Strain Name:

NOD.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Ins2Akita Prf1tm1Sdz/SzJ

Stock Number:


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Cryopreserved - Ready for recovery

Use Restrictions Apply, see Terms of Use
Common Names: NOD-Rag1null Prf1null Ins2Akita;    
This strain is homozygous for knock-outs of Rag1 and perforin 1 (Prf1) and heterozygous for the spontaneous insulin 2 Akita allele. Mice are immunodeficient and spontaneously hyperglycemic. This strain may useful in studies of human islet and beta stem and progenitor cell function.


The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Strain Information

Type Congenic; Spontaneous Mutation; Targeted Mutation;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Additional information on Congenic nomenclature.
Specieslaboratory mouse
H2 Haplotypeg7

Related Genotype: A/A Tyrc/Tyrc

Like NOD.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Prf1tm1Sdz/J (004848), this strain lacks mature T and B cells. NK cells, although present, lack cytotoxic activity. Both sexes develop spontaneous hyperglycemia as early as three weeks of age, however, the phenotype is predominantly exhibited by males. Pancreatic islets have reduced insulin staining and exhibit an altered morphology with age. Human islet transplantation at doses of 4000 IEQ is successful in returning hyperglycemic males to a euglycemic state. This strain may useful in studies of human islet and beta stem and progenitor cell function.

Please see strain entries for 003729, 002407 and 003548 for details regarding the construction of each mutant allele. This strain was produced by crossing the Akita allele from C57BL/6-Ins2Akita/J (003548) to NOD.129S7(B6)-Rag1tm1Mom/J (003729) for ten generations and intercrossed to make Rag1tm1Mom homozygous. The double mutant was then crossed to NOD.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Prf1tm1Sdz/J (004848). Mice were intercrossed and selected to keep Prf1tm1Sdz homozygous and the Akita allele heterozyogous. Dr. Leonard Shultz of The Jackson Laboratory donated this strain to the Repository in 2008.

Control Information

   None Available
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Related Strains

View Strains carrying   Ins2Akita     (11 strains)

Strains carrying   Prf1tm1Sdz allele
002407   C57BL/6-Prf1tm1Sdz/J
007079   CByJ.B6-Prf1tm1Sdz/J
003505   NOD.B6-Prf1tm1Sdz/J
004848   NOD.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Prf1tm1Sdz/SzJ
View Strains carrying   Prf1tm1Sdz     (4 strains)

View Strains carrying   Rag1tm1Mom     (23 strains)

View Strains carrying other alleles of Ins2     (7 strains)

Strains carrying other alleles of Rag1
007790   B6;129P2-Rag1/Rag2tm1Mnz/J
View Strains carrying other alleles of Rag1     (1 strain)


Phenotype Information

View Related Disease (OMIM) Terms

View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

Ins2Akita/Ins2+ Prf1tm1Sdz/Prf1tm1Sdz Rag1tm1Mom/Rag1tm1Mom

        NOD.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Ins2Akita Prf1tm1Sdz
  • endocrine/exocrine gland phenotype
  • abnormal pancreatic islet morphology
    • islets exhibit progressively altered morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
    • insulin level is lower compared to Ins2-wild-type mice at 50 days of age and continues to diminish with age   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • absent T cells
    • mature T cells are absent in mutant animals   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • absent mature B cells
    • lacking in mutant animals   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • increased erythrocyte cell number
    • erythrocyte/erythocyte lineages (Ter 119+) are increased as compared to NOD controls   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • increased granulocyte number
    • percentage of granulocytes is elevated compared to NOD/Lt   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • increased macrophage cell number
    • percentage of granulocytes is elevated   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • increased monocyte cell number
    • percentage of granulocytes is elevated   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • immune system phenotype
  • absent T cells
    • mature T cells are absent in mutant animals   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • absent mature B cells
    • lacking in mutant animals   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • increased granulocyte number
    • percentage of granulocytes is elevated compared to NOD/Lt   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • increased macrophage cell number
    • percentage of granulocytes is elevated   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • increased monocyte cell number
    • percentage of granulocytes is elevated   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • *normal* homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
    • spontaneously hyperglycemic mice are restored to euglycemia after receiving islet transplants at a dose of 4000 islet equivalents (IEQ) and remain euglycemic for the length of observation; at levels of 2000 and 3000 IEQ, mice display a drop in blood sugar, but eventually return to hyperglycemic status   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
    • abnormal glucose homeostasis
      • glucose regulation is impaired as early as 3 weeks of age in nearly all mice   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
      • hyperglycemia
        • male mice show greater susceptibility to develop hyperglycemia than females   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)

Ins2Akita/Ins2Akita Prf1tm1Sdz/Prf1tm1Sdz Rag1tm1Mom/Rag1tm1Mom

        NOD.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Ins2Akita Prf1tm1Sdz
  • mortality/aging
  • complete postnatal lethality
    • mice die prior to weaning   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Diabetes and Obesity Research
Islet Transplantation Studies

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
      B and T cell deficiency
      B, T, and NK cell deficiency
      multiple immune defects
Lymphoid Tissue Defects
      B and T cell deficiency

Ins2Akita related

Cell Biology Research
Protein Processing

Diabetes and Obesity Research
Impaired Insulin Processing
Insulin Receptors and Growth Factors
Islet Transplantation Studies
Type 1 Diabetes (IDDM)
      MODY, mature onset diabetes of the young

Endocrine Deficiency Research
Pancreas Defects

Prf1tm1Sdz related

Apoptosis Research
Extracellular Modulators

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
Immunodeficiency Associated with Other Defects

Rag1tm1Mom related

Cancer Research
      B and T cell deficiency, xenograft/transplant host

Hematological Research
Immunological Defects
      B and T cell deficiency

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
      B and T cell deficiency
      B and T cell deficiency
T Cell Receptor Signaling Defects
      B and T cell deficiency

Internal/Organ Research
Lymphoid Tissue Defects
      B and T cell deficiency

Research Tools
Cancer Research
      B and T cell deficiency, xenograft/transplant host
Toxicology Research
      xenograft/transplant host

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

Allele Symbol Ins2Akita
Allele Name Akita
Allele Type Spontaneous
Common Name(s) Akita; AkitaIns2; Ins2C96Y; Ins2Mody; Mody; Mody4;
Strain of OriginC57BL/6NSlc
Gene Symbol and Name Ins2, insulin II
Chromosome 7
Gene Common Name(s) AA986540; IDDM; IDDM1; IDDM2; ILPR; IRDN; Ins-2; InsII; MODY10; Mody; Mody4; expressed sequence AA986540; maturity onset diabetes of the young; maturity onset diabetes of the young 4;
General Note Phenotypic Similarity to Human Syndrome: Type 1 Diabetic Macrovascular Disease (J:174983)
Molecular Note In the mutant allele a transition from G to A at nucleotide 1907 disrupted an Fnu4HI site in exon 3. This mutation changed the seventh amino acid in the A chain of mature insulin, Cys96 (TGC), to Tyr (TAC). The authors predict that the transition would disrupt a disulfide bond between the A and the B chains and would likely induce a major conformational change in insulin 2 molecules. RT-PCR studies suggest that both normal and mutant Ins2 alleles are transcribed similarly in pancreatic islets of heterozygous mice, although immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses of heterozygous islets detected reduced levels of insulin and proinsulin. [MGI Ref ID J:51935]
Allele Symbol Prf1tm1Sdz
Allele Name targeted mutation 1, Sandoz Pharmaceuticals
Allele Type Targeted (Null/Knockout)
Common Name(s) P0; Pfn-; Pfptm1Sdz; Prf1-; Prf1tm/Sdz; Prf-; perf-; perforin 0; perforin-; pfp-; pfpKO; pko; prf1tm1;
Mutation Made ByDr. Birgit Lederman,   University of Zurich
Strain of OriginC57BL/6J
ES Cell Line NameBL/6-III
ES Cell Line StrainC57BL/6J
Gene Symbol and Name Prf1, perforin 1 (pore forming protein)
Chromosome 10
Gene Common Name(s) Cyta; FLH2; HPLH2; P1; PFN1; PFP; Pfn; Pfp; Prf-1; RATCYTA; perforin; perforin 1; pore forming protein;
General Note Phenotypic Similarity to Human Syndrome: hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in mutants infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitic virus (J:92260)
Molecular Note A neomycin selection cassette was inserted into exon 3. RT-PCR analysis on RNA derived from homozygous mice demonstrated that an abnormal transcript was produced from this allele. However, immunocytochemistry experiments on activated spleen cells derived from homozygous mice confirmed that no detectable protein was made from this allele. [MGI Ref ID J:17986] [MGI Ref ID J:96542]
Allele Symbol Rag1tm1Mom
Allele Name targeted mutation 1, Peter Mombaerts
Allele Type Targeted (Null/Knockout)
Common Name(s) RAG-1-; RAG1null; Rag-; Rag-1KO; Rag1-; Rag1tm1Mom;
Mutation Made By Peter Mombaerts,   Max Planck Research Unit for Neurogenetics
Strain of Origin129S7/SvEvBrd-Hprt<+>
ES Cell Line NameAB1
ES Cell Line Strain129S7/SvEvBrd-Hprt<+>
Site of Expressionexpression is seen in bone marrow derived cell lines.
Gene Symbol and Name Rag1, recombination activating gene 1
Chromosome 2
Gene Common Name(s) RAG-1; RNF74; Rag-1;
Molecular Note A 1356 bp genomic fragment of the Rag1 gene, encoding the nuclear localization signal and the zinc-finger motif, was replaced by a neomycin cassette. A mutant transcript expressed from this allele was detected by Northern blot in bone marrow derived cell lines from homozygous mice. [MGI Ref ID J:1934] [MGI Ref ID J:96036]


Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

Ins2Akita, End Point Analysis
Rag1tm1MomAlternate1, MELT
Ins2Akita, Pyrosequencing
Ins2Akita, Restriction Enzyme Digest
Prf1tm1Sdz, High Resolution Melting
Prf1tm1Sdz, Standard PCR

Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting


References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Pearson T; Shultz LD; Lief J; Burzenski L; Gott B; Chase T; Foreman O; Rossini AA; Bottino R; Trucco M; Greiner DL. 2008. A new immunodeficient hyperglycaemic mouse model based on the Ins2 ( Akita ) mutation for analyses of human islet and beta stem and progenitor cell function. Diabetologia 51(8):1449-56. [PubMed: 18563383]  [MGI Ref ID J:138005]

Additional References

Ins2Akita related

Abudukadier A; Fujita Y; Obara A; Ohashi A; Fukushima T; Sato Y; Ogura M; Nakamura Y; Fujimoto S; Hosokawa M; Hasegawa H; Inagaki N. 2013. Tetrahydrobiopterin has a glucose-lowering effect by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis in an endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent manner in diabetic mice. Diabetes 62(9):3033-43. [PubMed: 23649519]  [MGI Ref ID J:208962]

Aghdam SY; Gurel Z; Ghaffarieh A; Sorenson CM; Sheibani N. 2013. High glucose and diabetes modulate cellular proteasome function: Implications in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 432(2):339-44. [PubMed: 23391566]  [MGI Ref ID J:198848]

Akimov NP; Renteria RC. 2012. Spatial frequency threshold and contrast sensitivity of an optomotor behavior are impaired in the Ins2Akita mouse model of diabetes. Behav Brain Res 226(2):601-5. [PubMed: 21963766]  [MGI Ref ID J:180197]

Asakawa A; Toyoshima M; Inoue K; Koizumi A. 2007. Ins2Akita mice exhibit hyperphagia and anxiety behavior via the melanocortin system. Int J Mol Med 19(4):649-52. [PubMed: 17334640]  [MGI Ref ID J:125256]

Awad AS; Kinsey GR; Khutsishvili K; Gao T; Bolton WK; Okusa MD. 2011. Monocyte/macrophage chemokine receptor CCR2 mediates diabetic renal injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 301(6):F1358-66. [PubMed: 21880831]  [MGI Ref ID J:180042]

Bachar-Wikstrom E; Wikstrom JD; Ariav Y; Tirosh B; Kaiser N; Cerasi E; Leibowitz G. 2013. Stimulation of autophagy improves endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced diabetes. Diabetes 62(4):1227-37. [PubMed: 23274896]  [MGI Ref ID J:208584]

Barber AJ; Antonetti DA; Kern TS; Reiter CE; Soans RS; Krady JK; Levison SW; Gardner TW; Bronson SK. 2005. The Ins2Akita mouse as a model of early retinal complications in diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46(6):2210-8. [PubMed: 15914643]  [MGI Ref ID J:99412]

Basu R; Lee J; Wang Z; Patel VB; Fan D; Das SK; Liu GC; John R; Scholey JW; Oudit GY; Kassiri Z. 2012. Loss of TIMP3 selectively exacerbates diabetic nephropathy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 303(9):F1341-52. [PubMed: 22896043]  [MGI Ref ID J:189948]

Basu R; Oudit GY; Wang X; Zhang L; Ussher JR; Lopaschuk GD; Kassiri Z. 2009. Type 1 diabetic cardiomyopathy in the Akita (Ins2WT/C96Y) mouse model is characterized by lipotoxicity and diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297(6):H2096-108. [PubMed: 19801494]  [MGI Ref ID J:158228]

Blum B; Roose AN; Barrandon O; Maehr R; Arvanites AC; Davidow LS; Davis JC; Peterson QP; Rubin LL; Melton DA. 2014. Reversal of beta cell de-differentiation by a small molecule inhibitor of the TGFbeta pathway. Elife 3:e02809. [PubMed: 25233132]  [MGI Ref ID J:218054]

Bostrom KI; Jumabay M; Matveyenko A; Nicholas SB; Yao Y. 2011. Activation of vascular bone morphogenetic protein signaling in diabetes mellitus. Circ Res 108(4):446-57. [PubMed: 21193740]  [MGI Ref ID J:183498]

Bugger H; Boudina S; Hu XX; Tuinei J; Zaha VG; Theobald HA; Yun UJ; McQueen AP; Wayment B; Litwin SE; Abel ED. 2008. Type 1 diabetic akita mouse hearts are insulin sensitive but manifest structurally abnormal mitochondria that remain coupled despite increased uncoupling protein 3. Diabetes 57(11):2924-32. [PubMed: 18678617]  [MGI Ref ID J:142159]

Bugger H; Chen D; Riehle C; Soto J; Theobald HA; Hu XX; Ganesan B; Weimer BC; Abel ED. 2009. Tissue-specific remodeling of the mitochondrial proteome in type 1 diabetic akita mice. Diabetes 58(9):1986-97. [PubMed: 19542201]  [MGI Ref ID J:154406]

Chacko BK; Reily C; Srivastava A; Johnson MS; Ye Y; Ulasova E; Agarwal A; Zinn KR; Murphy MP; Kalyanaraman B; Darley-Usmar V. 2010. Prevention of diabetic nephropathy in Ins2(+/)(AkitaJ) mice by the mitochondria-targeted therapy MitoQ. Biochem J 432(1):9-19. [PubMed: 20825366]  [MGI Ref ID J:166866]

Chang AS; Dale AN; Moley KH. 2005. Maternal diabetes adversely affects preovulatory oocyte maturation, development, and granulosa cell apoptosis. Endocrinology 146(5):2445-53. [PubMed: 15718275]  [MGI Ref ID J:129826]

Chang JH; Paik SY; Mao L; Eisner W; Flannery PJ; Wang L; Tang Y; Mattocks N; Hadjadj S; Goujon JM; Ruiz P; Gurley SB; Spurney RF. 2012. Diabetic kidney disease in FVB/NJ Akita mice: temporal pattern of kidney injury and urinary nephrin excretion. PLoS One 7(4):e33942. [PubMed: 22496773]  [MGI Ref ID J:187110]

Chavali V; Tyagi SC; Mishra PK. 2012. MicroRNA-133a regulates DNA methylation in diabetic cardiomyocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 425(3):668-72. [PubMed: 22842467]  [MGI Ref ID J:188036]

Chen H; Li J; Jiao L; Petersen RB; Li J; Peng A; Zheng L; Huang K. 2014. Apelin inhibits the development of diabetic nephropathy by regulating histone acetylation in Akita mouse. J Physiol 592(Pt 3):505-21. [PubMed: 24247978]  [MGI Ref ID J:217958]

Cheng L; Han X; Shi Y. 2009. A regulatory role of LPCAT1 in the synthesis of inflammatory lipids, PAF and LPC, in the retina of diabetic mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297(6):E1276-82. [PubMed: 19773578]  [MGI Ref ID J:159566]

Choeiri C; Hewitt K; Durkin J; Simard CJ; Renaud JM; Messier C. 2005. Longitudinal evaluation of memory performance and peripheral neuropathy in the Ins2(C96Y) Akita mice. Behav Brain Res 157(1):31-8. [PubMed: 15617768]  [MGI Ref ID J:95284]

Dennis MD; Schrufer TL; Bronson SK; Kimball SR; Jefferson LS. 2011. Hyperglycemia-Induced O-GlcNAcylation and Truncation of 4E-BP1 Protein in Liver of a Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes. J Biol Chem 286(39):34286-97. [PubMed: 21840999]  [MGI Ref ID J:176719]

Dokun AO; Chen L; Lanjewar SS; Lye RJ; Annex BH. 2014. Glycaemic control improves perfusion recovery and VEGFR2 protein expression in diabetic mice following experimental PAD. Cardiovasc Res 101(3):364-72. [PubMed: 24385342]  [MGI Ref ID J:220054]

Drapeau N; Lizotte F; Denhez B; Guay A; Kennedy CR; Geraldes P. 2013. Expression of SHP-1 induced by hyperglycemia prevents insulin actions in podocytes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 304(11):E1188-98. [PubMed: 23531619]  [MGI Ref ID J:198982]

Dugan LL; You YH; Ali SS; Diamond-Stanic M; Miyamoto S; DeCleves AE; Andreyev A; Quach T; Ly S; Shekhtman G; Nguyen W; Chepetan A; Le TP; Wang L; Xu M; Paik KP; Fogo A; Viollet B; Murphy A; Brosius F; Naviaux RK; Sharma K. 2013. AMPK dysregulation promotes diabetes-related reduction of superoxide and mitochondrial function. J Clin Invest 123(11):4888-99. [PubMed: 24135141]  [MGI Ref ID J:204683]

Fang RC; Kryger ZB; Buck Ii DW; De La Garza M; Galiano RD; Mustoe TA. 2010. Limitations of the db/db mouse in translational wound healing research: Is the NONcNZO10 polygenic mouse model superior? Wound Repair Regen :. [PubMed: 20955341]  [MGI Ref ID J:165705]

Faulhaber-Walter R; Chen L; Oppermann M; Kim SM; Huang Y; Hiramatsu N; Mizel D; Kajiyama H; Zerfas P; Briggs JP; Kopp JB; Schnermann J. 2008. Lack of A1 adenosine receptors augments diabetic hyperfiltration and glomerular injury. J Am Soc Nephrol 19(4):722-30. [PubMed: 18256360]  [MGI Ref ID J:149926]

Fox R; Kim HS; Reddick RL; Kujoth GC; Prolla TA; Tsutsumi S; Wada Y; Smithies O; Maeda N. 2011. Mitochondrial DNA polymerase editing mutation, PolgD257A, reduces the diabetic phenotype of Akita male mice by suppressing appetite. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(21):8779-84. [PubMed: 21555558]  [MGI Ref ID J:171899]

Fox TE; Bewley MC; Unrath KA; Pedersen MM; Anderson RE; Jung DY; Jefferson LS; Kim JK; Bronson SK; Flanagan JM; Kester M. 2011. Circulating sphingolipid biomarkers in models of type 1 diabetes. J Lipid Res 52(3):509-17. [PubMed: 21068007]  [MGI Ref ID J:170277]

Fragiadaki M; Hill N; Hewitt R; Bou-Gharios G; Cook T; Tam FW; Domin J; Mason RM. 2012. Hyperglycemia causes renal cell damage via CCN2-induced activation of the TrkA receptor: implications for diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes 61(9):2280-8. [PubMed: 22586581]  [MGI Ref ID J:208460]

Gambhir D; Ananth S; Veeranan-Karmegam R; Elangovan S; Hester S; Jennings E; Offermanns S; Nussbaum JJ; Smith SB; Thangaraju M; Ganapathy V; Martin PM. 2012. GPR109A as an anti-inflammatory receptor in retinal pigment epithelial cells and its relevance to diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53(4):2208-17. [PubMed: 22427566]  [MGI Ref ID J:196849]

Gastinger MJ; Kunselman AR; Conboy EE; Bronson SK; Barber AJ. 2008. Dendrite remodeling and other abnormalities in the retinal ganglion cells of Ins2 Akita diabetic mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49(6):2635-42. [PubMed: 18515593]  [MGI Ref ID J:137045]

Gastinger MJ; Singh RS; Barber AJ. 2006. Loss of cholinergic and dopaminergic amacrine cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rat and Ins2Akita-diabetic mouse retinas. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47(7):3143-50. [PubMed: 16799061]  [MGI Ref ID J:112243]

Grasemann C; Devlin MJ; Rzeczkowska PA; Herrmann R; Horsthemke B; Hauffa BP; Grynpas M; Alm C; Bouxsein ML; Palmert MR. 2012. Parental diabetes: the Akita mouse as a model of the effects of maternal and paternal hyperglycemia in wildtype offspring. PLoS One 7(11):e50210. [PubMed: 23209676]  [MGI Ref ID J:195000]

Grutzmacher C; Park S; Zhao Y; Morrison ME; Sheibani N; Sorenson CM. 2013. Aberrant production of extracellular matrix proteins and dysfunction in kidney endothelial cells with a short duration of diabetes. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 304(1):F19-30. [PubMed: 23077100]  [MGI Ref ID J:191244]

Guo C; Zhang Z; Zhang P; Makita J; Kawada H; Blessing K; Kador PF. 2014. Novel transgenic mouse models develop retinal changes associated with early diabetic retinopathy similar to those observed in rats with diabetes mellitus. Exp Eye Res 119:77-87. [PubMed: 24370601]  [MGI Ref ID J:210369]

Gupta S; McGrath B; Cavener DR. 2010. PERK (EIF2AK3) regulates proinsulin trafficking and quality control in the secretory pathway. Diabetes 59(8):1937-47. [PubMed: 20530744]  [MGI Ref ID J:169638]

Gurel Z; Sieg KM; Shallow KD; Sorenson CM; Sheibani N. 2013. Retinal O-linked N-acetylglucosamine protein modifications: implications for postnatal retinal vascularization and the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Mol Vis 19:1047-59. [PubMed: 23734074]  [MGI Ref ID J:203213]

Gurley SB; Clare SE; Snow KP; Hu A; Meyer TW; Coffman TM. 2006. Impact of genetic background on nephropathy in diabetic mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290(1):F214-22. [PubMed: 16118394]  [MGI Ref ID J:104083]

Gurley SB; Mach CL; Stegbauer J; Yang J; Snow KP; Hu A; Meyer TW; Coffman TM. 2010. Influence of genetic background on albuminuria and kidney injury in Ins2(+/C96Y) (Akita) mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 298(3):F788-95. [PubMed: 20042456]  [MGI Ref ID J:157873]

Gyurko R; Siqueira CC; Caldon N; Gao L; Kantarci A; Van Dyke TE. 2006. Chronic hyperglycemia predisposes to exaggerated inflammatory response and leukocyte dysfunction in Akita mice. J Immunol 177(10):7250-6. [PubMed: 17082643]  [MGI Ref ID J:140617]

Ha Y; Dun Y; Thangaraju M; Duplantier J; Dong Z; Liu K; Ganapathy V; Smith SB. 2011. Sigma receptor 1 modulates endoplasmic reticulum stress in retinal neurons. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(1):527-40. [PubMed: 20811050]  [MGI Ref ID J:171562]

Han Z; Guo J; Conley SM; Naash MI. 2013. Retinal angiogenesis in the Ins2(Akita) mouse model of diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 54(1):574-84. [PubMed: 23221078]  [MGI Ref ID J:214574]

Haseyama T; Fujita T; Hirasawa F; Tsukada M; Wakui H; Komatsuda A; Ohtani H; Miura AB; Imai H; Koizumi A. 2002. Complications of IgA nephropathy in a non-insulin-dependent diabetes model, the Akita mouse. Tohoku J Exp Med 198(4):233-44. [PubMed: 12630555]  [MGI Ref ID J:107880]

Hathaway CK; Gasim AM; Grant R; Chang AS; Kim HS; Madden VJ; Bagnell CR Jr; Jennette JC; Smithies O; Kakoki M. 2015. Low TGFbeta1 expression prevents and high expression exacerbates diabetic nephropathy in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112(18):5815-20. [PubMed: 25902541]  [MGI Ref ID J:221419]

Hirosawa M; Minata M; Harada KH; Hitomi T; Krust A; Koizumi A. 2008. Ablation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) prevents upregulation of POMC by leptin and insulin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 371(2):320-3. [PubMed: 18439911]  [MGI Ref ID J:136249]

Hodish I; Absood A; Liu L; Liu M; Haataja L; Larkin D; Al-Khafaji A; Zaki A; Arvan P. 2011. In vivo misfolding of proinsulin below the threshold of frank diabetes. Diabetes 60(8):2092-101. [PubMed: 21677281]  [MGI Ref ID J:186814]

Hombrebueno JR; Chen M; Penalva RG; Xu H. 2014. Loss of synaptic connectivity, particularly in second order neurons is a key feature of diabetic retinal neuropathy in the Ins2Akita mouse. PLoS One 9(5):e97970. [PubMed: 24848689]  [MGI Ref ID J:216322]

Hong EG; Jung DY; Ko HJ; Zhang Z; Ma Z; Jun JY; Kim JH; Sumner AD; Vary TC; Gardner TW; Bronson SK; Kim JK. 2007. Nonobese, insulin-deficient Ins2Akita mice develop type 2 diabetes phenotypes including insulin resistance and cardiac remodeling. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293(6):E1687-96. [PubMed: 17911348]  [MGI Ref ID J:130021]

Howard AC; McNeil AK; Xiong F; Xiong WC; McNeil PL. 2011. A novel cellular defect in diabetes: membrane repair failure. Diabetes 60(11):3034-43. [PubMed: 21940783]  [MGI Ref ID J:189473]

Howell SJ; Mekhail MN; Azem R; Ward NL; Kern TS. 2013. Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in diabetic dogs and mice: relationship to glycemic control and retinal capillary degeneration. Mol Vis 19:1413-21. [PubMed: 23825921]  [MGI Ref ID J:200768]

Hu Y; Chen Y; Ding L; He X; Takahashi Y; Gao Y; Shen W; Cheng R; Chen Q; Qi X; Boulton ME; Ma JX. 2013. Pathogenic role of diabetes-induced PPAR-alpha down-regulation in microvascular dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(38):15401-6. [PubMed: 24003152]  [MGI Ref ID J:201158]

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Rag1tm1Mom related

Abe K; Wechs S; Kalaydjiev S; Franz TJ; Busch DH; Fuchs H; Soewarto D; Behrendt H; Wagner S; Jakob T; Hrabe de Angelis M. 2008. Novel lymphocyte-independent mechanisms to initiate inflammatory arthritis via bone marrow-derived cells of Ali18 mutant mice. Rheumatology (Oxford) 47(3):292-300. [PubMed: 18276736]  [MGI Ref ID J:202219]

Abramson J; Giraud M; Benoist C; Mathis D. 2010. Aire's partners in the molecular control of immunological tolerance. Cell 140(1):123-35. [PubMed: 20085707]  [MGI Ref ID J:158990]

Afshar-Sterle S; Zotos D; Bernard NJ; Scherger AK; Rodling L; Alsop AE; Walker J; Masson F; Belz GT; Corcoran LM; O'Reilly LA; Strasser A; Smyth MJ; Johnstone R; Tarlinton DM; Nutt SL; Kallies A. 2014. Fas ligand-mediated immune surveillance by T cells is essential for the control of spontaneous B cell lymphomas. Nat Med 20(3):283-90. [PubMed: 24487434]  [MGI Ref ID J:208773]

Ahern PP; Schiering C; Buonocore S; McGeachy MJ; Cua DJ; Maloy KJ; Powrie F. 2010. Interleukin-23 drives intestinal inflammation through direct activity on T cells. Immunity 33(2):279-88. [PubMed: 20732640]  [MGI Ref ID J:163906]

Ahn S; Lee G; Yang SJ; Lee D; Lee S; Shin HS; Kim MC; Lee KN; Palmer DC; Theoret MR; Jenkinson EJ; Anderson G; Restifo NP; Kim MG. 2008. TSCOT+ thymic epithelial cell-mediated sensitive CD4 tolerance by direct presentation. PLoS Biol 6(8):e191. [PubMed: 18684012]  [MGI Ref ID J:140121]

Ait-Azzouzene D; Verkoczy L; Peters J; Gavin A; Skog P; Vela JL; Nemazee D. 2005. An immunoglobulin C{kappa}-reactive single chain antibody fusion protein induces tolerance through receptor editing in a normal polyclonal immune system. J Exp Med 201(5):817-28. [PubMed: 15738053]  [MGI Ref ID J:96759]

Akkina R; Berges BK; Palmer BE; Remling L; Neff CP; Kuruvilla J; Connick E; Folkvord J; Gagliardi K; Kassu A; Akkina SR. 2011. Humanized Rag1gammac Mice Support Multilineage Hematopoiesis and Are Susceptible to HIV-1 Infection via Systemic and Vaginal Routes. PLoS One 6(6):e20169. [PubMed: 21695116]  [MGI Ref ID J:174292]

Alli R; Nguyen P; Boyd K; Sundberg JP; Geiger TL. 2012. A mouse model of clonal CD8+ T lymphocyte-mediated alopecia areata progressing to alopecia universalis. J Immunol 188(1):477-86. [PubMed: 22116824]  [MGI Ref ID J:180590]

Almeida AR; Arroz-Madeira S; Fonseca-Pereira D; Ribeiro H; Lasrado R; Pachnis V; Veiga-Fernandes H. 2012. RET/GFRalpha signals are dispensable for thymic T cell development in vivo. PLoS One 7(12):e52949. [PubMed: 23300832]  [MGI Ref ID J:195828]

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Amante FH; Haque A; Stanley AC; Rivera Fde L; Randall LM; Wilson YA; Yeo G; Pieper C; Crabb BS; de Koning-Ward TF; Lundie RJ; Good MF; Pinzon-Charry A; Pearson MS; Duke MG; McManus DP; Loukas A; Hill GR; Engwerda CR. 2010. Immune-Mediated Mechanisms of Parasite Tissue Sequestration during Experimental Cerebral Malaria. J Immunol 185(6):3632-42. [PubMed: 20720206]  [MGI Ref ID J:163540]

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Anderson MG; Nair KS; Amonoo LA; Mehalow A; Trantow CM; Masli S; John SW. 2008. GpnmbR150X allele must be present in bone marrow derived cells to mediate DBA/2J glaucoma. BMC Genet 9:30. [PubMed: 18402690]  [MGI Ref ID J:134670]

Ando T; Matsumoto K; Namiranian S; Yamashita H; Glatthorn H; Kimura M; Dolan BR; Lee JJ; Galli SJ; Kawakami Y; Jamora C; Kawakami T. 2013. Mast Cells Are Required for Full Expression of Allergen/SEB-Induced Skin Inflammation. J Invest Dermatol 133(12):2695-705. [PubMed: 23752044]  [MGI Ref ID J:202870]

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Antony PA; Piccirillo CA; Akpinarli A; Finkelstein SE; Speiss PJ; Surman DR; Palmer DC; Chan CC; Klebanoff CA; Overwijk WW; Rosenberg SA; Restifo NP. 2005. CD8+ T cell immunity against a tumor/self-antigen is augmented by CD4+ T helper cells and hindered by naturally occurring T regulatory cells. J Immunol 174(5):2591-601. [PubMed: 15728465]  [MGI Ref ID J:129825]

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Backhed F; Ding H; Wang T; Hooper LV; Koh GY; Nagy A; Semenkovich CF; Gordon JI. 2004. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(44):15718-23. [PubMed: 15505215]  [MGI Ref ID J:93455]

Bai F; Town T; Qian F; Wang P; Kamanaka M; Connolly TM; Gate D; Montgomery RR; Flavell RA; Fikrig E. 2009. IL-10 signaling blockade controls murine West Nile virus infection. PLoS Pathog 5(10):e1000610. [PubMed: 19816558]  [MGI Ref ID J:162907]

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Bajenoff M; Germain RN. 2009. B-cell follicle development remodels the conduit system and allows soluble antigen delivery to follicular dendritic cells. Blood 114(24):4989-97. [PubMed: 19713459]  [MGI Ref ID J:155014]

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Bandeira M; Santos CS; de Azevedo EC; Soares LM; Macedo JO; Marchi S; da Silva CL; Chagas-Junior AD; McBride AJ; McBride FW; Reis MG; Athanazio DA. 2011. Attenuated Nephritis in Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Knockout C57BL/6 Mice and Pulmonary Hemorrhage in CB17 SCID and Recombination Activating Gene 1 Knockout C57BL/6 Mice Infected with Leptospira interrogans. Infect Immun 79(7):2936-40. [PubMed: 21576342]  [MGI Ref ID J:173478]

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Banuelos SJ; Shultz LD; Greiner DL; Burzenski LM; Gott B; Lyons BL; Rossini AA; Appel MC. 2004. Rejection of human islets and human HLA-A2.1 transgenic mouse islets by alloreactive human lymphocytes in immunodeficient NOD-scid and NOD-Rag1(null)Prf1(null) mice. Clin Immunol 112(3):273-83. [PubMed: 15308121]  [MGI Ref ID J:91764]

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Bassetti MF; White J; Kappler JW; Marrack P. 2009. Transgenic Bcl-3 slows T cell proliferation. Int Immunol 21(4):339-48. [PubMed: 19208752]  [MGI Ref ID J:147105]

Beal AM; Ramos-Hernandez N; Riling CR; Nowelsky EA; Oliver PM. 2011. TGF-beta induces the expression of the adaptor Ndfip1 to silence IL-4 production during iT(reg) cell differentiation. Nat Immunol 13(1):77-85. [PubMed: 22080920]  [MGI Ref ID J:179003]

Beamer CA; Migliaccio CT; Jessop F; Trapkus M; Yuan D; Holian A. 2010. Innate immune processes are sufficient for driving silicosis in mice. J Leukoc Biol 88(3):547-57. [PubMed: 20576854]  [MGI Ref ID J:164920]

Beilke JN; Kuhl NR; Van Kaer L; Gill RG. 2005. NK cells promote islet allograft tolerance via a perforin-dependent mechanism. Nat Med 11(10):1059-65. [PubMed: 16155578]  [MGI Ref ID J:101693]

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Benahmed F; Chyou S; Dasoveanu D; Chen J; Kumar V; Iwakura Y; Lu TT. 2014. Multiple CD11c+ cells collaboratively express IL-1beta to modulate stromal vascular endothelial growth factor and lymph node vascular-stromal growth. J Immunol 192(9):4153-63. [PubMed: 24659690]  [MGI Ref ID J:209986]

Bendix I; Pfueller CF; Leuenberger T; Glezeva N; Siffrin V; Muller Y; Prozorovski T; Hansen W; Topphoff US; Loddenkemper C; Zipp F; Waiczies S. 2010. MAPK3 deficiency drives autoimmunity via DC arming. Eur J Immunol 40(5):1486-95. [PubMed: 20186879]  [MGI Ref ID J:160957]

Berger SB; Romero X; Ma C; Wang G; Faubion WA; Liao G; Compeer E; Keszei M; Rameh L; Wang N; Boes M; Regueiro JR; Reinecker HC; Terhorst C. 2010. SLAM is a microbial sensor that regulates bacterial phagosome functions in macrophages. Nat Immunol 11(10):920-7. [PubMed: 20818396]  [MGI Ref ID J:164685]

Bergstrom KS; Guttman JA; Rumi M; Ma C; Bouzari S; Khan MA; Gibson DL; Vogl AW; Vallance BA. 2008. Modulation of intestinal goblet cell function during infection by an attaching and effacing bacterial pathogen. Infect Immun 76(2):796-811. [PubMed: 17984203]  [MGI Ref ID J:130255]

Bessler M; Rosti V; Peng Y; Cattoretti G; Notaro R; Ohsako S; Elkon KB; Luzzatto L. 2002. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins are required for maintenance of a normal peripheral lymphoid compartment but not for lymphocyte development. Eur J Immunol 32(9):2607-16. [PubMed: 12207345]  [MGI Ref ID J:78996]

Bettelli E; Pagany M; Weiner HL; Linington C; Sobel RA; Kuchroo VK. 2003. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific T cell receptor transgenic mice develop spontaneous autoimmune optic neuritis. J Exp Med 197(9):1073-81. [PubMed: 12732654]  [MGI Ref ID J:83278]

Bettini ML; Pan F; Bettini M; Finkelstein D; Rehg JE; Floess S; Bell BD; Ziegler SF; Huehn J; Pardoll DM; Vignali DA. 2012. Loss of epigenetic modification driven by the Foxp3 transcription factor leads to regulatory T cell insufficiency. Immunity 36(5):717-30. [PubMed: 22579476]  [MGI Ref ID J:187320]

Binder GK; Griffin DE. 2001. Interferon-gamma-mediated site-specific clearance of alphavirus from CNS neurons. Science 293(5528):303-6. [PubMed: 11452126]  [MGI Ref ID J:125465]

Binstadt BA; Hebert JL; Ortiz-Lopez A; Bronson R; Benoist C; Mathis D. 2009. The same systemic autoimmune disease provokes arthritis and endocarditis via distinct mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(39):16758-63. [PubMed: 19805369]  [MGI Ref ID J:153217]

Bizargity P; Del Rio R; Phillippe M; Teuscher C; Bonney EA. 2009. Resistance to lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm delivery mediated by regulatory T cell function in mice. Biol Reprod 80(5):874-81. [PubMed: 19144956]  [MGI Ref ID J:149636]

Blache CA; Manuel ER; Kaltcheva TI; Wong AN; Ellenhorn JD; Blazar BR; Diamond DJ. 2012. Systemic delivery of Salmonella typhimurium transformed with IDO shRNA enhances intratumoral vector colonization and suppresses tumor growth. Cancer Res 72(24):6447-56. [PubMed: 23090116]  [MGI Ref ID J:193636]

Blanc L; Ciciotte SL; Gwynn B; Hildick-Smith GJ; Pierce EL; Soltis KA; Cooney JD; Paw BH; Peters LL. 2012. Critical function for the Ras-GTPase activating protein RASA3 in vertebrate erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(30):12099-104. [PubMed: 22773809]  [MGI Ref ID J:186485]

Block MS; Mendez-Fernandez YV; Van Keulen VP; Hansen MJ; Allen KS; Taboas AL; Rodriguez M; Pease LR. 2005. Inability of bm14 mice to respond to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus is caused by defective antigen presentation, not repertoire selection. J Immunol 174(5):2756-62. [PubMed: 15728484]  [MGI Ref ID J:97717]

Bonnet MC; Preukschat D; Welz PS; van Loo G; Ermolaeva MA; Bloch W; Haase I; Pasparakis M. 2011. The Adaptor Protein FADD Protects Epidermal Keratinocytes from Necroptosis In Vivo and Prevents Skin Inflammation. Immunity 35(4):572-82. [PubMed: 22000287]  [MGI Ref ID J:177639]

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Botelho FM; Gaschler GJ; Kianpour S; Zavitz CC; Trimble NJ; Nikota JK; Bauer CM; Stampfli MR. 2010. Innate immune processes are sufficient for driving cigarette smoke-induced inflammation in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 42(4):394-403. [PubMed: 19502389]  [MGI Ref ID J:171489]

Bour-Jordan H; Salomon BL; Thompson HL; Szot GL; Bernhard MR; Bluestone JA. 2004. Costimulation controls diabetes by altering the balance of pathogenic and regulatory T cells. J Clin Invest 114(7):979-87. [PubMed: 15467837]  [MGI Ref ID J:93421]

Bournazos S; Klein F; Pietzsch J; Seaman MS; Nussenzweig MC; Ravetch JV. 2014. Broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies require Fc effector functions for in vivo activity. Cell 158(6):1243-53. [PubMed: 25215485]  [MGI Ref ID J:214949]

Brady BL; Bassing CH. 2011. Differential regulation of proximal and distal Vbeta segments upstream of a functional VDJbeta1 rearrangement upon beta-selection. J Immunol 187(6):3277-85. [PubMed: 21844384]  [MGI Ref ID J:179246]

Brady BL; Rupp LJ; Bassing CH. 2013. Requirement for dicer in survival of proliferating thymocytes experiencing DNA double-strand breaks. J Immunol 190(7):3256-66. [PubMed: 23427252]  [MGI Ref ID J:194523]

Brehm MA; Racki WJ; Leif J; Burzenski L; Hosur V; Wetmore A; Gott B; Herlihy M; Ignotz R; Dunn R; Shultz LD; Greiner DL. 2012. Engraftment of human HSC in non-irradiated newborn NOD-scid IL2rgammanull mice is enhanced by transgenic expression of membrane-bound human SCF. Blood :. [PubMed: 22246028]  [MGI Ref ID J:180273]

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Brien JD; Daffis S; Lazear HM; Cho H; Suthar MS; Gale M Jr; Diamond MS. 2011. Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) shapes both innate and CD8(+) T cell immune responses against West Nile virus infection. PLoS Pathog 7(9):e1002230. [PubMed: 21909274]  [MGI Ref ID J:183131]

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Briso EM; Guinea-Viniegra J; Bakiri L; Rogon Z; Petzelbauer P; Eils R; Wolf R; Rincon M; Angel P; Wagner EF. 2013. Inflammation-mediated skin tumorigenesis induced by epidermal c-Fos. Genes Dev 27(18):1959-73. [PubMed: 24029918]  [MGI Ref ID J:201145]

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Bruyere F; Melen-Lamalle L; Blacher S; Detry B; Masset A; Lecomte J; Lambert V; Maillard C; Hoyer-Hansen G; Lund LR; Foidart JM; Noel A. 2010. Does plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 drive lymphangiogenesis? PLoS One 5(3):e9653. [PubMed: 20300183]  [MGI Ref ID J:158909]

Brydges SD; Mueller JL; McGeough MD; Pena CA; Misaghi A; Gandhi C; Putnam CD; Boyle DL; Firestein GS; Horner AA; Soroosh P; Watford WT; O'Shea JJ; Kastner DL; Hoffman HM. 2009. Inflammasome-mediated disease animal models reveal roles for innate but not adaptive immunity. Immunity 30(6):875-87. [PubMed: 19501000]  [MGI Ref ID J:150054]

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Winer S; Chan Y; Paltser G; Truong D; Tsui H; Bahrami J; Dorfman R; Wang Y; Zielenski J; Mastronardi F; Maezawa Y; Drucker DJ; Engleman E; Winer D; Dosch HM. 2009. Normalization of obesity-associated insulin resistance through immunotherapy. Nat Med 15(8):921-9. [PubMed: 19633657]  [MGI Ref ID J:152185]

Winstead CJ; Reilly CS; Moon JJ; Jenkins MK; Hamilton SE; Jameson SC; Way SS; Khoruts A. 2010. CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells optimize diversity of the conventional T cell repertoire during reconstitution from lymphopenia. J Immunol 184(9):4749-60. [PubMed: 20357265]  [MGI Ref ID J:160453]

Withers DR; Gaspal FM; Mackley EC; Marriott CL; Ross EA; Desanti GE; Roberts NA; White AJ; Flores-Langarica A; McConnell FM; Anderson G; Lane PJ. 2012. Cutting edge: lymphoid tissue inducer cells maintain memory CD4 T cells within secondary lymphoid tissue. J Immunol 189(5):2094-8. [PubMed: 22855716]  [MGI Ref ID J:189848]

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Wu Q; Gardiner GJ; Berry E; Wagner SR; Lu T; Clay BS; Moore TV; Ferreira CM; Williams JW; Luster AD; Medoff BD; Cannon JL; Sperling AI; Shilling RA. 2013. ICOS-expressing lymphocytes promote resolution of CD8-mediated lung injury in a mouse model of lung rejection. PLoS One 8(8):e72955. [PubMed: 23967339]  [MGI Ref ID J:205848]

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Xiao X; Gong W; Demirci G; Liu W; Spoerl S; Chu X; Bishop DK; Turka LA; Li XC. 2012. New insights on OX40 in the control of T cell immunity and immune tolerance in vivo. J Immunol 188(2):892-901. [PubMed: 22147766]  [MGI Ref ID J:180889]

Xie Y; Akpinarli A; Maris C; Hipkiss EL; Lane M; Kwon EK; Muranski P; Restifo NP; Antony PA. 2010. Naive tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells differentiated in vivo eradicate established melanoma. J Exp Med 207(3):651-67. [PubMed: 20156973]  [MGI Ref ID J:158128]

Yamauchi T; Takenaka K; Urata S; Shima T; Kikushige Y; Tokuyama T; Iwamoto C; Nishihara M; Iwasaki H; Miyamoto T; Honma N; Nakao M; Matozaki T; Akashi K. 2013. Polymorphic Sirpa is the genetic determinant for NOD-based mouse lines to achieve efficient human cell engraftment. Blood 121(8):1316-25. [PubMed: 23293079]  [MGI Ref ID J:194763]

Yamazaki T; Yang XO; Chung Y; Fukunaga A; Nurieva R; Pappu B; Martin-Orozco N; Kang HS; Ma L; Panopoulos AD; Craig S; Watowich SS; Jetten AM; Tian Q; Dong C. 2008. CCR6 regulates the migration of inflammatory and regulatory T cells. J Immunol 181(12):8391-401. [PubMed: 19050256]  [MGI Ref ID J:142071]

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Yang F; Dong A; Mueller P; Caicedo J; Sutton AM; Odetunde J; Barrick CJ; Klyachkin YM; Abdel-Latif A; Smyth SS. 2012. Coronary artery remodeling in a model of left ventricular pressure overload is influenced by platelets and inflammatory cells. PLoS One 7(8):e40196. [PubMed: 22916095]  [MGI Ref ID J:190055]

Yang K; Shrestha S; Zeng H; Karmaus PW; Neale G; Vogel P; Guertin DA; Lamb RF; Chi H. 2013. T cell exit from quiescence and differentiation into Th2 cells depend on Raptor-mTORC1-mediated metabolic reprogramming. Immunity 39(6):1043-56. [PubMed: 24315998]  [MGI Ref ID J:209300]

Yang L; Boldin MP; Yu Y; Liu CS; Ea CK; Ramakrishnan P; Taganov KD; Zhao JL; Baltimore D. 2012. miR-146a controls the resolution of T cell responses in mice. J Exp Med 209(9):1655-70. [PubMed: 22891274]  [MGI Ref ID J:191831]

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Yang T; Stark P; Janik K; Wigzell H; Rottenberg ME. 2008. SOCS-1 Protects against Chlamydia pneumoniae-Induced Lethal Inflammation but Hampers Effective Bacterial Clearance. J Immunol 180(6):4040-9. [PubMed: 18322213]  [MGI Ref ID J:132932]

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Yang XO; Zhang H; Kim BS; Niu X; Peng J; Chen Y; Kerketta R; Lee YH; Chang SH; Corry DB; Wang D; Watowich SS; Dong C. 2013. The signaling suppressor CIS controls proallergic T cell development and allergic airway inflammation. Nat Immunol 14(7):732-40. [PubMed: 23727894]  [MGI Ref ID J:204829]

Yang Y; Ghosn EE; Cole LE; Obukhanych TV; Sadate-Ngatchou P; Vogel SN; Herzenberg LA; Herzenberg LA. 2012. Antigen-specific antibody responses in B-1a and their relationship to natural immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(14):5382-7. [PubMed: 22421134]  [MGI Ref ID J:182664]

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Yao Y; Han W; Liang J; Ji J; Wang J; Cantor H; Lu L. 2013. Glatiramer acetate ameliorates inflammatory bowel disease in mice through the induction of Qa-1-restricted CD8(+) regulatory cells. Eur J Immunol 43(1):125-36. [PubMed: 23002042]  [MGI Ref ID J:191109]

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Yi H; Yu X; Gao P; Wang Y; Baek SH; Chen X; Kim HL; Subjeck JR; Wang XY. 2009. Pattern recognition scavenger receptor SRA/CD204 down-regulates Toll-like receptor 4 signaling-dependent CD8 T-cell activation. Blood 113(23):5819-28. [PubMed: 19349620]  [MGI Ref ID J:149497]

Yi JS; Du M; Zajac AJ. 2009. A vital role for interleukin-21 in the control of a chronic viral infection. Science 324(5934):1572-6. [PubMed: 19443735]  [MGI Ref ID J:150002]

Ying H; Yang L; Qiao G; Li Z; Zhang L; Yin F; Xie D; Zhang J. 2010. Cutting edge: CTLA-4-B7 interaction suppresses Th17 cell differentiation. J Immunol 185(3):1375-8. [PubMed: 20601598]  [MGI Ref ID J:162452]

Yokoyama CC; Loh J; Zhao G; Stappenbeck TS; Wang D; Huang HV; Virgin HW; Thackray LB. 2012. Adaptive immunity restricts replication of novel murine astroviruses. J Virol 86(22):12262-70. [PubMed: 22951832]  [MGI Ref ID J:189022]

Yoshida H; Russell J; Senchenkova EY; Almeida Paula LD; Granger DN. 2010. Interleukin-1beta mediates the extra-intestinal thrombosis associated with experimental colitis. Am J Pathol 177(6):2774-81. [PubMed: 20971730]  [MGI Ref ID J:170780]

Yoshizawa K; Nakajima S; Notake T; Miyagawa S; Hida S; Taki S. 2011. IL-15-high-responder developing NK cells bearing Ly49 receptors in IL-15-/- mice. J Immunol 187(10):5162-9. [PubMed: 21967894]  [MGI Ref ID J:179505]

Yu P; Constien R; Dear N; Katan M; Hanke P; Bunney TD; Kunder S; Quintanilla-Martinez L; Huffstadt U; Schroder A; Jones NP; Peters T; Fuchs H; de Angelis MH; Nehls M; Grosse J; Wabnitz P; Meyer TP; Yasuda K; Schiemann M; Schneider-Fresenius C; Jagla W; Russ A; Popp A; Josephs M; Marquardt A; Laufs J; Schmittwolf C; Wagner H; Pfeffer K; Mudde GC. 2005. Autoimmunity and inflammation due to a gain-of-function mutation in phospholipase C gamma 2 that specifically increases external Ca2+ entry. Immunity 22(4):451-65. [PubMed: 15845450]  [MGI Ref ID J:97930]

Yu X; Rollins D; Ruhn KA; Stubblefield JJ; Green CB; Kashiwada M; Rothman PB; Takahashi JS; Hooper LV. 2013. TH17 cell differentiation is regulated by the circadian clock. Science 342(6159):727-30. [PubMed: 24202171]  [MGI Ref ID J:202881]

Yui MA; Feng N; Zhang JA; Liaw CY; Rothenberg EV; Longmate JA. 2013. Loss of T cell progenitor checkpoint control underlies leukemia initiation in rag1-deficient nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol 190(7):3276-88. [PubMed: 23440410]  [MGI Ref ID J:194740]

Yui MA; Rothenberg EV. 2004. Deranged early T cell development in immunodeficient strains of nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol 173(9):5381-91. [PubMed: 15494484]  [MGI Ref ID J:132809]

Zaiss MM; Maslowski KM; Mosconi I; Guenat N; Marsland BJ; Harris NL. 2013. IL-1beta suppresses innate IL-25 and IL-33 production and maintains helminth chronicity. PLoS Pathog 9(8):e1003531. [PubMed: 23935505]  [MGI Ref ID J:214162]

Zanucco E; Gotz R; Potapenko T; Carraretto I; Ceteci S; Ceteci F; Seeger W; Savai R; Rapp UR. 2011. Expression of B-RAF V600E in type II pneumocytes causes abnormalities in alveolar formation, airspace enlargement and tumor formation in mice. PLoS One 6(12):e29093. [PubMed: 22194995]  [MGI Ref ID J:182350]

Zattoni M; Mura ML; Deprez F; Schwendener RA; Engelhardt B; Frei K; Fritschy JM. 2011. Brain infiltration of leukocytes contributes to the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurosci 31(11):4037-50. [PubMed: 21411646]  [MGI Ref ID J:180924]

Zemp FJ; McKenzie BA; Lun X; Reilly KM; McFadden G; Yong VW; Forsyth PA. 2014. Cellular factors promoting resistance to effective treatment of glioma with oncolytic myxoma virus. Cancer Res 74(24):7260-73. [PubMed: 25336188]  [MGI Ref ID J:218088]

Zenewicz LA; Yancopoulos GD; Valenzuela DM; Murphy AJ; Stevens S; Flavell RA. 2008. Innate and adaptive interleukin-22 protects mice from inflammatory bowel disease. Immunity 29(6):947-57. [PubMed: 19100701]  [MGI Ref ID J:142640]

Zeng H; Yang K; Cloer C; Neale G; Vogel P; Chi H. 2013. mTORC1 couples immune signals and metabolic programming to establish T(reg)-cell function. Nature 499(7459):485-90. [PubMed: 23812589]  [MGI Ref ID J:204754]

Zhang B; Zhang Y; Niu L; Vella AT; Mittler RS. 2010. Dendritic cells and Stat3 are essential for CD137-induced CD8 T cell activation-induced cell death. J Immunol 184(9):4770-8. [PubMed: 20351189]  [MGI Ref ID J:160463]

Zhang M; Takahashi K; Alicot EM; Vorup-Jensen T; Kessler B; Thiel S; Jensenius JC; Ezekowitz RA; Moore FD; Carroll MC. 2006. Activation of the lectin pathway by natural IgM in a model of ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Immunol 177(7):4727-34. [PubMed: 16982912]  [MGI Ref ID J:139312]

Zhang N; Bevan MJ. 2012. TGF-beta signaling to T cells inhibits autoimmunity during lymphopenia-driven proliferation. Nat Immunol 13(7):667-73. [PubMed: 22634866]  [MGI Ref ID J:187653]

Zhang P; Nakatsukasa H; Tu E; Kasagi S; Cui K; Ishikawa M; Konkel JE; Maruyama T; Wei G; Abbatiello B; Wang ZQ; Zhao K; Chen W. 2013. PARP-1 regulates expression of TGF-beta receptors in T cells. Blood 122(13):2224-32. [PubMed: 23940283]  [MGI Ref ID J:202490]

Zhang R; Huynh A; Whitcher G; Chang J; Maltzman JS; Turka LA. 2013. An obligate cell-intrinsic function for CD28 in Tregs. J Clin Invest :. [PubMed: 23281398]  [MGI Ref ID J:194503]

Zhang X; Chen W; De Paiva CS; Volpe EA; Gandhi NB; Farley WJ; Li DQ; Niederkorn JY; Stern ME; Pflugfelder SC. 2011. Desiccating Stress Induces CD4(+) T-Cell-Mediated Sjogren's Syndrome-Like Corneal Epithelial Apoptosis via Activation of the Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway by Interferon-gamma. Am J Pathol 179(4):1807-14. [PubMed: 21843497]  [MGI Ref ID J:176297]

Zhang Y; Daquinag AC; Amaya-Manzanares F; Sirin O; Tseng C; Kolonin MG. 2012. Stromal progenitor cells from endogenous adipose tissue contribute to pericytes and adipocytes that populate the tumor microenvironment. Cancer Res 72(20):5198-208. [PubMed: 23071132]  [MGI Ref ID J:190900]

Zheng L; Sharma R; Gaskin F; Fu SM; Ju ST. 2007. A novel role of IL-2 in organ-specific autoimmune inflammation beyond regulatory T cell checkpoint: both IL-2 knockout and Fas mutation prolong lifespan of Scurfy mice but by different mechanisms. J Immunol 179(12):8035-41. [PubMed: 18056343]  [MGI Ref ID J:155041]

Zhou J; Chehab R; Tkalcevic J; Naylor MJ; Harris J; Wilson TJ; Tsao S; Tellis I; Zavarsek S; Xu D; Lapinskas EJ; Visvader J; Lindeman GJ; Thomas R; Ormandy CJ; Hertzog PJ; Kola I; Pritchard MA. 2005. Elf5 is essential for early embryogenesis and mammary gland development during pregnancy and lactation. EMBO J 24(3):635-44. [PubMed: 15650748]  [MGI Ref ID J:96237]

Zhou J; Ouyang X; Cui X; Schoeb TR; Smythies LE; Johnson MR; Guay-Woodford LM; Chapman AB; Mrug M. 2010. Renal CD14 expression correlates with the progression of cystic kidney disease. Kidney Int 78(6):550-60. [PubMed: 20555320]  [MGI Ref ID J:184258]

Zhou L; Oh SY; Zhou Y; Yuan B; Wu F; Oh MH; Wang Y; Takemoto C; Van Rooijen N; Zheng T; Zhu Z. 2013. SHP-1 regulation of mast cell function in allergic inflammation and anaphylaxis. PLoS One 8(2):e55763. [PubMed: 23390550]  [MGI Ref ID J:197214]

Zhou XF; Yu J; Chang M; Zhang M; Zhou D; Cammas F; Sun SC. 2012. TRIM28 mediates chromatin modifications at the TCRalpha enhancer and regulates the development of T and natural killer T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(49):20083-8. [PubMed: 23169648]  [MGI Ref ID J:192327]

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Health & husbandry

The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Production of mice from cryopreserved embryos or sperm occurs in a maximum barrier room, G200.

Colony Maintenance

Breeding & HusbandryThe donating investigator maintains this strain by crossing Rag1tm1Mom/Rag1tm1Mom Ins2Akita/+ Prf1tm1Sdz/Prf1tm1Sdz males to Rag1tm1Mom/Rag1tm1Mom Prf1tm1Sdz/Prf1tm1Sdz females. Homozygous Ins2Akita mice do not survive.

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Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $2625.00
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing


Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $3412.50
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Control Information

   None Available
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.

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The Jackson Laboratory's Genotype Promise

The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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Contracts Administration


JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use

"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCTS" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or services provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than the internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE or PRODUCTS from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON's prior written authorization.

No Warranty


In case of dissatisfaction for a valid reason and claimed in writing by a purchaser within ninety (90) days of receipt of mice, products or services, JACKSON will, at its option, provide credit or replacement for the mice or product received or the services provided.

No Liability

In no event shall JACKSON, its trustees, directors, officers, employees, and affiliates be liable for any causes of action or damages, including any direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages, arising out of the provision of MICE, PRODUCTS or services, including economic damage or injury to property and lost profits, and including any damage arising from acts or negligence on the part of JACKSON, its agents or employees. Unless prohibited by law, in purchasing or receiving MICE, PRODUCTS or services from JACKSON, purchaser or recipient, or any party claiming by or through them, expressly releases and discharges JACKSON from all such causes of action or damages, and further agrees to defend and indemnify JACKSON from any costs or damages arising out of any third party claims.

MICE and PRODUCTS are to be used in a safe manner and in accordance with all applicable governmental rules and regulations.

The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or services. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS or services may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and services by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.

Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or services shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or services by JACKSON.