Strain Name:

FVB.B-WldS/UmonJ

Stock Number:

008820

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Availability:

Cryopreserved - Ready for recovery

This Wlds spontaneous mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of peripheral nerve regeneration and neurodegenerative disorders.

Description

The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Strain Information

Type Congenic; Mutant Stock; Mutant Strain; Spontaneous Mutation;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Additional information on Congenic nomenclature.
Specieslaboratory mouse
GenerationN10+N5pN1
Generation Definitions
 
Donating Investigator Umrao R Monani,   Columbia University Medical Center

Description
The Wallerian degeneration slow spontaneous mutation, Wlds arose on the C57BL/Ola background. On the congenic FVB/N background, mice that are homozygous for this mutation exhibit delayed Wallerian degeneration compared to wildtype controls. Wallerian degeneration is the process of degeneration, after transection, of axons distal to the sever site of a peripheral nerve, and includes infiltration of macrophages, demyelination and initiation of Schwann cell mitosis. The Wlds mutation is widely expressed and is detected in neural tissue.

Development
The Wallerian degeneration slow spontaneous mutation, Wlds arose on the C57BL/Ola background. The Donating Investigator backcrossed the mice to FVB/N for 9 generations and notes that there are incidental mutant loci. Upon arrival at The Jackson Laboratory the mice were crossed with FVB/NJ at least once to establish the colony and the resulting offspring carrying only the Wlds allele were selectively bred to establish this strain.

Control Information

  Control
   Wild-type from the colony
   001800 FVB/NJ
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Phenotype

Phenotype Information

View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

The following phenotype information is associated with a similar, but not exact match to this JAX® Mice strain.

Wlds/Wlds

        C57BL/6Ola-Wlds
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal peripheral nervous system regeneration
    • the rate of regeneration and recovery of motor function in the soleus muscle after a crush of the sciatic nerve is similar in mutant mice and controls, with a slight delay in recovery of normal conduction velocity in mutant mice   (MGI Ref ID J:19951)
    • the rate of regeneration and recovery of function after sciatic nerve crush is delayed and incomplete compared to C57BL/6J mice, as determined by sciatic functional index (SFI) using measurments of walking ability and by measurments of axonal transport   (MGI Ref ID J:12834)
    • the rate of regeneration and recovery of function after facial nerve crush is delayed compared to C57BL/6J mice, as observed by vibrissae movement   (MGI Ref ID J:12834)
  • retinal ganglion cell degeneration
    • while retinal ganglion cells undergo retrograde degeneration in response to optic nerve injury, they do so at a much slower rate than in other strains   (MGI Ref ID J:19950)
  • slow Wallerian degeneration   (MGI Ref ID J:15229)
    • 5 days after severing the sciatic nerve, mice show slow Wallerian degeneration evidenced by an intact cytoskeleton and plasma membrane, while control mice show a destruction of cytoarchitecture in the distal portion of the severed nerve   (MGI Ref ID J:19951)
    • in addition, the distal portions of mutant severed nerves show an ability to conduct action potentials up to 14 days post section, while control nerves stop conducting 2 days after the nerve is cut   (MGI Ref ID J:19951)
    • invasion by polymorphs and macrophages of the distal portion of the severed nerve is not observed in mutant mice, resulting in an absence of myelin breakdown; controls show an increase in myeloperoxidase positive cells and Schwann cell proliferation within 3 days of section   (MGI Ref ID J:19951)
    • 1 year old C57BL/Ola mice showed faster Wallerian degeneration than 4 week old mice, with compund action potentials recorded in a distal nerve stump 5 days after section in 4 week old mutant mice, but not 1 year old mutant mice   (MGI Ref ID J:3359)
    • following optic nerve transection, the axons of retinal ganglion cells undergo very slow Wallerian degeneration   (MGI Ref ID J:19950)
  • vision/eye phenotype
  • retinal ganglion cell degeneration
    • while retinal ganglion cells undergo retrograde degeneration in response to optic nerve injury, they do so at a much slower rate than in other strains   (MGI Ref ID J:19950)
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • slow Wallerian degeneration   (MGI Ref ID J:15229)
    • 5 days after severing the sciatic nerve, mice show slow Wallerian degeneration evidenced by an intact cytoskeleton and plasma membrane, while control mice show a destruction of cytoarchitecture in the distal portion of the severed nerve   (MGI Ref ID J:19951)
    • in addition, the distal portions of mutant severed nerves show an ability to conduct action potentials up to 14 days post section, while control nerves stop conducting 2 days after the nerve is cut   (MGI Ref ID J:19951)
    • invasion by polymorphs and macrophages of the distal portion of the severed nerve is not observed in mutant mice, resulting in an absence of myelin breakdown; controls show an increase in myeloperoxidase positive cells and Schwann cell proliferation within 3 days of section   (MGI Ref ID J:19951)
    • 1 year old C57BL/Ola mice showed faster Wallerian degeneration than 4 week old mice, with compund action potentials recorded in a distal nerve stump 5 days after section in 4 week old mutant mice, but not 1 year old mutant mice   (MGI Ref ID J:3359)
    • following optic nerve transection, the axons of retinal ganglion cells undergo very slow Wallerian degeneration   (MGI Ref ID J:19950)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Neurobiology Research
Myelination Defects
      peripheral neuropathy
Neurodegeneration
Parkinson's Disease
      resistance to MPTP

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

 
Allele Symbol Wlds
Allele Name Wallerian degeneration slow
Allele Type Spontaneous
Common Name(s) Wlds;
Mutation Made By Umrao Monani,   Columbia University Medical Center
Strain of OriginC57BL/6Ola
Gene Symbol and Name Wld, wallerian degeneration
Chromosome 4
Gene Common Name(s) Wlds;
Molecular Note The underlying mutation is an 85-kb tandem triplication on chromosome 4. This triplication results in the expression of an abnormal transcript that encodes a fusion of the N-terminal fragment of ubiquitination factor E4B (Ube4b) fused to nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (Nmnat1). [MGI Ref ID J:49401] [MGI Ref ID J:65178] [MGI Ref ID J:72936] [MGI Ref ID J:75678]

Genotyping

Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

Wlds, Standard PCR


Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting

References

References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Kariya S; Mauricio R; Dai Y; Monani UR. 2009. The neuroprotective factor Wld(s) fails to mitigate distal axonal and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) defects in mouse models of spinal muscular atrophy. Neurosci Lett 449(3):246-51. [PubMed: 19010394]  [MGI Ref ID J:146336]

Lyon MF; Ogunkolade BW; Brown MC; Atherton DJ; Perry VH. 1993. A gene affecting Wallerian nerve degeneration maps distally on mouse chromosome 4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(20):9717-20. [PubMed: 8415768]  [MGI Ref ID J:15229]

Additional References

Wlds related

Babetto E; Beirowski B; Janeckova L; Brown R; Gilley J; Thomson D; Ribchester RR; Coleman MP. 2010. Targeting NMNAT1 to axons and synapses transforms its neuroprotective potency in vivo. J Neurosci 30(40):13291-304. [PubMed: 20926655]  [MGI Ref ID J:165098]

Barrientos SA; Martinez NW; Yoo S; Jara JS; Zamorano S; Hetz C; Twiss JL; Alvarez J; Court FA. 2011. Axonal degeneration is mediated by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. J Neurosci 31(3):966-78. [PubMed: 21248121]  [MGI Ref ID J:180833]

Beirowski B; Adalbert R; Wagner D; Grumme DS; Addicks K; Ribchester RR; Coleman MP. 2005. The progressive nature of Wallerian degeneration in wild-type and slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) nerves. BMC Neurosci 6(1):6. [PubMed: 15686598]  [MGI Ref ID J:96660]

Benavides E; Alvarez J. 1998. Peripheral axons of Wlds mice, which regenerate after a delay of several weeks, do so readily when transcription is inhibited in the distal stump. Neurosci Lett 258(2):77-80. [PubMed: 9875531]  [MGI Ref ID J:107953]

Bisby MA; Chen S. 1990. Delayed wallerian degeneration in sciatic nerves of C57BL/Ola mice is associated with impaired regeneration of sensory axons. Brain Res 530(1):117-20. [PubMed: 2271939]  [MGI Ref ID J:20054]

Bisby MA; Tetzlaff W; Brown MC. 1995. Cell body response to injury in motoneurons and primary sensory neurons of a mutant mouse, Ola (Wld), in which Wallerian degeneration is delayed. J Comp Neurol 359(4):653-62. [PubMed: 7499554]  [MGI Ref ID J:28427]

Bridge KE; Berg N; Adalbert R; Babetto E; Dias T; Spillantini MG; Ribchester RR; Coleman MP. 2009. Late onset distal axonal swelling in YFP-H transgenic mice. Neurobiol Aging 30(2):309-21. [PubMed: 17658198]  [MGI Ref ID J:145817]

Brown MC; Lunn ER; Perry VH. 1992. Consequences of slow Wallerian degeneration for regenerating motor and sensory axons. J Neurobiol 23(5):521-36. [PubMed: 1431835]  [MGI Ref ID J:19952]

Brown MC; Perry VH; Hunt SP; Lapper SR. 1994. Further studies on motor and sensory nerve regeneration in mice with delayed Wallerian degeneration. Eur J Neurosci 6(3):420-8. [PubMed: 8019679]  [MGI Ref ID J:19071]

Bruck W; Bruck Y; Maruschak B; Friede RL. 1995. Mechanisms of macrophage recruitment in Wallerian degeneration. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 89(4):363-7. [PubMed: 7610768]  [MGI Ref ID J:24901]

Buckmaster EA; Perry VH; Brown MC. 1995. The rate of Wallerian degeneration in cultured neurons from wild type and C57BL/WldS mice depends on time in culture and may be extended in the presence of elevated K+ levels. Eur J Neurosci 7(7):1596-602. [PubMed: 7551186]  [MGI Ref ID J:28663]

Carroll SL; Frohnert PW. 1998. Expression of JE (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) is induced by sciatic axotomy in wild type rodents but not in C57BL/Wld(s) mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 57(10):915-30. [PubMed: 9786242]  [MGI Ref ID J:51583]

Chen S; Bisby MA. 1993. Impaired motor axon regeneration in the C57BL/Ola mouse. J Comp Neurol 333(3):449-54. [PubMed: 8349851]  [MGI Ref ID J:12834]

Chen S; Bisby MA. 1993. Long-term consequences of impaired regeneration on facial motoneurons in the C57BL/Ola mouse. J Comp Neurol 335(4):576-85. [PubMed: 8227536]  [MGI Ref ID J:14468]

Cheng HC; Burke RE. 2010. The Wld(S) mutation delays anterograde, but not retrograde, axonal degeneration of the dopaminergic nigro-striatal pathway in vivo. J Neurochem 113(3):683-91. [PubMed: 20132467]  [MGI Ref ID J:159922]

Chitnis T; Imitola J; Wang Y; Elyaman W; Chawla P; Sharuk M; Raddassi K; Bronson RT; Khoury SJ. 2007. Elevated Neuronal Expression of CD200 Protects Wlds Mice from Inflammation-Mediated Neurodegeneration. Am J Pathol 170(5):1695-1712. [PubMed: 17456775]  [MGI Ref ID J:121079]

Colak D; Ji SJ; Porse BT; Jaffrey SR. 2013. Regulation of axon guidance by compartmentalized nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Cell 153(6):1252-65. [PubMed: 23746841]  [MGI Ref ID J:198412]

Coleman MP; Conforti L; Buckmaster EA; Tarlton A; Ewing RM; Brown MC ; Lyon MF ; Perry VH. 1998. An 85-kb tandem triplication in the slow Wallerian degeneration (Wlds) mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(17):9985-90. [PubMed: 9707587]  [MGI Ref ID J:49401]

Conforti L; Fang G; Beirowski B; Wang MS; Sorci L; Asress S; Adalbert R; Silva A; Bridge K; Huang XP; Magni G; Glass JD; Coleman MP. 2007. NAD(+) and axon degeneration revisited: Nmnat1 cannot substitute for Wld(S) to delay Wallerian degeneration. Cell Death Differ 14(1):116-27. [PubMed: 16645633]  [MGI Ref ID J:132236]

Conforti L; Tarlton A; Mack TG; Mi W; Buckmaster EA; Wagner D; Perry VH; Coleman MP. 2000. A Ufd2/D4Cole1e chimeric protein and overexpression of rbp7 in the slow wallerian degeneration (WldS) mouse Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(21):11377-82. [PubMed: 11027338]  [MGI Ref ID J:65178]

Conforti L; Wilbrey A; Morreale G; Janeckova L; Beirowski B; Adalbert R; Mazzola F; Di Stefano M; Hartley R; Babetto E; Smith T; Gilley J; Billington RA; Genazzani AA; Ribchester RR; Magni G; Coleman M. 2009. Wld S protein requires Nmnat activity and a short N-terminal sequence to protect axons in mice. J Cell Biol 184(4):491-500. [PubMed: 19237596]  [MGI Ref ID J:163222]

Crawford TO; Hsieh ST; Schryer BL; Glass JD. 1995. Prolonged axonal survival in transected nerves of C57BL/Ola mice is independent of age. J Neurocytol 24(5):333-40. [PubMed: 7650538]  [MGI Ref ID J:29607]

Deckwerth TL; Johnson EM Jr. 1994. Neurites can remain viable after destruction of the neuronal soma by programmed cell death (apoptosis). Dev Biol 165(1):63-72. [PubMed: 8088451]  [MGI Ref ID J:20324]

Edgar JM; McLaughlin M; Werner HB; McCulloch MC; Barrie JA; Brown A; Faichney AB; Snaidero N; Nave KA; Griffiths IR. 2009. Early ultrastructural defects of axons and axon-glia junctions in mice lacking expression of Cnp1. Glia 57(16):1815-24. [PubMed: 19459211]  [MGI Ref ID J:156196]

Edgar JM; McLaughlin M; Yool D; Zhang SC; Fowler JH; Montague P; Barrie JA; McCulloch MC; Duncan ID; Garbern J; Nave KA; Griffiths IR. 2004. Oligodendroglial modulation of fast axonal transport in a mouse model of hereditary spastic paraplegia. J Cell Biol 166(1):121-31. [PubMed: 15226307]  [MGI Ref ID J:146664]

Fang C; Bernardes-Silva M; Coleman MP; Perry VH. 2005. The cellular distribution of the Wld s chimeric protein and its constituent proteins in the CNS. Neuroscience 135(4):1107-18. [PubMed: 16154290]  [MGI Ref ID J:104537]

Fernando FS; Conforti L; Tosi S; Smith AD; Coleman MP. 2002. Human homologue of a gene mutated in the slow Wallerian degeneration (C57BL/Wld(s)) mouse. Gene 284(1-2):23-9. [PubMed: 11891043]  [MGI Ref ID J:75678]

Ferri A; Sanes JR; Coleman MP; Cunningham JM; Kato AC. 2003. Inhibiting axon degeneration and synapse loss attenuates apoptosis and disease progression in a mouse model of motoneuron disease. Curr Biol 13(8):669-73. [PubMed: 12699624]  [MGI Ref ID J:82989]

Fischer LR; Culver DG; Davis AA; Tennant P; Wang M; Coleman M; Asress S; Adalbert R; Alexander GM; Glass JD. 2005. The WldS gene modestly prolongs survival in the SOD1G93A fALS mouse. Neurobiol Dis 19(1-2):293-300. [PubMed: 15837585]  [MGI Ref ID J:105092]

Fox GB; Faden AI. 1998. Traumatic brain injury causes delayed motor and cognitive impairment in a mutant mouse strain known to exhibit delayed Wallerian degeneration. J Neurosci Res 53(6):718-27. [PubMed: 9753199]  [MGI Ref ID J:49970]

Fruttiger M; Schachner M; Martini R. 1995. Tenascin-C expression during wallerian degeneration in C57BL/Wlds mice: possible implications for axonal regeneration. J Neurocytol 24(1):1-14. [PubMed: 7539482]  [MGI Ref ID J:23234]

Fujiki M; Zhang Z; Guth L; Steward O. 1996. Genetic influences on cellular reactions to spinal cord injury: activation of macrophages/microglia and astrocytes is delayed in mice carrying a mutation (WldS) that causes delayed Wallerian degeneration. J Comp Neurol 371(3):469-84. [PubMed: 8842900]  [MGI Ref ID J:34447]

Gallardo G; Schluter OM; Sudhof TC. 2008. A molecular pathway of neurodegeneration linking alpha-synuclein to ApoE and Abeta peptides. Nat Neurosci 11(3):301-8. [PubMed: 18297066]  [MGI Ref ID J:131733]

Gilley J; Adalbert R; Yu G; Coleman MP. 2013. Rescue of Peripheral and CNS Axon Defects in Mice Lacking NMNAT2. J Neurosci 33(33):13410-24. [PubMed: 23946398]  [MGI Ref ID J:200901]

Gillingwater TH; Ingham CA; Coleman MP; Ribchester RR. 2003. Ultrastructural correlates of synapse withdrawal at axotomized neuromuscular junctions in mutant and transgenic mice expressing the Wld gene. J Anat 203(3):265-76. [PubMed: 14529044]  [MGI Ref ID J:85517]

Gillingwater TH; Thomson D; Mack TG; Soffin EM; Mattison RJ; Coleman MP; Ribchester RR. 2002. Age-dependent synapse withdrawal at axotomised neuromuscular junctions in Wld(s) mutant and Ube4b/Nmnat transgenic mice. J Physiol 543(Pt 3):739-55. [PubMed: 12231635]  [MGI Ref ID J:134176]

Gillingwater TH; Wishart TM; Chen PE; Haley JE; Robertson K; MacDonald SH; Middleton S; Wawrowski K; Shipston MJ; Melmed S; Wyllie DJ; Skehel PA; Coleman MP; Ribchester RR. 2006. The neuroprotective WldS gene regulates expression of PTTG1 and erythroid differentiation regulator 1-like gene in mice and human cells. Hum Mol Genet 15(4):625-35. [PubMed: 16403805]  [MGI Ref ID J:106762]

Glass JD; Brushart TM; George EB; Griffin JW. 1993. Prolonged survival of transected nerve fibres in C57BL/Ola mice is an intrinsic characteristic of the axon. J Neurocytol 22(5):311-21. [PubMed: 8315413]  [MGI Ref ID J:13150]

Glass JD; Nash N; Dry I; Culver D; Levey AI; Wesselingh S. 1998. Cloning of m-calpain 80 kD subunit from the axonal degeneration-resistant WLD(S) mouse mutant. J Neurosci Res 52(6):653-60. [PubMed: 9669314]  [MGI Ref ID J:48477]

Glass JD; Schryer BL; Griffin JW. 1994. Calcium-mediated degeneration of the axonal cytoskeleton in the Ola mouse. J Neurochem 62(6):2472-5. [PubMed: 8189250]  [MGI Ref ID J:18130]

Gultner S; Laue M; Riemer C; Heise I; Baier M. 2009. Prion disease development in slow Wallerian degeneration (Wld(S)) mice. Neurosci Lett 456(2):93-8. [PubMed: 19429141]  [MGI Ref ID J:150443]

Hasbani DM; O'Malley KL. 2006. Wld(S) mice are protected against the Parkinsonian mimetic MPTP. Exp Neurol 202(1):93-9. [PubMed: 16806180]  [MGI Ref ID J:114431]

Howell GR; Libby RT; Jakobs TC; Smith RS; Phalan FC; Barter JW; Barbay JM; Marchant JK; Mahesh N; Porciatti V; Whitmore AV; Masland RH; John SW. 2007. Axons of retinal ganglion cells are insulted in the optic nerve early in DBA/2J glaucoma. J Cell Biol 179(7):1523-37. [PubMed: 18158332]  [MGI Ref ID J:131073]

Jacob JE; Gris P; Fehlings MG; Weaver LC; Brown A. 2003. Autonomic dysreflexia after spinal cord transection or compression in 129Sv, C57BL, and Wallerian degeneration slow mutant mice. Exp Neurol 183(1):136-46. [PubMed: 12957497]  [MGI Ref ID J:85335]

Kaneko S; Wang J; Kaneko M; Yiu G; Hurrell JM; Chitnis T; Khoury SJ; He Z. 2006. Protecting axonal degeneration by increasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models. J Neurosci 26(38):9794-804. [PubMed: 16988050]  [MGI Ref ID J:112702]

Kerschensteiner M; Schwab ME; Lichtman JW; Misgeld T. 2005. In vivo imaging of axonal degeneration and regeneration in the injured spinal cord. Nat Med 11(5):572-7. [PubMed: 15821747]  [MGI Ref ID J:133553]

Lapper SR; Brown MC; Perry VH. 1994. Motor neuron death induced by axotomy in neonatal mice occurs more slowly in a mutant strain in which Wallerian degeneration is very slow. Eur J Neurosci 6(3):473-7. [PubMed: 8019683]  [MGI Ref ID J:19864]

Lunn ER; Perry VH; Brown MC; Rosen H; Gordon S. 1989. Absence of Wallerian Degeneration does not Hinder Regeneration in Peripheral Nerve Eur J Neurosci 1(1):27-33. [PubMed: 12106171]  [MGI Ref ID J:19951]

Mack TG; Reiner M; Beirowski B; Mi W; Emanuelli M; Wagner D; Thomson D; Gillingwater T; Court F; Conforti L; Fernando FS; Tarlton A; Andressen C; Addicks K; Magni G; Ribchester RR; Perry VH; Coleman MP. 2001. Wallerian degeneration of injured axons and synapses is delayed by a Ube4b/Nmnat chimeric gene. Nat Neurosci 4(12):1199-206. [PubMed: 11770485]  [MGI Ref ID J:72936]

Mi W; Beirowski B; Gillingwater TH; Adalbert R; Wagner D; Grumme D; Osaka H; Conforti L; Arnhold S; Addicks K; Wada K; Ribchester RR; Coleman MP. 2005. The slow Wallerian degeneration gene, WldS, inhibits axonal spheroid pathology in gracile axonal dystrophy mice. Brain 128(Pt 2):405-16. [PubMed: 15644421]  [MGI Ref ID J:157300]

Mi W; Glass JD; Coleman MP. 2003. Stable inheritance of an 85-kb triplication in C57BL/WldS mice. Mutat Res 526(1-2):33-7. [PubMed: 12714180]  [MGI Ref ID J:83200]

Muthing J. 1997. Neutral glycosphingolipids and gangliosides from spleen T lymphoblasts of genetically different inbred mouse strains. Glycoconj J 14(2):241-8. [PubMed: 9111141]  [MGI Ref ID J:39927]

Niemi JP; DeFrancesco-Lisowitz A; Roldan-Hernandez L; Lindborg JA; Mandell D; Zigmond RE. 2013. A critical role for macrophages near axotomized neuronal cell bodies in stimulating nerve regeneration. J Neurosci 33(41):16236-48. [PubMed: 24107955]  [MGI Ref ID J:202755]

Osterloh JM; Yang J; Rooney TM; Fox AN; Adalbert R; Powell EH; Sheehan AE; Avery MA; Hackett R; Logan MA; MacDonald JM; Ziegenfuss JS; Milde S; Hou YJ; Nathan C; Ding A; Brown RH Jr; Conforti L; Coleman M; Tessier-Lavigne M; Zuchner S; Freeman MR. 2012. dSarm/Sarm1 is required for activation of an injury-induced axon death pathway. Science 337(6093):481-4. [PubMed: 22678360]  [MGI Ref ID J:185791]

Oyebode OR; Hartley R; Singhota J; Thomson D; Ribchester RR. 2012. Differential protection of neuromuscular sensory and motor axons and their endings in Wld(S) mutant mice. Neuroscience 200:142-58. [PubMed: 22062136]  [MGI Ref ID J:184430]

Parson SH; Mackintosh CL; Ribchester RR. 1997. Elimination of motor nerve terminals in neonatal mice expressing a gene for slow wallerian degeneration (C57Bl/Wlds). Eur J Neurosci 9(8):1586-92. [PubMed: 9283813]  [MGI Ref ID J:43115]

Perry VH; Brown MC; Lunn ER. 1991. Very slow retrograde and Wallerian degeneration in the CNS of C57BL/Ola mice Eur J Neurosci 3(1):102-5. [PubMed: 12106273]  [MGI Ref ID J:19950]

Perry VH; Brown MC; Tsao JW. 1992. The Effectiveness of the Gene Which Slows the Rate of Wallerian Degeneration in C57BL/Ola Mice Declines with Age Eur J Neurosci 4(10):1000-1002. [PubMed: 12106435]  [MGI Ref ID J:3359]

Perry VH; Lunn ER; Brown MC; Cahusac S; Gordon S. 1990. Evidence that the rate of Wallerian degeneration is controlled by a single autosomal dominant gene Eur J Neurosci 2(5):408-13. [PubMed: 12106028]  [MGI Ref ID J:19949]

Reichert F; Saada A; Rotshenker S. 1994. Peripheral nerve injury induces Schwann cells to express two macrophage phenotypes: phagocytosis and the galactose-specific lectin MAC-2. J Neurosci 14(5 Pt 2):3231-45. [PubMed: 8182468]  [MGI Ref ID J:18090]

Ribchester RR; Tsao JW; Barry JA; Asgari-Jirhandeh N; Perry VH; Brown MC. 1995. Persistence of neuromuscular junctions after axotomy in mice with slow Wallerian degeneration (C57BL/WldS). Eur J Neurosci 7(7):1641-50. [PubMed: 7551190]  [MGI Ref ID J:28664]

Rose FF Jr; Meehan PW; Coady TH; Garcia VB; Garcia ML; Lorson CL. 2008. The Wallerian degeneration slow (Wld(s)) gene does not attenuate disease in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 375(1):119-23. [PubMed: 18680723]  [MGI Ref ID J:140130]

Roussarie JP; Ruffie C; Edgar JM; Griffiths I; Brahic M. 2007. Axon myelin transfer of a non-enveloped virus. PLoS ONE 2(12):e1331. [PubMed: 18159229]  [MGI Ref ID J:129297]

Sajadi A; Schneider BL; Aebischer P. 2004. Wlds-mediated protection of dopaminergic fibers in an animal model of Parkinson disease. Curr Biol 14(4):326-30. [PubMed: 14972684]  [MGI Ref ID J:88312]

Samsam M; Mi W; Wessig C; Zielasek J; Toyka KV; Coleman MP; Martini R. 2003. The Wlds mutation delays robust loss of motor and sensory axons in a genetic model for myelin-related axonopathy. J Neurosci 23(7):2833-9. [PubMed: 12684470]  [MGI Ref ID J:82823]

Schafer M; Fruttiger M; Montag D; Schachner M; Martini R. 1996. Disruption of the gene for the myelin-associated glycoprotein improves axonal regrowth along myelin in C57BL/Wlds mice. Neuron 16(6):1107-13. [PubMed: 8663987]  [MGI Ref ID J:33761]

Schauwecker PE; Steward O. 1997. Genetic influences on cellular reactions to brain injury: activation of microglia in denervated neuropil in mice carrying a mutation (Wld(S)) that causes delayed Wallerian degeneration. J Comp Neurol 380(1):82-94. [PubMed: 9073084]  [MGI Ref ID J:39228]

Sheline CT; Cai AL; Zhu J; Shi C. 2010. Serum or target deprivation-induced neuronal death causes oxidative neuronal accumulation of Zn2+ and loss of NAD+. Eur J Neurosci 32(6):894-904. [PubMed: 20722716]  [MGI Ref ID J:171779]

Shen H; Hyrc KL; Goldberg MP. 2013. Maintaining energy homeostasis is an essential component of Wld(S)-mediated axon protection. Neurobiol Dis 59:69-79. [PubMed: 23892229]  [MGI Ref ID J:201658]

Shi B; Stanfield BB. 1996. Differential sprouting responses in axonal fiber systems in the dentate gyrus following lesions of the perforant path in WLDs mutant mice. Brain Res 740(1-2):89-101. [PubMed: 8973802]  [MGI Ref ID J:37984]

Siebert H; Kahle PJ; Kramer ML; Isik T; Schluter OM; Schulz-Schaeffer WJ; Bruck W. 2010. Over-expression of alpha-synuclein in the nervous system enhances axonal degeneration after peripheral nerve lesion in a transgenic mouse strain. J Neurochem 114(4):1007-18. [PubMed: 20524960]  [MGI Ref ID J:163482]

Simonin Y; Ferrer-Alcon M; Ferri A; Kato AC. 2007. The neuroprotective effects of the WldS gene are correlated with proteasome expression rather than apoptosis. Eur J Neurosci 25(8):2269-74. [PubMed: 17445225]  [MGI Ref ID J:125019]

Simonin Y; Perrin FE; Kato AC. 2007. Axonal involvement in the Wlds neuroprotective effect: analysis of pure motoneurons in a mouse model protected from motor neuron disease at a pre-symptomatic age. J Neurochem 101(2):530-42. [PubMed: 17402973]  [MGI Ref ID J:122486]

Smith RS; Bisby MA. 1993. Persistence of Axonal Transport in Isolated Axons of the Mouse Eur J Neurosci 5(9):1127-1135. [PubMed: 8281318]  [MGI Ref ID J:21424]

Steward O. 1992. Signals that induce sprouting in the central nervous system: sprouting is delayed in a strain of mouse exhibiting delayed axonal degeneration. Exp Neurol 118(3):340-51. [PubMed: 1284863]  [MGI Ref ID J:3603]

Steward O; Trimmer PA. 1997. Genetic influences on cellular reactions to CNS injury: the reactive response of astrocytes in denervated neuropil regions in mice carrying a mutation (Wld(S)) that causes delayed Wallerian degeneration. J Comp Neurol 380(1):70-81. [PubMed: 9073083]  [MGI Ref ID J:39227]

Stum M; McLaughlin HM; Kleinbrink EL; Miers KE; Ackerman SL; Seburn KL; Antonellis A; Burgess RW. 2011. An assessment of mechanisms underlying peripheral axonal degeneration caused by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase mutations. Mol Cell Neurosci 46(2):432-43. [PubMed: 21115117]  [MGI Ref ID J:171297]

Subang MC; Bisby MA; Richardson PM. 1997. Delay of CNTF decrease following peripheral nerve injury in C57BL/Wld mice. J Neurosci Res 49(5):563-8. [PubMed: 9302077]  [MGI Ref ID J:42607]

Suzuki K; Koike T. 2007. Mammalian Sir2-related protein (SIRT) 2-mediated modulation of resistance to axonal degeneration in slow Wallerian degeneration mice: a crucial role of tubulin deacetylation. Neuroscience 147(3):599-612. [PubMed: 17574768]  [MGI Ref ID J:124219]

Takada H; Yuasa S; Araki T. 2011. Demyelination can proceed independently of axonal degradation during Wallerian degeneration in wlds mice. Eur J Neurosci 34(4):531-7. [PubMed: 21749497]  [MGI Ref ID J:177933]

Touma E; Kato S; Fukui K; Koike T. 2007. Calpain-mediated cleavage of collapsin response mediator protein(CRMP)-2 during neurite degeneration in mice. Eur J Neurosci 26(12):3368-81. [PubMed: 18052987]  [MGI Ref ID J:130447]

Tsao JW; Brown MC; Carden MJ; McLean WG; Perry VH. 1994. Loss of the compound action potential: an electrophysiological, biochemical and morphological study of early events in axonal degeneration in the C57BL/Ola mouse. Eur J Neurosci 6(4):516-24. [PubMed: 8025707]  [MGI Ref ID J:19246]

Tsao JW; Brown MC; Carden MJ; McLean WG; Perry VH. 1993. The mouse C57BL/Wld mutation results in a slower degradation of neurofilaments but does not affect their proteolyis in vitro J Neurochem 61(Suppl):S111 (Abstr).  [MGI Ref ID J:13191]

Tsao JW; Paramananthan N; Parkes HG; Dunn JF. 1999. Altered brain metabolism in the C57BL/Wld mouse strain detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy: association with delayed Wallerian degeneration? J Neurol Sci 168(1):1-12. [PubMed: 10500267]  [MGI Ref ID J:58127]

Wang M; Wu Y; Culver DG; Glass JD. 2001. The gene for slow Wallerian degeneration (Wld(s)) is also protective against vincristine neuropathy. Neurobiol Dis 8(1):155-61. [PubMed: 11162249]  [MGI Ref ID J:119901]

Wilbrey AL; Haley JE; Wishart TM; Conforti L; Morreale G; Beirowski B; Babetto E; Adalbert R; Gillingwater TH; Smith T; Wyllie DJ; Ribchester RR; Coleman MP. 2008. VCP binding influences intracellular distribution of the slow Wallerian degeneration protein, Wld(S). Mol Cell Neurosci 38(3):325-40. [PubMed: 18468455]  [MGI Ref ID J:136981]

Wishart TM; Pemberton HN; James SR; McCabe CJ; Gillingwater TH. 2008. Modified cell cycle status in a mouse model of altered neuronal vulnerability (slow Wallerian degeneration; Wlds). Genome Biol 9(6):R101. [PubMed: 18570652]  [MGI Ref ID J:139158]

Wishart TM; Rooney TM; Lamont DJ; Wright AK; Morton AJ; Jackson M; Freeman MR; Gillingwater TH. 2012. Combining comparative proteomics and molecular genetics uncovers regulators of synaptic and axonal stability and degeneration in vivo. PLoS Genet 8(8):e1002936. [PubMed: 22952455]  [MGI Ref ID J:188122]

Wong F; Fan L; Wells S; Hartley R; Mackenzie FE; Oyebode O; Brown R; Thomson D; Coleman MP; Blanco G; Ribchester RR. 2009. Axonal and neuromuscular synaptic phenotypes in Wld(S), SOD1(G93A) and ostes mutant mice identified by fiber-optic confocal microendoscopy. Mol Cell Neurosci 42(4):296-307. [PubMed: 19683573]  [MGI Ref ID J:202216]

Wright AK; Wishart TM; Ingham CA; Gillingwater TH. 2010. Synaptic protection in the brain of WldS mice occurs independently of age but is sensitive to gene-dose. PLoS One 5(11):e15108. [PubMed: 21124744]  [MGI Ref ID J:167122]

Wu J; Zhang F; Yan M; Wu D; Yu Q; Zhang Y; Zhou B; McBurney MW; Zhai Q. 2011. WldS enhances insulin transcription and secretion via a SIRT1-dependent pathway and improves glucose homeostasis. Diabetes 60(12):3197-207. [PubMed: 21998399]  [MGI Ref ID J:189452]

Xie M; Wang Q; Wu TH; Song SK; Sun SW. 2011. Delayed axonal degeneration in slow Wallerian degeneration mutant mice detected using diffusion tensor imaging. Neuroscience 197:339-47. [PubMed: 21964470]  [MGI Ref ID J:184041]

Yu Q; Wang T; Zhou X; Wu J; Chen X; Liu Y; Wu D; Zhai Q. 2011. Wld(S) reduces paraquat-induced cytotoxicity via SIRT1 in non-neuronal cells by attenuating the depletion of NAD. PLoS One 6(7):e21770. [PubMed: 21750730]  [MGI Ref ID J:176071]

Zhang Z; Fujiki M; Guth L; Steward O. 1996. Genetic influences on cellular reactions to spinal cord injury: a wound-healing response present in normal mice is impaired in mice carrying a mutation (WldS) that causes delayed Wallerian degeneration. J Comp Neurol 371(3):485-95. [PubMed: 8842901]  [MGI Ref ID J:34448]

Zhang Z; Guth L; Steward O. 1998. Mechanisms of motor recovery after subtotal spinal cord injury: insights from the study of mice carrying a mutation (WldS) that delays cellular responses to injury. Exp Neurol 149(1):221-9. [PubMed: 9454631]  [MGI Ref ID J:45487]

Zhong J; Dietzel ID; Wahle P; Kopf M; Heumann R. 1999. Sensory impairments and delayed regeneration of sensory axons in interleukin-6-deficient mice. J Neurosci 19(11):4305-13. [PubMed: 10341234]  [MGI Ref ID J:55028]

Zhu S; Yang Y; Hu J; Qian L; Jiang Y; Li X; Yang Q; Bai H; Chen Q. 2014. WldS ameliorates renal injury in a type 1 diabetic mouse model. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 306(11):F1348-56. [PubMed: 24598800]  [MGI Ref ID J:210520]

Zhu SS; Ren Y; Zhang M; Cao JQ; Yang Q; Li XY; Bai H; Jiang L; Jiang Q; He ZG; Chen Q. 2011. Wld ( S ) protects against peripheral neuropathy and retinopathy in an experimental model of diabetes in mice. Diabetologia 54(9):2440-50. [PubMed: 21739347]  [MGI Ref ID J:174839]

Zhu X; Libby RT; de Vries WN; Smith RS; Wright DL; Bronson RT; Seburn KL; John SW. 2012. Mutations in a P-type ATPase gene cause axonal degeneration. PLoS Genet 8(8):e1002853. [PubMed: 22912588]  [MGI Ref ID J:188127]

Health & husbandry

The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Production of mice from cryopreserved embryos or sperm occurs in a maximum barrier room, G200.

Colony Maintenance

Breeding & HusbandryWhen maintaining a live colony, these mice can be bred as homozygotes.

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls


Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Cryopreserved

Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $2525.00
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Cryopreserved

Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $3283.00
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

General Supply Notes

  • View the complete collection of spontaneous mutants in the Mouse Mutant Resource.

Control Information

  Control
   Wild-type from the colony
   001800 FVB/NJ
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.
 

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Terms are granted by individual review and stated on the customer invoice(s) and account statement. These transactions are payable in U.S. currency within the granted terms. Payment for services, products, shipping containers, and shipping costs that are rendered are expected within the payment terms indicated on the invoice or stated by contract. Invoices and account balances in arrears of stated terms may result in The Jackson Laboratory pursuing collection activities including but not limited to outside agencies and court filings.


See Terms of Use tab for General Terms and Conditions


The Jackson Laboratory's Genotype Promise

The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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Terms of Use

Terms of Use


General Terms and Conditions


Contact information

General inquiries regarding Terms of Use

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phone:207-288-6470

JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use

"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCTS" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or services provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than the internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE or PRODUCTS from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON's prior written authorization.

No Warranty

MICE, PRODUCTS AND SERVICES ARE PROVIDED “AS IS”. JACKSON EXTENDS NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, WITH RESPECT TO MICE, PRODUCTS OR SERVICES, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR ANY WARRANTY OF NON-INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.

In case of dissatisfaction for a valid reason and claimed in writing by a purchaser within ninety (90) days of receipt of mice, products or services, JACKSON will, at its option, provide credit or replacement for the mice or product received or the services provided.

No Liability

In no event shall JACKSON, its trustees, directors, officers, employees, and affiliates be liable for any causes of action or damages, including any direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages, arising out of the provision of MICE, PRODUCTS or services, including economic damage or injury to property and lost profits, and including any damage arising from acts or negligence on the part of JACKSON, its agents or employees. Unless prohibited by law, in purchasing or receiving MICE, PRODUCTS or services from JACKSON, purchaser or recipient, or any party claiming by or through them, expressly releases and discharges JACKSON from all such causes of action or damages, and further agrees to defend and indemnify JACKSON from any costs or damages arising out of any third party claims.

MICE and PRODUCTS are to be used in a safe manner and in accordance with all applicable governmental rules and regulations.

The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or services. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS or services may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and services by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.

Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or services shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or services by JACKSON.


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