):7285-95. [PubMed: 9736649]  [MGI Ref ID J:120239]

Matynia A; Parikh S; Chen B; Kim P; McNeill DS; Nusinowitz S; Evans C; Gorin MB. 2012. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells are the primary but not exclusive circuit for light aversion. Exp Eye Res 105:60-9. [PubMed: 23078956]  [MGI Ref ID J:203664]

Melief EJ; Miyatake M; Bruchas MR; Chavkin C. 2010. Ligand-directed c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation disrupts opioid receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(25):11608-13. [PubMed: 20534436]  [MGI Ref ID J:161284]

Morin-Surun MP; Boudinot E; Dubois C; Matthes HW; Kieffer BL; Denavit-Saubie M; Champagnat J; Foutz AS. 2001. Respiratory function in adult mice lacking the mu-opioid receptor: role of delta-receptors. Eur J Neurosci 13(9):1703-10. [PubMed: 11359522]  [MGI Ref ID J:89400]

Nieto MM; Guen SL; Kieffer BL; Roques BP; Noble F. 2005. Physiological control of emotion-related behaviors by endogenous enkephalins involves essentially the delta opioid receptors. Neuroscience 135(2):305-13. [PubMed: 16112476]  [MGI Ref ID J:104438]

Oakley SM; Toth G; Borsodi A; Kieffer BL; Kitchen I. 2003. G-protein coupling of delta-opioid receptors in brains of mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. Eur J Pharmacol 466(1-2):91-8. [PubMed: 12679145]  [MGI Ref ID J:102598]

Oddi D; Crusio WE; D'Amato FR; Pietropaolo S. 2013. Monogenic mouse models of social dysfunction: Implications for autism. Behav Brain Res :. [PubMed: 23327738]  [MGI Ref ID J:197157]

Olmstead MC; Ouagazzal AM; Kieffer BL. 2009. Mu and delta opioid receptors oppositely regulate motor impulsivity in the signaled nose poke task. PLoS ONE 4(2):e4410. [PubMed: 19198656]  [MGI Ref ID J:146471]

Papaleo F; Kieffer BL; Tabarin A; Contarino A. 2007. Decreased motivation to eat in mu-opioid receptor-deficient mice. Eur J Neurosci 25(11):3398-405. [PubMed: 17553008]  [MGI Ref ID J:126072]

Roberts AJ; McDonald JS; Heyser CJ; Kieffer BL; Matthes HW; Koob GF; Gold LH. 2000. mu-Opioid receptor knockout mice do not self-administer alcohol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 293(3):1002-8. [PubMed: 10869404]  [MGI Ref ID J:120530]

Robledo P; Mendizabal V; Ortuno J; de la Torre R; Kieffer BL; Maldonado R. 2004. The rewarding properties of MDMA are preserved in mice lacking mu-opioid receptors. Eur J Neurosci 20(3):853-8. [PubMed: 15255997]  [MGI Ref ID J:100339]

Samaco RC; Mandel-Brehm C; McGraw CM; Shaw CA; McGill BE; Zoghbi HY. 2012. Crh and Oprm1 mediate anxiety-related behavior and social approach in a mouse model of MECP2 duplication syndrome. Nat Genet 44(2):206-11. [PubMed: 22231481]  [MGI Ref ID J:181213]

Sanders MJ; Kieffer BL; Fanselow MS. 2005. Deletion of the mu opioid receptor results in impaired acquisition of Pavlovian context fear. Neurobiol Learn Mem 84(1):33-41. [PubMed: 15936681]  [MGI Ref ID J:103799]

Scherrer G; Befort K; Contet C; Becker J; Matifas A; Kieffer BL. 2004. The delta agonists DPDPE and deltorphin II recruit predominantly mu receptors to produce thermal analgesia: a parallel study of mu, delta and combinatorial opioid receptor knockout mice. Eur J Neurosci 19(8):2239-48. [PubMed: 15090050]  [MGI Ref ID J:89672]

Schuller AG; King MA; Zhang J; Bolan E; Pan YX; Morgan DJ; Chang A ; Czick ME ; Unterwald EM ; Pasternak GW ; Pintar JE. 1999. Retention of heroin and morphine-6 beta-glucuronide analgesia in a new line of mice lacking exon 1 of MOR-1. Nat Neurosci 2(2):151-6. [PubMed: 10195199]  [MGI Ref ID J:52952]

Skoubis PD; Matthes HW; Walwyn WM; Kieffer BL; Maidment NT. 2001. Naloxone fails to produce conditioned place aversion in mu-opioid receptor knock-out mice. Neuroscience 106(4):757-63. [PubMed: 11682161]  [MGI Ref ID J:126648]

Wamsteeker Cusulin JI; Fuzesi T; Inoue W; Bains JS. 2013. Glucocorticoid feedback uncovers retrograde opioid signaling at hypothalamic synapses. Nat Neurosci 16(5):596-604. [PubMed: 23563581]  [MGI Ref ID J:197687]

Weibel R; Reiss D; Karchewski L; Gardon O; Matifas A; Filliol D; Becker JA; Wood JN; Kieffer BL; Gaveriaux-Ruff C. 2013. Mu opioid receptors on primary afferent nav1.8 neurons contribute to opiate-induced analgesia: insight from conditional knockout mice. PLoS One 8(9):e74706. [PubMed: 24069332]  [MGI Ref ID J:207536]

Wohr M; Moles A; Schwarting RK; D'Amato FR. 2011. Lack of social exploratory activation in male mu-opioid receptor KO mice in response to playback of female ultrasonic vocalizations. Soc Neurosci 6(1):76-87. [PubMed: 20503133]  [MGI Ref ID J:204731]

Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Room Number           FGB27

Colony Maintenance

Breeding & HusbandryWhen maintaining a live colony, heterozygous or homozygous mice may be bred.
Mating SystemHomozygote x Homozygote         (Female x Male)   05-AUG-09
Diet Information LabDiet® 5K52/5K67

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls


Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $199.90Female or MaleHomozygous for Oprm1tm1Kff  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$399.80Homozygous for Oprm1tm1Kff x Homozygous for Oprm1tm1Kff  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $259.90Female or MaleHomozygous for Oprm1tm1Kff  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$519.80Homozygous for Oprm1tm1Kff x Homozygous for Oprm1tm1Kff  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

Control Information

  Control
   000664 C57BL/6J
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.
 

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The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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