Strain Name:

NOD.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Ins2Akita Prf1tm1Sdz/SzJ

Stock Number:

008659

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Availability:

Repository- Live

Use Restrictions Apply, see Terms of Use
This strain is homozygous for knock-outs of Rag1 and perforin 1 (Prf1) and heterozygous for the spontaneous insulin 2 Akita allele. Mice are immunodeficient and spontaneously hyperglycemic. This strain may useful in studies of human islet and beta stem and progenitor cell function.

Description

Strain Information

Type Congenic; Spontaneous Mutation; Targeted Mutation;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Additional information on Congenic nomenclature.
Mating SystemSee Colony Maintenance under the Health & Care tab         (Female x Male)   21-APR-09
Specieslaboratory mouse
H2 Haplotypeg7
GenerationN11+F8 (09-DEC-08)
Generation Definitions

Appearance
albino
Related Genotype: A/A Tyrc/Tyrc

Description
Like NOD.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Prf1tm1Sdz/J (004848), this strain lacks mature T and B cells. NK cells, although present, lack cytotoxic activity. Both sexes develop spontaneous hyperglycemia as early as three weeks of age, however, the phenotype is predominantly exhibited by males. Pancreatic islets have reduced insulin staining and exhibit an altered morphology with age. Human islet transplantation at doses of 4000 IEQ is successful in returning hyperglycemic males to a euglycemic state. This strain may useful in studies of human islet and beta stem and progenitor cell function.

Development
Please see strain entries for 003729, 002407 and 003548 for details regarding the construction of each mutant allele. This strain was produced by crossing the Akita allele from C57BL/6-Ins2Akita/J (003548) to NOD.129S7(B6)-Rag1tm1Mom/J (003729) for ten generations and intercrossed to make Rag1tm1Mom homozygous. The double mutant was then crossed to NOD.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Prf1tm1Sdz/J (004848). Mice were intercrossed and selected to keep Prf1tm1Sdz homozygous and the Akita allele heterozyogous. Dr. Leonard Shultz of The Jackson Laboratory donated this strain to the Repository in 2008.

Control Information

  Control
   None Available
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Related Strains

View Strains carrying   Ins2Akita     (10 strains)

Strains carrying   Prf1tm1Sdz allele
002407   C57BL/6-Prf1tm1Sdz/J
007079   CByJ.B6-Prf1tm1Sdz/J
003505   NOD.B6-Prf1tm1Sdz/J
004848   NOD.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Prf1tm1Sdz/SzJ
View Strains carrying   Prf1tm1Sdz     (4 strains)

View Strains carrying   Rag1tm1Mom     (23 strains)

View Strains carrying other alleles of Ins2     (7 strains)

Strains carrying other alleles of Rag1
007790   B6;129P2-Rag1/Rag2tm1Mnz/J
View Strains carrying other alleles of Rag1     (1 strain)

Phenotype

Phenotype Information

View Related Disease (OMIM) Terms

View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

Ins2Akita/Ins2+ Prf1tm1Sdz/Prf1tm1Sdz Rag1tm1Mom/Rag1tm1Mom

        NOD.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Ins2Akita Prf1tm1Sdz
  • endocrine/exocrine gland phenotype
  • abnormal pancreatic islet morphology
    • islets exhibit progressively altered morphology   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
    • insulin level is lower compared to Ins2-wild-type mice at 50 days of age and continues to diminish with age   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • absent mature B cells
    • lacking in mutant animals   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • absent single-positive T cells
    • mature T cells are absent in mutant animals   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • increased erythrocyte cell number
    • erythrocyte/erythocyte lineages (Ter 119+) are increased as compared to NOD controls   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • increased granulocyte number
    • percentage of granulocytes is elevated compared to NOD/Lt   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • increased macrophage cell number
    • percentage of granulocytes is elevated   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • increased monocyte cell number
    • percentage of granulocytes is elevated   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • immune system phenotype
  • absent mature B cells
    • lacking in mutant animals   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • absent single-positive T cells
    • mature T cells are absent in mutant animals   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • increased granulocyte number
    • percentage of granulocytes is elevated compared to NOD/Lt   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • increased macrophage cell number
    • percentage of granulocytes is elevated   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • increased monocyte cell number
    • percentage of granulocytes is elevated   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • *normal* homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
    • spontaneously hyperglycemic mice are restored to euglycemia after receiving islet transplants at a dose of 4000 islet equivalents (IEQ) and remain euglycemic for the length of observation; at levels of 2000 and 3000 IEQ, mice display a drop in blood sugar, but eventually return to hyperglycemic status   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
    • abnormal glucose homeostasis
      • glucose regulation is impaired as early as 3 weeks of age in nearly all mice   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
      • hyperglycemia
        • male mice show greater susceptibility to develop hyperglycemia than females   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)

Ins2Akita/Ins2Akita Prf1tm1Sdz/Prf1tm1Sdz Rag1tm1Mom/Rag1tm1Mom

        NOD.Cg-Rag1tm1Mom Ins2Akita Prf1tm1Sdz
  • mortality/aging
  • complete postnatal lethality
    • mice die prior to weaning   (MGI Ref ID J:138005)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Diabetes and Obesity Research
Hyperglycemia
      males
Islet Transplantation Studies

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
Autoimmunity
      B and T cell deficiency
Immunodeficiency
      B, T, and NK cell deficiency
      multiple immune defects
Lymphoid Tissue Defects
      B and T cell deficiency

Ins2Akita related

Cell Biology Research
Protein Processing

Diabetes and Obesity Research
Hyperglycemia
Hypoinsulinemia
Impaired Insulin Processing
Insulin Receptors and Growth Factors
Islet Transplantation Studies
Type 1 Diabetes (IDDM)
      MODY, mature onset diabetes of the young

Endocrine Deficiency Research
Pancreas Defects

Prf1tm1Sdz related

Apoptosis Research
Extracellular Modulators

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
Immunodeficiency Associated with Other Defects

Rag1tm1Mom related

Cancer Research
Toxicology
      B and T cell deficiency, xenograft/transplant host

Hematological Research
Immunological Defects
      B and T cell deficiency

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
Immunodeficiency
      B and T cell deficiency
Inflammation
      B and T cell deficiency
T Cell Receptor Signaling Defects
      B and T cell deficiency

Internal/Organ Research
Lymphoid Tissue Defects
      B and T cell deficiency

Research Tools
Cancer Research
      B and T cell deficiency, xenograft/transplant host
Toxicology Research
      xenograft/transplant host

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

 
Allele Symbol Ins2Akita
Allele Name Akita
Allele Type Spontaneous
Common Name(s) Akita; AkitaIns2; Ins2C96Y; Ins2Mody; Mody; Mody4;
Strain of OriginC57BL/6NSlc
Gene Symbol and Name Ins2, insulin II
Chromosome 7
Gene Common Name(s) AA986540; IDDM1; IDDM2; ILPR; IRDN; Ins-2; InsII; MODY10; Mody; Mody4; expressed sequence AA986540; maturity onset diabetes of the young; maturity onset diabetes of the young 4;
General Note Phenotypic Similarity to Human Syndrome: Type 1 Diabetic Macrovascular Disease (J:174983)
Molecular Note In the mutant allele a transition from G to A at nucleotide 1907 disrupted an Fnu4HI site in exon 3. This mutation changed the seventh amino acid in the A chain of mature insulin, Cys96 (TGC), to Tyr (TAC). The authors predict that the transition would disrupt a disulfide bond between the A and the B chains and would likely induce a major conformational change in insulin 2 molecules. RT-PCR studies suggest that both normal and mutant Ins2 alleles are transcribed similarly in pancreatic islets of heterozygous mice, although immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses of heterozygous islets detected reduced levels of insulin and proinsulin. [MGI Ref ID J:51935]
 
Allele Symbol Prf1tm1Sdz
Allele Name targeted mutation 1, Sandoz Pharmaceuticals
Allele Type Targeted (knock-out)
Common Name(s) P0; Pfn-; Pfptm1Sdz; Prf1-; Prf1tm/Sdz; Prf-; perf-; perforin 0; perforin-; pfp-; pfpKO; pko; prf1tm1;
Mutation Made ByDr. Birgit Lederman,   University of Zurich
Strain of OriginC57BL/6J
ES Cell Line NameBL/6-III
ES Cell Line StrainC57BL/6J
Gene Symbol and Name Prf1, perforin 1 (pore forming protein)
Chromosome 10
Gene Common Name(s) Cyta; FLH2; HPLH2; P1; PFN1; PFP; Pfn; Pfp; Prf-1; RATCYTA; perforin; perforin 1; pore forming protein;
General Note Phenotypic Similarity to Human Syndrome: hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in mutants infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitic virus (J:92260)
Molecular Note A neomycin selection cassette was inserted into exon 3. RT-PCR analysis on RNA derived from homozygous mice demonstrated that an abnormal transcript was produced from this allele. However, immunocytochemistry experiments on activated spleen cells derived from homozygous mice confirmed that no detectable protein was made from this allele. [MGI Ref ID J:17986] [MGI Ref ID J:96542]
 
Allele Symbol Rag1tm1Mom
Allele Name targeted mutation 1, Peter Mombaerts
Allele Type Targeted (knock-out)
Common Name(s) RAG-1-; RAG1null; Rag-; Rag-1KO; Rag1-; Rag1tm1Mom;
Mutation Made By Peter Mombaerts,   Max Planck Institute of Biophysics
Strain of Origin129S7/SvEvBrd-Hprt<+>
ES Cell Line NameAB1
ES Cell Line Strain129S7/SvEvBrd-Hprt<+>
Site of Expressionexpression is seen in bone marrow derived cell lines.
Gene Symbol and Name Rag1, recombination activating gene 1
Chromosome 2
Gene Common Name(s) RAG-1; RNF74; Rag-1;
Molecular Note A 1356 bp genomic fragment of the Rag1 gene, encoding the nuclear localization signal and the zinc-finger motif, was replaced by a neomycin cassette. A mutant transcript expressed from this allele was detected by Northern blot in bone marrow derived cell lines from homozygous mice. [MGI Ref ID J:1934] [MGI Ref ID J:96036]

Genotyping

Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

Ins2Akita, End Point Analysis
Prf1tm1Sdz, Melt Curve Analysis
Ins2Akita, Pyrosequencing
Ins2Akita, Restriction Enzyme Digest
Prf1tm1Sdz, Standard PCR
Rag1tm1Mom, High Resolution Melting
Rag1tm1Mom, Standard PCR


Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting

References

References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Pearson T; Shultz LD; Lief J; Burzenski L; Gott B; Chase T; Foreman O; Rossini AA; Bottino R; Trucco M; Greiner DL. 2008. A new immunodeficient hyperglycaemic mouse model based on the Ins2 ( Akita ) mutation for analyses of human islet and beta stem and progenitor cell function. Diabetologia 51(8):1449-56. [PubMed: 18563383]  [MGI Ref ID J:138005]

Additional References

Ins2Akita related

Aghdam SY; Gurel Z; Ghaffarieh A; Sorenson CM; Sheibani N. 2013. High glucose and diabetes modulate cellular proteasome function: Implications in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 432(2):339-44. [PubMed: 23391566]  [MGI Ref ID J:198848]

Akimov NP; Renteria RC. 2012. Spatial frequency threshold and contrast sensitivity of an optomotor behavior are impaired in the Ins2Akita mouse model of diabetes. Behav Brain Res 226(2):601-5. [PubMed: 21963766]  [MGI Ref ID J:180197]

Asakawa A; Toyoshima M; Inoue K; Koizumi A. 2007. Ins2Akita mice exhibit hyperphagia and anxiety behavior via the melanocortin system. Int J Mol Med 19(4):649-52. [PubMed: 17334640]  [MGI Ref ID J:125256]

Awad AS; Kinsey GR; Khutsishvili K; Gao T; Bolton WK; Okusa MD. 2011. Monocyte/macrophage chemokine receptor CCR2 mediates diabetic renal injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 301(6):F1358-66. [PubMed: 21880831]  [MGI Ref ID J:180042]

Barber AJ; Antonetti DA; Kern TS; Reiter CE; Soans RS; Krady JK; Levison SW; Gardner TW; Bronson SK. 2005. The Ins2Akita mouse as a model of early retinal complications in diabetes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46(6):2210-8. [PubMed: 15914643]  [MGI Ref ID J:99412]

Basu R; Lee J; Wang Z; Patel VB; Fan D; Das SK; Liu GC; John R; Scholey JW; Oudit GY; Kassiri Z. 2012. Loss of TIMP3 selectively exacerbates diabetic nephropathy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 303(9):F1341-52. [PubMed: 22896043]  [MGI Ref ID J:189948]

Basu R; Oudit GY; Wang X; Zhang L; Ussher JR; Lopaschuk GD; Kassiri Z. 2009. Type 1 diabetic cardiomyopathy in the Akita (Ins2WT/C96Y) mouse model is characterized by lipotoxicity and diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297(6):H2096-108. [PubMed: 19801494]  [MGI Ref ID J:158228]

Bostrom KI; Jumabay M; Matveyenko A; Nicholas SB; Yao Y. 2011. Activation of vascular bone morphogenetic protein signaling in diabetes mellitus. Circ Res 108(4):446-57. [PubMed: 21193740]  [MGI Ref ID J:183498]

Bugger H; Boudina S; Hu XX; Tuinei J; Zaha VG; Theobald HA; Yun UJ; McQueen AP; Wayment B; Litwin SE; Abel ED. 2008. Type 1 diabetic akita mouse hearts are insulin sensitive but manifest structurally abnormal mitochondria that remain coupled despite increased uncoupling protein 3. Diabetes 57(11):2924-32. [PubMed: 18678617]  [MGI Ref ID J:142159]

Bugger H; Chen D; Riehle C; Soto J; Theobald HA; Hu XX; Ganesan B; Weimer BC; Abel ED. 2009. Tissue-specific remodeling of the mitochondrial proteome in type 1 diabetic akita mice. Diabetes 58(9):1986-97. [PubMed: 19542201]  [MGI Ref ID J:154406]

Chacko BK; Reily C; Srivastava A; Johnson MS; Ye Y; Ulasova E; Agarwal A; Zinn KR; Murphy MP; Kalyanaraman B; Darley-Usmar V. 2010. Prevention of diabetic nephropathy in Ins2(+/)(AkitaJ) mice by the mitochondria-targeted therapy MitoQ. Biochem J 432(1):9-19. [PubMed: 20825366]  [MGI Ref ID J:166866]

Chang AS; Dale AN; Moley KH. 2005. Maternal diabetes adversely affects preovulatory oocyte maturation, development, and granulosa cell apoptosis. Endocrinology 146(5):2445-53. [PubMed: 15718275]  [MGI Ref ID J:129826]

Chang JH; Paik SY; Mao L; Eisner W; Flannery PJ; Wang L; Tang Y; Mattocks N; Hadjadj S; Goujon JM; Ruiz P; Gurley SB; Spurney RF. 2012. Diabetic kidney disease in FVB/NJ Akita mice: temporal pattern of kidney injury and urinary nephrin excretion. PLoS One 7(4):e33942. [PubMed: 22496773]  [MGI Ref ID J:187110]

Chavali V; Tyagi SC; Mishra PK. 2012. MicroRNA-133a regulates DNA methylation in diabetic cardiomyocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 425(3):668-72. [PubMed: 22842467]  [MGI Ref ID J:188036]

Cheng L; Han X; Shi Y. 2009. A regulatory role of LPCAT1 in the synthesis of inflammatory lipids, PAF and LPC, in the retina of diabetic mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297(6):E1276-82. [PubMed: 19773578]  [MGI Ref ID J:159566]

Choeiri C; Hewitt K; Durkin J; Simard CJ; Renaud JM; Messier C. 2005. Longitudinal evaluation of memory performance and peripheral neuropathy in the Ins2(C96Y) Akita mice. Behav Brain Res 157(1):31-8. [PubMed: 15617768]  [MGI Ref ID J:95284]

Dennis MD; Schrufer TL; Bronson SK; Kimball SR; Jefferson LS. 2011. Hyperglycemia-Induced O-GlcNAcylation and Truncation of 4E-BP1 Protein in Liver of a Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes. J Biol Chem 286(39):34286-97. [PubMed: 21840999]  [MGI Ref ID J:176719]

Drapeau N; Lizotte F; Denhez B; Guay A; Kennedy CR; Geraldes P. 2013. Expression of SHP-1 induced by hyperglycemia prevents insulin actions in podocytes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 304(11):E1188-98. [PubMed: 23531619]  [MGI Ref ID J:198982]

Dugan LL; You YH; Ali SS; Diamond-Stanic M; Miyamoto S; DeCleves AE; Andreyev A; Quach T; Ly S; Shekhtman G; Nguyen W; Chepetan A; Le TP; Wang L; Xu M; Paik KP; Fogo A; Viollet B; Murphy A; Brosius F; Naviaux RK; Sharma K. 2013. AMPK dysregulation promotes diabetes-related reduction of superoxide and mitochondrial function. J Clin Invest 123(11):4888-99. [PubMed: 24135141]  [MGI Ref ID J:204683]

Fang RC; Kryger ZB; Buck Ii DW; De La Garza M; Galiano RD; Mustoe TA. 2010. Limitations of the db/db mouse in translational wound healing research: Is the NONcNZO10 polygenic mouse model superior? Wound Repair Regen :. [PubMed: 20955341]  [MGI Ref ID J:165705]

Faulhaber-Walter R; Chen L; Oppermann M; Kim SM; Huang Y; Hiramatsu N; Mizel D; Kajiyama H; Zerfas P; Briggs JP; Kopp JB; Schnermann J. 2008. Lack of A1 adenosine receptors augments diabetic hyperfiltration and glomerular injury. J Am Soc Nephrol 19(4):722-30. [PubMed: 18256360]  [MGI Ref ID J:149926]

Fox R; Kim HS; Reddick RL; Kujoth GC; Prolla TA; Tsutsumi S; Wada Y; Smithies O; Maeda N. 2011. Mitochondrial DNA polymerase editing mutation, PolgD257A, reduces the diabetic phenotype of Akita male mice by suppressing appetite. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(21):8779-84. [PubMed: 21555558]  [MGI Ref ID J:171899]

Fox TE; Bewley MC; Unrath KA; Pedersen MM; Anderson RE; Jung DY; Jefferson LS; Kim JK; Bronson SK; Flanagan JM; Kester M. 2011. Circulating sphingolipid biomarkers in models of type 1 diabetes. J Lipid Res 52(3):509-17. [PubMed: 21068007]  [MGI Ref ID J:170277]

Gambhir D; Ananth S; Veeranan-Karmegam R; Elangovan S; Hester S; Jennings E; Offermanns S; Nussbaum JJ; Smith SB; Thangaraju M; Ganapathy V; Martin PM. 2012. GPR109A as an anti-inflammatory receptor in retinal pigment epithelial cells and its relevance to diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53(4):2208-17. [PubMed: 22427566]  [MGI Ref ID J:196849]

Gastinger MJ; Kunselman AR; Conboy EE; Bronson SK; Barber AJ. 2008. Dendrite remodeling and other abnormalities in the retinal ganglion cells of Ins2 Akita diabetic mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49(6):2635-42. [PubMed: 18515593]  [MGI Ref ID J:137045]

Gastinger MJ; Singh RS; Barber AJ. 2006. Loss of cholinergic and dopaminergic amacrine cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rat and Ins2Akita-diabetic mouse retinas. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 47(7):3143-50. [PubMed: 16799061]  [MGI Ref ID J:112243]

Grasemann C; Devlin MJ; Rzeczkowska PA; Herrmann R; Horsthemke B; Hauffa BP; Grynpas M; Alm C; Bouxsein ML; Palmert MR. 2012. Parental diabetes: the Akita mouse as a model of the effects of maternal and paternal hyperglycemia in wildtype offspring. PLoS One 7(11):e50210. [PubMed: 23209676]  [MGI Ref ID J:195000]

Grutzmacher C; Park S; Zhao Y; Morrison ME; Sheibani N; Sorenson CM. 2013. Aberrant production of extracellular matrix proteins and dysfunction in kidney endothelial cells with a short duration of diabetes. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 304(1):F19-30. [PubMed: 23077100]  [MGI Ref ID J:191244]

Gupta S; McGrath B; Cavener DR. 2010. PERK (EIF2AK3) regulates proinsulin trafficking and quality control in the secretory pathway. Diabetes 59(8):1937-47. [PubMed: 20530744]  [MGI Ref ID J:169638]

Gurel Z; Sieg KM; Shallow KD; Sorenson CM; Sheibani N. 2013. Retinal O-linked N-acetylglucosamine protein modifications: implications for postnatal retinal vascularization and the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Mol Vis 19:1047-59. [PubMed: 23734074]  [MGI Ref ID J:203213]

Gurley SB; Clare SE; Snow KP; Hu A; Meyer TW; Coffman TM. 2006. Impact of genetic background on nephropathy in diabetic mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290(1):F214-22. [PubMed: 16118394]  [MGI Ref ID J:104083]

Gurley SB; Mach CL; Stegbauer J; Yang J; Snow KP; Hu A; Meyer TW; Coffman TM. 2010. Influence of genetic background on albuminuria and kidney injury in Ins2(+/C96Y) (Akita) mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 298(3):F788-95. [PubMed: 20042456]  [MGI Ref ID J:157873]

Gyurko R; Siqueira CC; Caldon N; Gao L; Kantarci A; Van Dyke TE. 2006. Chronic hyperglycemia predisposes to exaggerated inflammatory response and leukocyte dysfunction in Akita mice. J Immunol 177(10):7250-6. [PubMed: 17082643]  [MGI Ref ID J:140617]

Ha Y; Dun Y; Thangaraju M; Duplantier J; Dong Z; Liu K; Ganapathy V; Smith SB. 2011. Sigma receptor 1 modulates endoplasmic reticulum stress in retinal neurons. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(1):527-40. [PubMed: 20811050]  [MGI Ref ID J:171562]

Haseyama T; Fujita T; Hirasawa F; Tsukada M; Wakui H; Komatsuda A; Ohtani H; Miura AB; Imai H; Koizumi A. 2002. Complications of IgA nephropathy in a non-insulin-dependent diabetes model, the Akita mouse. Tohoku J Exp Med 198(4):233-44. [PubMed: 12630555]  [MGI Ref ID J:107880]

Hirosawa M; Minata M; Harada KH; Hitomi T; Krust A; Koizumi A. 2008. Ablation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) prevents upregulation of POMC by leptin and insulin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 371(2):320-3. [PubMed: 18439911]  [MGI Ref ID J:136249]

Hodish I; Absood A; Liu L; Liu M; Haataja L; Larkin D; Al-Khafaji A; Zaki A; Arvan P. 2011. In vivo misfolding of proinsulin below the threshold of frank diabetes. Diabetes 60(8):2092-101. [PubMed: 21677281]  [MGI Ref ID J:186814]

Hong EG; Jung DY; Ko HJ; Zhang Z; Ma Z; Jun JY; Kim JH; Sumner AD; Vary TC; Gardner TW; Bronson SK; Kim JK. 2007. Nonobese, insulin-deficient Ins2Akita mice develop type 2 diabetes phenotypes including insulin resistance and cardiac remodeling. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293(6):E1687-96. [PubMed: 17911348]  [MGI Ref ID J:130021]

Howard AC; McNeil AK; Xiong F; Xiong WC; McNeil PL. 2011. A novel cellular defect in diabetes: membrane repair failure. Diabetes 60(11):3034-43. [PubMed: 21940783]  [MGI Ref ID J:189473]

Howell SJ; Mekhail MN; Azem R; Ward NL; Kern TS. 2013. Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells in diabetic dogs and mice: relationship to glycemic control and retinal capillary degeneration. Mol Vis 19:1413-21. [PubMed: 23825921]  [MGI Ref ID J:200768]

Hu Y; Chen Y; Ding L; He X; Takahashi Y; Gao Y; Shen W; Cheng R; Chen Q; Qi X; Boulton ME; Ma JX. 2013. Pathogenic role of diabetes-induced PPAR-alpha down-regulation in microvascular dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(38):15401-6. [PubMed: 24003152]  [MGI Ref ID J:201158]

Huang H; Gandhi JK; Zhong X; Wei Y; Gong J; Duh EJ; Vinores SA. 2011. TNFalpha is required for late BRB breakdown in diabetic retinopathy, and its inhibition prevents leukostasis and protects vessels and neurons from apoptosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(3):1336-44. [PubMed: 21212173]  [MGI Ref ID J:171543]

Iwakura H; Akamizu T; Ariyasu H; Irako T; Hosoda K; Nakao K; Kangawa K. 2007. Effects of ghrelin administration on decreased growth hormone status in obese animals. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293(3):E819-25. [PubMed: 17595213]  [MGI Ref ID J:125421]

Izumi T; Yokota-Hashimoto H; Zhao S; Wang J; Halban PA; Takeuchi T. 2003. Dominant negative pathogenesis by mutant proinsulin in the Akita diabetic mouse. Diabetes 52(2):409-16. [PubMed: 12540615]  [MGI Ref ID J:107156]

Jaholkowski P; Mierzejewski P; Zatorski P; Scinska A; Sienkiewicz-Jarosz H; Kaczmarek L; Samochowiec J; Filipkowski RK; Bienkowski P. 2011. Increased ethanol intake and preference in cyclin D2 knockout mice. Genes Brain Behav 10(5):551-6. [PubMed: 21429093]  [MGI Ref ID J:185702]

Johnson LA; Kim HS; Knudson MJ; Nipp CT; Yi X; Maeda N. 2013. Diabetic atherosclerosis in APOE*4 mice: synergy between lipoprotein metabolism and vascular inflammation. J Lipid Res 54(2):386-96. [PubMed: 23204275]  [MGI Ref ID J:193106]

Jun JY; Ma Z; Segar L. 2011. Spontaneously diabetic Ins2(+/Akita):apoE-deficient mice exhibit exaggerated hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 301(1):E145-54. [PubMed: 21447785]  [MGI Ref ID J:182074]

Kakoki M; Kizer CM; Yi X; Takahashi N; Kim HS; Bagnell CR; Edgell CJ; Maeda N; Jennette JC; Smithies O. 2006. Senescence-associated phenotypes in Akita diabetic mice are enhanced by absence of bradykinin B2 receptors. J Clin Invest 116(5):1302-9. [PubMed: 16604193]  [MGI Ref ID J:108948]

Kakoki M; Sullivan KA; Backus C; Hayes JM; Oh SS; Hua K; Gasim AM; Tomita H; Grant R; Nossov SB; Kim HS; Jennette JC; Feldman EL; Smithies O. 2010. Lack of both bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors enhances nephropathy, neuropathy, and bone mineral loss in Akita diabetic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(22):10190-5. [PubMed: 20479236]  [MGI Ref ID J:161075]

Kakoki M; Takahashi N; Jennette JC; Smithies O. 2004. Diabetic nephropathy is markedly enhanced in mice lacking the bradykinin B2 receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(36):13302-5. [PubMed: 15326315]  [MGI Ref ID J:92403]

Kayo T; Koizumi A. 1998. Mapping of murine diabetogenic gene mody on chromosome 7 at D7Mit258 and its involvement in pancreatic islet and beta cell development during the perinatal period. J Clin Invest 101(10):2112-8. [PubMed: 9593767]  [MGI Ref ID J:47883]

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Barjaktarevic I; Rahman A; Radoja S; Bogunovic B; Vollmer A; Vukmanovic S; Maric M. 2006. Inhibitory role of IFN-gamma-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase in T cell activation. J Immunol 177(7):4369-75. [PubMed: 16982871]  [MGI Ref ID J:139329]

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Bassetti MF; White J; Kappler JW; Marrack P. 2009. Transgenic Bcl-3 slows T cell proliferation. Int Immunol 21(4):339-48. [PubMed: 19208752]  [MGI Ref ID J:147105]

Beal AM; Ramos-Hernandez N; Riling CR; Nowelsky EA; Oliver PM. 2011. TGF-beta induces the expression of the adaptor Ndfip1 to silence IL-4 production during iT(reg) cell differentiation. Nat Immunol 13(1):77-85. [PubMed: 22080920]  [MGI Ref ID J:179003]

Beamer CA; Migliaccio CT; Jessop F; Trapkus M; Yuan D; Holian A. 2010. Innate immune processes are sufficient for driving silicosis in mice. J Leukoc Biol 88(3):547-57. [PubMed: 20576854]  [MGI Ref ID J:164920]

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Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Room Number           AX11

Colony Maintenance

Breeding & HusbandryThe donating investigator maintains this strain by crossing Rag1tm1Mom/Rag1tm1Mom Ins2Akita/+ Prf1tm1Sdz/Prf1tm1Sdz males to Rag1tm1Mom/Rag1tm1Mom Prf1tm1Sdz/Prf1tm1Sdz females. Homozygous Ins2Akita mice do not survive.
Mating SystemSee Colony Maintenance under the Health & Care tab         (Female x Male)   21-APR-09
Diet Information LabDiet® 5K52/5K67

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls


Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $195.00Female or MaleHomozygous for Rag1tm1Mom, Heterozygous for Ins2Akita, Homozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$320.00Homozygous for Rag1tm1Mom, Heterozygous for Ins2Akita, Homozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz x Homozygous for Rag1tm1Mom, Wild-type for Ins2Akita, Homozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
$320.00Homozygous for Rag1tm1Mom, Wild-type for Ins2Akita, Homozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz x Homozygous for Rag1tm1Mom, Heterozygous for Ins2Akita, Homozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1500 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for both large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current demand for each strain. If a Repository strain is not immediately available, then within 2 to 3 business days, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order along with various delivery options. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age and will not exceed 12 weeks of age on the day of shipping. We will note and try to accommodate requests for specific ages of Repository strains but cannot guarantee provision of these strains at specific ages. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, please let us know.

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $253.50Female or MaleHomozygous for Rag1tm1Mom, Heterozygous for Ins2Akita, Homozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$416.00Homozygous for Rag1tm1Mom, Heterozygous for Ins2Akita, Homozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz x Homozygous for Rag1tm1Mom, Wild-type for Ins2Akita, Homozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  
$416.00Homozygous for Rag1tm1Mom, Wild-type for Ins2Akita, Homozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz x Homozygous for Rag1tm1Mom, Heterozygous for Ins2Akita, Homozygous for Prf1tm1Sdz  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1500 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for both large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current demand for each strain. If a Repository strain is not immediately available, then within 2 to 3 business days, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order along with various delivery options. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age and will not exceed 12 weeks of age on the day of shipping. We will note and try to accommodate requests for specific ages of Repository strains but cannot guarantee provision of these strains at specific ages. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, please let us know.

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1500 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for both large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current demand for each strain. If a Repository strain is not immediately available, then within 2 to 3 business days, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order along with various delivery options. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age and will not exceed 12 weeks of age on the day of shipping. We will note and try to accommodate requests for specific ages of Repository strains but cannot guarantee provision of these strains at specific ages. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, please let us know.

Control Information

  Control
   None Available
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.
 

Payment Terms and Conditions

Terms are granted by individual review and stated on the customer invoice(s) and account statement. These transactions are payable in U.S. currency within the granted terms. Payment for services, products, shipping containers, and shipping costs that are rendered are expected within the payment terms indicated on the invoice or stated by contract. Invoices and account balances in arrears of stated terms may result in The Jackson Laboratory pursuing collection activities including but not limited to outside agencies and court filings.


See Terms of Use tab for General Terms and Conditions


The Jackson Laboratory's Genotype Promise

The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
Ordering Information
JAX® Mice
Surgical and Preconditioning Services
JAX® Services
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Tel: 1-800-422-6423 or 1-207-288-5845
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Terms of Use

Terms of Use


General Terms and Conditions


For Licensing and Use Restrictions view the link(s) below:
- Use of MICE by companies or for-profit entities requires a license prior to shipping.

Contact information

General inquiries regarding Terms of Use

Contracts Administration

phone:207-288-6470

JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use

"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCTS" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or services provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than the internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE or PRODUCTS from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON's prior written authorization.

No Warranty

MICE, PRODUCTS AND SERVICES ARE PROVIDED “AS IS”. JACKSON EXTENDS NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, WITH RESPECT TO MICE, PRODUCTS OR SERVICES, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR ANY WARRANTY OF NON-INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.

In case of dissatisfaction for a valid reason and claimed in writing by a purchaser within ninety (90) days of receipt of mice, products or services, JACKSON will, at its option, provide credit or replacement for the mice or product received or the services provided.

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In no event shall JACKSON, its trustees, directors, officers, employees, and affiliates be liable for any causes of action or damages, including any direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages, arising out of the provision of MICE, PRODUCTS or services, including economic damage or injury to property and lost profits, and including any damage arising from acts or negligence on the part of JACKSON, its agents or employees. Unless prohibited by law, in purchasing or receiving MICE, PRODUCTS or services from JACKSON, purchaser or recipient, or any party claiming by or through them, expressly releases and discharges JACKSON from all such causes of action or damages, and further agrees to defend and indemnify JACKSON from any costs or damages arising out of any third party claims.

MICE and PRODUCTS are to be used in a safe manner and in accordance with all applicable governmental rules and regulations.

The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or services. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS or services may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and services by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.

Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or services shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or services by JACKSON.


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