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Research Strain

This strain is valuable in the study of retinal degeneration.


Strain Information

Type Congenic; Spontaneous Mutation;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
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Additional information on Congenic nomenclature.
Mating SystemHomozygote x Homozygote         (Female x Male)   29-JAN-13
Specieslaboratory mouse
GenerationN5F9 (30-JAN-13)
Generation Definitions
Donating InvestigatorDr. Bo Chang,   JAX

On this C57BL/6J congenic background homozygotes for Rd3rd3 have normal photoreceptor development then retinal degeneration begins at 4 weeks of age with complete loss of photoreceptor cells by 3 months of age.

The Rd3rd3 allele was backcrossed onto C57BL/6J from STOCK In(5)30Rk/J, on which it was first identified. This was done by 5 cycles of backcross-intercross breeding to reach an incipient congenic then intercrossing to homozygosity. This strain is maintained by sibling inbreeding homozygotes.

Control Information

   000664 C57BL/6J (approximate)
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Related Strains

Strains carrying   Rd3rd3 allele
000726   RBF/DnJ
000807   RBJ/DnJ
000852   STOCK In(5)30Rk/J
View Strains carrying   Rd3rd3     (3 strains)


Phenotype Information

View Related Disease (OMIM) Terms

Related Disease (OMIM) Terms provided by MGI
- Potential model based on gene homology relationships. Phenotypic similarity to the human disease has not been tested.
Leber Congenital Amaurosis 12; LCA12   (RD3)
View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

The following phenotype information is associated with a similar, but not exact match to this JAX® Mice strain.


  • vision/eye phenotype
  • abnormal eye electrophysiology
    • at week 4, the b-wave amplitude is 25% of that in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:4367)
    • by 6 weeks, a signal is barely detectable even with the brightest stimuli   (MGI Ref ID J:4367)
  • abnormal retinal photoreceptor layer morphology
    • after 3 weeks, the photoreceptor layer is reduced   (MGI Ref ID J:4367)
    • however, mice have normal eye morphology prior to 3 weeks   (MGI Ref ID J:4367)
    • absent retinal rod cells
      • at 4 weeks rods are no longer detected   (MGI Ref ID J:4367)
    • retinal photoreceptor degeneration
      • by 8 weeks no photoreceptors are present   (MGI Ref ID J:4367)
  • thin retinal outer nuclear layer
    • after 3 weeks, the outer nuclear layer is reduced   (MGI Ref ID J:4367)
    • however, mice have normal eye morphology prior to 3 weeks   (MGI Ref ID J:4367)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • absent retinal rod cells
    • at 4 weeks rods are no longer detected   (MGI Ref ID J:4367)
  • retinal photoreceptor degeneration
    • by 8 weeks no photoreceptors are present   (MGI Ref ID J:4367)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Rd3rd3 related

Sensorineural Research
Retinal Degeneration
      Homozygous for rd3

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

Allele Symbol Rd3rd3
Allele Name retinal degeneration 3
Allele Type Spontaneous
Strain of OriginRBF/DnJ
Gene Symbol and Name Rd3, retinal degeneration 3
Chromosome 1
Gene Common Name(s) 3322402L07Rik; C1orf36; LCA12; RIKEN cDNA 3322402L07 gene; rd-3;
General Note This mutation causes retinal degeneration. In homozygous mutant mice, development proceeds normally through the second postnatal week. Thereafter, photoreceptor and outer nuclear layers begin to degenerate, and by 8 weeks, no photoreceptor cells remain. Changes in electroretinograms parallel the histologic changes. As of 1998 this is the only type of retinal degeneration reported in mice in which the photoreceptors are initially normal (J:4367).
Molecular Note A C to T substitution in Rd3 results in a stop codon after residue 106. The truncated protein is initially expressed in in vitro assays but is degraded. [MGI Ref ID J:122439]


Genotyping Information

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Genotyping resources and troubleshooting


References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Chang B; Heckenlively JR; Hawes NL; Roderick TH. 1993. New mouse primary retinal degeneration (rd-3). Genomics 16(1):45-9. [PubMed: 8486383]  [MGI Ref ID J:4367]

Friedman JS; Chang B; Kannabiran C; Chakarova C; Singh HP; Jalali S; Hawes NL; Branham K; Othman M; Filippova E; Thompson DA; Webster AR; Andreasson S; Jacobson SG; Bhattacharya SS; Heckenlively JR; Swaroop A. 2006. Premature truncation of a novel protein, RD3, exhibiting subnuclear localization is associated with retinal degeneration. Am J Hum Genet 79(6):1059-70. [PubMed: 17186464]  [MGI Ref ID J:122439]

Additional References

Rd3rd3 related

Azadi S; Molday LL; Molday RS. 2010. RD3, the protein associated with Leber congenital amaurosis type 12, is required for guanylate cyclase trafficking in photoreceptor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(49):21158-63. [PubMed: 21078983]  [MGI Ref ID J:167162]

Chang B; Hawes NL; Hurd RE; Davisson MT; Nusinowitz S; Heckenlively JR. 2002. Retinal degeneration mutants in the mouse. Vision Res 42(4):517-25. [PubMed: 11853768]  [MGI Ref ID J:75095]

Chang B; Hawes NL; Hurd RE; Wang J; Howell D; Davisson MT; Roderick TH; Nusinowitz S; Heckenlively JR. 2005. Mouse models of ocular diseases. Vis Neurosci 22(5):587-93. [PubMed: 16332269]  [MGI Ref ID J:156373]

Cheng CL; Molday RS. 2013. Changes in gene expression associated with retinal degeneration in the rd3 mouse. Mol Vis 19:955-69. [PubMed: 23687432]  [MGI Ref ID J:202634]

Danciger M; Ogando D; Yang H; Matthes MT; Yu N; Ahern K; Yasumura D; Williams RW; Lavail MM. 2008. Genetic modifiers of retinal degeneration in the rd3 mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49(7):2863-9. [PubMed: 18344445]  [MGI Ref ID J:136923]

Hawes NL; Smith RS; Chang B; Davisson M; Heckenlively JR; John SW. 1999. Mouse fundus photography and angiography: a catalogue of normal and mutant phenotypes. Mol Vis 5:22. [PubMed: 10493779]  [MGI Ref ID J:59481]

Heckenlively JR; Chang B; Erway LC; Peng C; Hawes NL; Hageman GS; Roderick TH. 1995. Mouse model for Usher syndrome: linkage mapping suggests homology to Usher type I reported at human chromosome 11p15. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(24):11100-4. [PubMed: 7479945]  [MGI Ref ID J:121993]

Pieke-Dahl S; Ohlemiller KK; McGee J; Walsh EJ; Kimberling WJ. 1997. Hearing loss in the RBF/DnJ mouse, a proposed animal model of Usher syndrome type IIa. Hear Res 112(1-2):1-12. [PubMed: 9367224]  [MGI Ref ID J:44148]

Won J; Shi LY; Hicks W; Wang J; Hurd R; Naggert JK; Chang B; Nishina PM. 2011. Mouse model resources for vision research. J Ophthalmol 2011:391384. [PubMed: 21052544]  [MGI Ref ID J:166679]

Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Room Number           A1

Colony Maintenance

Mating SystemHomozygote x Homozygote         (Female x Male)   29-JAN-13

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls

Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $265.89Female or MaleHomozygous for Rd3rd3  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$531.79Homozygous for Rd3rd3 x Homozygous for Rd3rd3  

Standard Supply

Research Strain. Availability determined by The Jackson Laboratory scientist holding the strain.

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $345.70Female or MaleHomozygous for Rd3rd3  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$691.40Homozygous for Rd3rd3 x Homozygous for Rd3rd3  

Standard Supply

Research Strain. Availability determined by The Jackson Laboratory scientist holding the strain.

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Research Strain. Availability determined by The Jackson Laboratory scientist holding the strain.

General Supply Notes

Control Information

   000664 C57BL/6J (approximate)
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.

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The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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