Strain Name:

B6.129S2-Tnfsf13btm1Msc/J

Stock Number:

010572

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Availability:

Cryopreserved - Ready for recovery

Theses knockout mice have a tailless human CD2 reporter gene disrupting the BAFF (Tnfsf13b) gene, abolishing endogenous BAFF expression. Homozygous mice exhibit immunological defects and aberrant B cell development.

Description

The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Strain Information

Type Congenic; Mutant Strain; Targeted Mutation;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Additional information on Congenic nomenclature.
Specieslaboratory mouse
 
Donating Investigator Susan L Kalled,   Biogen Idec, Inc

Description
Homozygous (BAFF-/- or BAFF KO) mice are viable and fertile. The BAFF knockout mutation has a tailless human CD2 reporter gene inserted into the Tnfsf13b (BAFF) locus that abolishes endogenous BAFF expression. Homozygous mice exhibit abnormal B cell development and function, resulting from significant loss of mature B cell (B220+) populations in lymph nodes, peripheral blood and bone marrow, as well as attenuated antibody responses to both T cell-dependent and T cell-independent type II antigens. Homozygous also have splenic deficiencies (mass, marginal zone B cells and follicular B cells), and decreased total serum immunoglobulin in each subclass (with the exception of immunoglobulin A [IgA] which was only moderately reduced). No loss of marrow pre-B cells, marrow pro-B cells, or CD3+ T cells are reported with BAFF-deficiency. Heterozygous mice have moderately reduced serum IgG subclasses and IgM. These BAFF-mutant mice may be useful in studying the role of TNF ligands in B cell development/function, clonal selection, humoral immune responses, and human disease (such as the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosis [SLE]).

Development
A targeting vector was designed to insert an in-frame tailless human CD2 reporter gene DNA fragment, a neomycin resistance cassette, and a polylinker into the BAFF (Tnfsf13b) locus; deleting the initiating ATG and 732 nucleotides of genomic DNA that encodes the first 134 amino acids. The construct was electroporated into 129S2/SvPas-derived D3 embryonic stem (ES) cells. Correctly targeted ES cells were injected into recipient blastocysts. The resulting chimeric mice were bred with C57BL/6J females. BAFF-mutant mice were backcrossed to C57BL/6 inbred mice for at least 8 generations prior to arrival at The Jackson Laboratory.

Control Information

  Control
   000664 C57BL/6J
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Related Strains

View Strains carrying other alleles of CD2     (6 strains)

Phenotype

Phenotype Information

View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

The following phenotype information is associated with a similar, but not exact match to this JAX® Mice strain.

Tnfsf13btm1Msc/Tnfsf13b+

        involves: 129S2/SvPas * C57BL/6
  • immune system phenotype
  • decreased immunoglobulin level
    • ~2-fold decrease in total serum immunoglobulin concentration at baseline   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • decreased immunoglobulin level
    • ~2-fold decrease in total serum immunoglobulin concentration at baseline   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)

Tnfsf13btm1Msc/Tnfsf13btm1Msc

        involves: 129S2/SvPas * C57BL/6
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • abnormal B cell differentiation   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
    • arrested B cell differentiation
      • apparently at the T1 to T2 transition in splenic B cells (CD21 lo, IgMhi)   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
      • apparently at the B1 to B2 transition in cells recovered from peritoneal lavage (B220+, CD23lo)   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
  • decreased B cell number
    • severe losses of B220+ cells in secondary lymphoid tissue   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
    • decreased follicular B cell number
      • fewer follicular B cells than controls in spleen   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
    • decreased marginal zone B cell number
      • spleens had significantly fewer B cells in the marginal zone than in controls   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
  • decreased immunoglobulin level
    • 10-fold decrease in baseline total serum immunoglobulin concentration   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
    • all Ig subclasses significantly reduced at baseline, with the exception of IgA, which was moderately reduced   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
    • decreased immunoglobulin production after both T-dependent and T-independent immunization   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
  • decreased spleen weight
    • necropsy at 6 - 8 months of age showed significantly reduced average spleen weights   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
  • immune system phenotype
  • abnormal B cell differentiation   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
    • arrested B cell differentiation
      • apparently at the T1 to T2 transition in splenic B cells (CD21 lo, IgMhi)   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
      • apparently at the B1 to B2 transition in cells recovered from peritoneal lavage (B220+, CD23lo)   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
  • abnormal humoral immune response
    • decreased immunoglobulin production after both T-dependent and T-independent immunization   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
    • decreased immunoglobulin level
      • 10-fold decrease in baseline total serum immunoglobulin concentration   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
      • all Ig subclasses significantly reduced at baseline, with the exception of IgA, which was moderately reduced   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
      • decreased immunoglobulin production after both T-dependent and T-independent immunization   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
  • abnormal lymph node B cell domain morphology
    • abnormal B cell domain, with ~10-fold reduction in B cell numbers   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
  • decreased B cell number
    • severe losses of B220+ cells in secondary lymphoid tissue   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
    • decreased follicular B cell number
      • fewer follicular B cells than controls in spleen   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
    • decreased marginal zone B cell number
      • spleens had significantly fewer B cells in the marginal zone than in controls   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)
  • decreased spleen weight
    • necropsy at 6 - 8 months of age showed significantly reduced average spleen weights   (MGI Ref ID J:71681)

Tnfsf13btm1Msc/Tnfsf13btm1Msc

        involves: 129S2/SvPas
  • immune system phenotype
  • decreased B cell number
    • total splenic B cells, transitional B cells and follicular B cells are reduced in the spleen   (MGI Ref ID J:138560)
    • decreased follicular B cell number   (MGI Ref ID J:138560)
    • decreased transitional stage B cell number   (MGI Ref ID J:138560)
  • decreased T cell proliferation
    • reduction in CD4+ T cell proliferation is not as severe as in Tnfrsf13cBcmd1-A/WySnJ homozygotes   (MGI Ref ID J:92334)
    • a synergistic decreased in CD4+ T cell proliferation occurs when mice are treated with cyclosporine A   (MGI Ref ID J:92334)
  • increased length of allograft survival
    • MHC-mismatched allograft survival is marginally increased compared to in wild-type mice   (MGI Ref ID J:92334)
    • MHC-mismatched allograft survival is considerably increased with the use of cyclosporine A compared to wild-type and Igh-6tm1Cgn homozygotes   (MGI Ref ID J:92334)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • decreased B cell number
    • total splenic B cells, transitional B cells and follicular B cells are reduced in the spleen   (MGI Ref ID J:138560)
    • decreased follicular B cell number   (MGI Ref ID J:138560)
    • decreased transitional stage B cell number   (MGI Ref ID J:138560)
  • decreased T cell proliferation
    • reduction in CD4+ T cell proliferation is not as severe as in Tnfrsf13cBcmd1-A/WySnJ homozygotes   (MGI Ref ID J:92334)
    • a synergistic decreased in CD4+ T cell proliferation occurs when mice are treated with cyclosporine A   (MGI Ref ID J:92334)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Developmental Biology Research
Internal/Organ Defects
      Lymphoid Tissue Defects
      hematopoietic defects
Lymphoid Tissue Defects
      hematopoietic defects

Hematological Research
Hematopoietic Defects
Immunological Defects

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
Autoimmunity
      B cell deficiency
      lupus erythematosus
Immunodeficiency
      B cell defects
      B cell deficiency
      defects in humoral immune responses
Lymphoid Tissue Defects
      hematopoietic development
      selective lymph node development defects

Internal/Organ Research
Lymphoid Tissue Defects
Spleen Defects

Research Tools
Cancer Research
      B cell deficiency
Hematological Research
Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
      B cell deficiency

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

 
Allele Symbol Tnfsf13btm1Msc
Allele Name targeted mutation 1, Martin L Scott
Allele Type Targeted
Common Name(s) BAFF-; BLyS-;
Mutation Made ByDr. Martin Scott,   Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Strain of Origin129S2/SvPas
ES Cell Line NameD3
ES Cell Line Strain129S2/SvPas
Expressed Gene CD2, CD2 molecule, human
Molecular Note Exons 1-2 (732 bp of the gene) encoding the first 134 residues were replaced with a human CD2 reporter gene fused to a neomycin resistance cassette. Northern blot analysis of spleen RNA using probes to the deleted region did not detect gene transcript inhomozygous mutant animals. [MGI Ref ID J:71681]
 
Gene Symbol and Name Tnfsf13b, tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 13b
Chromosome 8
Gene Common Name(s) BAFF; BLYS; CD257; D8Ertd387e; DNA segment, Chr 8, ERATO Doi 387, expressed; DTL; RGD1561519; TALL-1; TALL1; THANK; TNFSF20; ZTNF4;

Genotyping

Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

Tnfsf13btm1Msc, Standard PCR


Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting

References

References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Gorelik L; Gilbride K; Dobles M; Kalled SL; Zandman D; Scott ML. 2003. Normal B cell homeostasis requires B cell activation factor production by radiation-resistant cells. J Exp Med 198(6):937-45. [PubMed: 12975458]  [MGI Ref ID J:150930]

Schiemann B; Gommerman JL; Vora K; Cachero TG; Shulga-Morskaya S; Dobles M; Frew E; Scott ML. 2001. An essential role for BAFF in the normal development of B cells through a BCMA-independent pathway. Science 293(5537):2111-4. [PubMed: 11509691]  [MGI Ref ID J:71681]

Additional References

Tnfsf13btm1Msc related

Belnoue E; Pihlgren M; McGaha TL; Tougne C; Rochat AF; Bossen C; Schneider P; Huard B; Lambert PH; Siegrist CA. 2008. APRIL is critical for plasmablast survival in the bone marrow and poorly expressed by early-life bone marrow stromal cells. Blood 111(5):2755-64. [PubMed: 18180376]  [MGI Ref ID J:131537]

Bossen C; Tardivel A; Willen L; Fletcher CA; Perroud M; Beermann F; Rolink AG; Scott ML; Mackay F; Schneider P. 2011. Mutation of the BAFF furin cleavage site impairs B-cell homeostasis and antibody responses. Eur J Immunol 41(3):787-97. [PubMed: 21287546]  [MGI Ref ID J:177020]

Carey JB; Moffatt-Blue CS; Watson LC; Gavin AL; Feeney AJ. 2008. Repertoire-based selection into the marginal zone compartment during B cell development. J Exp Med 205(9):2043-52. [PubMed: 18710933]  [MGI Ref ID J:138974]

Dickinson GS; Sun G; Bram RJ; Alugupalli KR. 2014. Efficient B cell responses to Borrelia hermsii infection depend on BAFF and BAFFR but not TACI. Infect Immun 82(1):453-9. [PubMed: 24218480]  [MGI Ref ID J:206166]

Gardam S; Sierro F; Basten A; Mackay F; Brink R. 2008. TRAF2 and TRAF3 signal adapters act cooperatively to control the maturation and survival signals delivered to B cells by the BAFF receptor. Immunity 28(3):391-401. [PubMed: 18313334]  [MGI Ref ID J:132877]

Gavin AL; Duong B; Skog P; Ait-Azzouzene D; Greaves DR; Scott ML; Nemazee D. 2005. deltaBAFF, a splice isoform of BAFF, opposes full-length BAFF activity in vivo in transgenic mouse models. J Immunol 175(1):319-28. [PubMed: 15972664]  [MGI Ref ID J:100570]

Goenka R; Matthews AH; Zhang B; O'Neill PJ; Scholz JL; Migone TS; Leonard WJ; Stohl W; Hershberg U; Cancro MP. 2014. Local BLyS production by T follicular cells mediates retention of high affinity B cells during affinity maturation. J Exp Med 211(1):45-56. [PubMed: 24367004]  [MGI Ref ID J:208355]

Gorelik L; Cutler AH; Thill G; Miklasz SD; Shea DE; Ambrose C; Bixler SA; Su L; Scott ML; Kalled SL. 2004. Cutting Edge: BAFF regulates CD21/35 and CD23 expression independent of its B cell survival function. J Immunol 172(2):762-6. [PubMed: 14707045]  [MGI Ref ID J:87645]

Jacob CO; Pricop L; Putterman C; Koss MN; Liu Y; Kollaros M; Bixler SA; Ambrose CM; Scott ML; Stohl W. 2006. Paucity of clinical disease despite serological autoimmunity and kidney pathology in lupus-prone New Zealand mixed 2328 mice deficient in BAFF. J Immunol 177(4):2671-80. [PubMed: 16888029]  [MGI Ref ID J:138348]

Jacob N; Guo S; Mathian A; Koss MN; Gindea S; Putterman C; Jacob CO; Stohl W. 2011. B Cell and BAFF dependence of IFN-alpha-exaggerated disease in systemic lupus erythematosus-prone NZM 2328 mice. J Immunol 186(8):4984-93. [PubMed: 21383240]  [MGI Ref ID J:172469]

Jellusova J; Miletic AV; Cato MH; Lin WW; Hu Y; Bishop GA; Shlomchik MJ; Rickert RC. 2013. Context-specific BAFF-R signaling by the NF-kappaB and PI3K pathways. Cell Rep 5(4):1022-35. [PubMed: 24239354]  [MGI Ref ID J:205520]

Marino E; Villanueva J; Walters S; Liuwantara D; Mackay F; Grey ST. 2009. CD4(+)CD25(+) T-cells control autoimmunity in the absence of B-cells. Diabetes 58(7):1568-77. [PubMed: 19336675]  [MGI Ref ID J:154345]

Marino E; Walters SN; Villanueva JE; Richards JL; Mackay CR; Grey ST. 2014. BAFF regulates activation of self-reactive T cells through B-cell dependent mechanisms and mediates protection in NOD mice. Eur J Immunol 44(4):983-93. [PubMed: 24435807]  [MGI Ref ID J:209374]

Ota M; Duong BH; Torkamani A; Doyle CM; Gavin AL; Ota T; Nemazee D. 2010. Regulation of the B cell receptor repertoire and self-reactivity by BAFF. J Immunol 185(7):4128-36. [PubMed: 20817867]  [MGI Ref ID J:164303]

Ota T; Ota M; Duong BH; Gavin AL; Nemazee D. 2011. Liver-expressed Igkappa superantigen induces tolerance of polyclonal B cells by clonal deletion not kappa to lambda receptor editing. J Exp Med 208(3):617-29. [PubMed: 21357741]  [MGI Ref ID J:176842]

Qian Y; Giltiay N; Xiao J; Wang Y; Tian J; Han S; Scott M; Carter R; Jorgensen TN; Li X. 2008. Deficiency of Act1, a critical modulator of B cell function, leads to development of Sjogren's syndrome. Eur J Immunol 38(8):2219-28. [PubMed: 18624351]  [MGI Ref ID J:138560]

Qian Y; Qin J; Cui G; Naramura M; Snow EC; Ware CF; Fairchild RL; Omori SA; Rickert RC; Scott M; Kotzin BL; Li X. 2004. Act1, a negative regulator in CD40- and BAFF-mediated B cell survival. Immunity 21(4):575-87. [PubMed: 15485634]  [MGI Ref ID J:93923]

Rahman ZS; Rao SP; Kalled SL; Manser T. 2003. Normal induction but attenuated progression of germinal center responses in BAFF and BAFF-R signaling-deficient mice. J Exp Med 198(8):1157-69. [PubMed: 14557413]  [MGI Ref ID J:88708]

Sage AP; Tsiantoulas D; Baker L; Harrison J; Masters L; Murphy D; Loinard C; Binder CJ; Mallat Z. 2012. BAFF receptor deficiency reduces the development of atherosclerosis in mice--brief report. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 32(7):1573-6. [PubMed: 22426131]  [MGI Ref ID J:201505]

Sapoznikov A; Pewzner-Jung Y; Kalchenko V; Krauthgamer R; Shachar I; Jung S. 2008. Perivascular clusters of dendritic cells provide critical survival signals to B cells in bone marrow niches. Nat Immunol 9(4):388-95. [PubMed: 18311142]  [MGI Ref ID J:133263]

Shah HB; Joshi SK; Rampuria P; Devera TS; Lang GA; Stohl W; Lang ML. 2013. BAFF- and APRIL-dependent maintenance of antibody titers after immunization with T-dependent antigen and CD1d-binding ligand. J Immunol 191(3):1154-63. [PubMed: 23797666]  [MGI Ref ID J:205437]

Shulga-Morskaya S; Dobles M; Walsh ME; Ng LG; MacKay F; Rao SP; Kalled SL; Scott ML. 2004. B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family acts through separate receptors to support B cell survival and T cell-independent antibody formation. J Immunol 173(4):2331-41. [PubMed: 15294946]  [MGI Ref ID J:92676]

Stohl W; Jacob N; Quinn WJ 3rd; Cancro MP; Gao H; Putterman C; Gao X; Pricop L; Koss MN. 2008. Global T cell dysregulation in non-autoimmune-prone mice promotes rapid development of BAFF-independent, systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmunity. J Immunol 181(1):833-41. [PubMed: 18566449]  [MGI Ref ID J:137391]

Stolp J; Marino E; Batten M; Sierro F; Cox SL; Grey ST; Silveira PA. 2013. Intrinsic molecular factors cause aberrant expansion of the splenic marginal zone B cell population in nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol 191(1):97-109. [PubMed: 23740954]  [MGI Ref ID J:205458]

Sutherland AP; Ng LG; Fletcher CA; Shum B; Newton RA; Grey ST; Rolph MS; Mackay F; Mackay CR. 2005. BAFF augments certain Th1-associated inflammatory responses. J Immunol 174(9):5537-44. [PubMed: 15843552]  [MGI Ref ID J:98405]

Ye Q; Wang L; Wells AD; Tao R; Han R; Davidson A; Scott ML; Hancock WW. 2004. BAFF binding to T cell-expressed BAFF-R costimulates T cell proliferation and alloresponses. Eur J Immunol 34(10):2750. [PubMed: 15368291]  [MGI Ref ID J:92334]

Zhou X; Xia Z; Lan Q; Wang J; Su W; Han YP; Fan H; Liu Z; Stohl W; Zheng SG. 2011. BAFF Promotes Th17 Cells and Aggravates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. PLoS One 6(8):e23629. [PubMed: 21897850]  [MGI Ref ID J:176143]

Health & husbandry

The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Production of mice from cryopreserved embryos or sperm occurs in a maximum barrier room, G200.

Colony Maintenance

Breeding & HusbandryWhen maintaining a live colony, homozygous mice may be bred.

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls


Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Cryopreserved

Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $2525.00
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Cryopreserved

Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $3283.00
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Control Information

  Control
   000664 C57BL/6J
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.
 

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The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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