Strain Name:

C57BL/6-Bbc3tm1Ast/J

Stock Number:

011067

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Availability:

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Thymocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts from homozygous knock-out Bbc3tm1Ast (commonly referred to as puma-) mice are resistant to DNA-damage induced apoptosis. This mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of apoptosis and oxidative stress.

Description

Strain Information

Type Mutant Strain; Targeted Mutation;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
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Mating SystemHomozygote x Homozygote         (Female x Male)   01-NOV-11
Specieslaboratory mouse
GenerationN?+F7 (11-DEC-13)
Generation Definitions
 
Donating Investigator Andreas Strasser,   Walter and Eliza Hall Inst of Med Res

Description
Mice that are homozygous for the targeted mutation are viable, fertile, normal in size and do not display any gross physical or behavioral abnormalities. No gene product (mRNA) is detected by RT-PCR analysis of irradiated thymocytes from homozygotes and Northern blot analysis of thymus and spleen from homozygotes. MEFs and thymocytes from homozygous mice exhibit increased resistance to DNA-damage induced apoptosis after treatment by etoposide and gamma radiation. Neurons from homozygotes are more resistant to oxidative stress induced and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced apoptosis than wildtype controls.

Development
A targeting vector containing a floxed PGK-neo cassette was used to disrupt exons 2 and 3, which encode the BH3 interaction domains. The construct was electroporated into C57BL/6 derived Bruce4 embryonic stem (ES) cells. Correctly targeted ES cells were injected into C57BL/6 blastocysts. The resulting chimeric animals were crossed to mice expressing Cre recombinase, on the C57BL/6 background, to remove the selection cassette. Upon arrival at The Jackson Laboratory the mice were crossed once to C57BL/6J to establish the colony.

Control Information

  Control
   000664 C57BL/6J
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Phenotype

Phenotype Information

View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

Bbc3tm1Ast/Bbc3tm1Ast

        C57BL/6-Bbc3tm1Ast
  • cellular phenotype
  • decreased sensitivity to induced cell death
    • thymocytes and MEFs show enhanced resistance to genotoxic damage induced by etoposide or gamma irradiation   (MGI Ref ID J:86466)
    • decreased cellular sensitivity to gamma-irradiation
      • in thymocytes and MEFs   (MGI Ref ID J:86466)

Bbc3tm1Ast/Bbc3tm1Ast

        involves: C57BL/6 * NZB
  • immune system phenotype
  • *normal* immune system phenotype
    • espite abnormalities in T cell survival, viral clearance is similar to controls and no abnormalities are detected in T cell activation or proliferation   (MGI Ref ID J:132819)
    • abnormal CD8-positive T cell physiology
      • HSV-1 antigen specific CD8+ T cells show enhanced survival when cultured in the absence of cytokines   (MGI Ref ID J:132819)
    • abnormal splenic cell ratio
      • at 2 and 4 weeks after infection mice an increase in the percentage of Kb-gB+ CD8+ T cells compared to controls   (MGI Ref ID J:132819)
    • increased leukocyte cell number
      • at 2 and 4 weeks after infection with HSV-1, mice show a significant increase in total leukocyte numbers compared to controls   (MGI Ref ID J:132819)
      • increased CD8-positive T cell number
        • at 2 and 4 weeks after infection with HSV-1, mice show a significant increase in CD8+ T cell numbers compared to controls   (MGI Ref ID J:132819)
        • at 2 and 4 weeks after infection mice show a 2- to 4-fold increase in numbers of Kb-gB+ CD8+ T cells compared to controls   (MGI Ref ID J:132819)
        • however, CD8+ T cell numbers in nonlymphoid organs are normal   (MGI Ref ID J:132819)
  • nervous system phenotype
  • abnormal neuron physiology
    • treatment of neurons with oxidative stressors induced less apoptosis compared to controls and treated neurons retain normal voltage dependent current activity unlike controls   (MGI Ref ID J:127640)
    • motor neurons show decreased sensitivity to tunicamycin but not to the glutamate agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleprpionic acid (AMPA)   (MGI Ref ID J:130581)
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • abnormal CD8-positive T cell physiology
    • HSV-1 antigen specific CD8+ T cells show enhanced survival when cultured in the absence of cytokines   (MGI Ref ID J:132819)
  • abnormal splenic cell ratio
    • at 2 and 4 weeks after infection mice an increase in the percentage of Kb-gB+ CD8+ T cells compared to controls   (MGI Ref ID J:132819)
  • increased leukocyte cell number
    • at 2 and 4 weeks after infection with HSV-1, mice show a significant increase in total leukocyte numbers compared to controls   (MGI Ref ID J:132819)
    • increased CD8-positive T cell number
      • at 2 and 4 weeks after infection with HSV-1, mice show a significant increase in CD8+ T cell numbers compared to controls   (MGI Ref ID J:132819)
      • at 2 and 4 weeks after infection mice show a 2- to 4-fold increase in numbers of Kb-gB+ CD8+ T cells compared to controls   (MGI Ref ID J:132819)
      • however, CD8+ T cell numbers in nonlymphoid organs are normal   (MGI Ref ID J:132819)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Apoptosis Research

Cancer Research
Other
      DNA Repair

Cell Biology Research
DNA Damage Response

Research Tools
Apoptosis Research

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

 
Allele Symbol Bbc3tm1Ast
Allele Name targeted mutation 1, Andreas Strasser
Allele Type Targeted (Null/Knockout)
Common Name(s) puma-;
Mutation Made By Andreas Strasser,   Walter and Eliza Hall Inst of Med Res
Strain of OriginB6.Cg-Thy1
Gene Symbol and Name Bbc3, BCL2 binding component 3
Chromosome 7
Gene Common Name(s) JFY-1; JFY1; PUMA;
Molecular Note Exons 2 and 3 which contain the BH3 interaction domain were replaced by a floxed PGK-neomycin expression cassette. The resistance cassette was removed in vivo by crossing mice to a C57BL/6 Deleter mouse line. Gene disruption was confirmed by RT-PCR andNorthern blot analysis. [MGI Ref ID J:86466]

Genotyping

Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

Bbc3tm1Ast, Standard PCR


Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting

References

References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Villunger A; Michalak EM; Coultas L; Mullauer F; Bock G; Ausserlechner MJ; Adams JM; Strasser A. 2003. p53- and drug-induced apoptotic responses mediated by BH3-only proteins puma and noxa. Science 302(5647):1036-8. [PubMed: 14500851]  [MGI Ref ID J:86466]

Additional References

Bbc3tm1Ast related

Akhtar RS; Geng Y; Klocke BJ; Latham CB; Villunger A; Michalak EM; Strasser A; Carroll SL; Roth KA. 2006. BH3-only proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Noxa and Puma mediate neural precursor cell death. J Neurosci 26(27):7257-64. [PubMed: 16822983]  [MGI Ref ID J:110228]

Bauer A; Villunger A; Labi V; Fischer SF; Strasser A; Wagner H; Schmid RM; Hacker G. 2006. The NF-kappaB regulator Bcl-3 and the BH3-only proteins Bim and Puma control the death of activated T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(29):10979-84. [PubMed: 16832056]  [MGI Ref ID J:111822]

Chang KC; Unsinger J; Davis CG; Schwulst SJ; Muenzer JT; Strasser A; Hotchkiss RS. 2007. Multiple triggers of cell death in sepsis: death receptor and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. FASEB J 21(3):708-19. [PubMed: 17307841]  [MGI Ref ID J:134855]

Clybouw C; Fischer S; Auffredou MT; Hugues P; Alexia C; Bouillet P; Raphael M; Leca G; Strasser A; Tarlinton DM; Vazquez A. 2011. Regulation of memory B-cell survival by the BH3-only protein Puma. Blood 118(15):4120-8. [PubMed: 21868573]  [MGI Ref ID J:178386]

Concannon CG; Tuffy LP; Weisova P; Bonner HP; Davila D; Bonner C; Devocelle MC; Strasser A; Ward MW; Prehn JH. 2010. AMP kinase-mediated activation of the BH3-only protein Bim couples energy depletion to stress-induced apoptosis. J Cell Biol 189(1):83-94. [PubMed: 20351066]  [MGI Ref ID J:158799]

Cregan SP; Arbour NA; Maclaurin JG; Callaghan SM; Fortin A; Cheung EC; Guberman DS; Park DS; Slack RS. 2004. p53 activation domain 1 is essential for PUMA upregulation and p53-mediated neuronal cell death. J Neurosci 24(44):10003-12. [PubMed: 15525786]  [MGI Ref ID J:96598]

Doan PL; Himburg HA; Helms K; Russell JL; Fixsen E; Quarmyne M; Harris JR; Deoliviera D; Sullivan JM; Chao NJ; Kirsch DG; Chute JP. 2013. Epidermal growth factor regulates hematopoietic regeneration after radiation injury. Nat Med 19(3):295-304. [PubMed: 23377280]  [MGI Ref ID J:196315]

Ekert PG; Jabbour AM; Manoharan A; Heraud JE; Yu J; Pakusch M; Michalak EM; Kelly PN; Callus B; Kiefer T; Verhagen A; Silke J; Strasser A; Borner C; Vaux DL. 2006. Cell death provoked by loss of interleukin-3 signaling is independent of Bad, Bim, and PI3 kinase, but depends in part on Puma. Blood 108(5):1461-8. [PubMed: 16705087]  [MGI Ref ID J:138066]

Ekoff M; Kaufmann T; Engstrom M; Motoyama N; Villunger A; Jonsson JI; Strasser A; Nilsson G. 2007. The BH3-only protein Puma plays an essential role in cytokine deprivation induced apoptosis of mast cells. Blood 110(9):3209-17. [PubMed: 17634411]  [MGI Ref ID J:149129]

Engel T; Hatazaki S; Tanaka K; Prehn JH; Henshall DC. 2010. Deletion of puma protects hippocampal neurons in a model of severe status epilepticus. Neuroscience 168(2):443-50. [PubMed: 20362645]  [MGI Ref ID J:161486]

Erlacher M; Labi V; Manzl C; Bock G; Tzankov A; Hacker G; Michalak E; Strasser A; Villunger A. 2006. Puma cooperates with Bim, the rate-limiting BH3-only protein in cell death during lymphocyte development, in apoptosis induction. J Exp Med 203(13):2939-51. [PubMed: 17178918]  [MGI Ref ID J:120274]

Erlacher M; Michalak EM; Kelly PN; Labi V; Niederegger H; Coultas L; Adams JM; Strasser A; Villunger A. 2005. BH3-only proteins Puma and Bim are rate-limiting for gamma-radiation- and glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of lymphoid cells in vivo. Blood 106(13):4131-8. [PubMed: 16118324]  [MGI Ref ID J:124060]

Farres J; Martin-Caballero J; Martinez C; Lozano JJ; Llacuna L; Ampurdanes C; Ruiz-Herguido C; Dantzer F; Schreiber V; Villunger A; Bigas A; Yelamos J. 2013. Parp-2 is required to maintain hematopoiesis following sublethal gamma-irradiation in mice. Blood 122(1):44-54. [PubMed: 23678004]  [MGI Ref ID J:200948]

Fischer SF; Belz GT; Strasser A. 2008. BH3-only protein Puma contributes to death of antigen-specific T cells during shutdown of an immune response to acute viral infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(8):3035-40. [PubMed: 18287039]  [MGI Ref ID J:132819]

Ghosh AP; Klocke BJ; Ballestas ME; Roth KA. 2012. CHOP potentially co-operates with FOXO3a in neuronal cells to regulate PUMA and BIM expression in response to ER stress. PLoS One 7(6):e39586. [PubMed: 22761832]  [MGI Ref ID J:190239]

Gray DH; Kupresanin F; Berzins SP; Herold MJ; O'Reilly LA; Bouillet P; Strasser A. 2012. The BH3-Only Proteins Bim and Puma Cooperate to Impose Deletional Tolerance of Organ-Specific Antigens. Immunity 37(3):451-62. [PubMed: 22960223]  [MGI Ref ID J:187669]

Happo L; Cragg MS; Phipson B; Haga JM; Jansen ES; Herold MJ; Dewson G; Michalak EM; Vandenberg CJ; Smyth GK; Strasser A; Cory S; Scott CL. 2010. Maximal killing of lymphoma cells by DNA damage-inducing therapy requires not only the p53 targets Puma and Noxa, but also Bim. Blood 116(24):5256-67. [PubMed: 20829369]  [MGI Ref ID J:167411]

Huntington ND; Labi V; Cumano A; Vieira P; Strasser A; Villunger A; Di Santo JP; Alves NL. 2009. Loss of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 family member Bim sustains B lymphopoiesis in the absence of IL-7. Int Immunol 21(6):715-25. [PubMed: 19454543]  [MGI Ref ID J:149442]

Jabbour AM; Heraud JE; Daunt CP; Kaufmann T; Sandow J; O'Reilly LA; Callus BA; Lopez A; Strasser A; Vaux DL; Ekert PG. 2009. Puma indirectly activates Bax to cause apoptosis in the absence of Bid or Bim. Cell Death Differ 16(4):555-63. [PubMed: 19079139]  [MGI Ref ID J:158076]

Jankovic M; Robbiani DF; Dorsett Y; Eisenreich T; Xu Y; Tarakhovsky A; Nussenzweig A; Nussenzweig MC. 2010. Role of the translocation partner in protection against AID-dependent chromosomal translocations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(1):187-92. [PubMed: 19966290]  [MGI Ref ID J:156500]

Kerr JB; Hutt KJ; Michalak EM; Cook M; Vandenberg CJ; Liew SH; Bouillet P; Mills A; Scott CL; Findlay JK; Strasser A. 2012. DNA damage-induced primordial follicle oocyte apoptosis and loss of fertility require TAp63-mediated induction of Puma and Noxa. Mol Cell 48(3):343-52. [PubMed: 23000175]  [MGI Ref ID J:191005]

Kieran D; Woods I; Villunger A; Strasser A; Prehn JH. 2007. Deletion of the BH3-only protein puma protects motoneurons from ER stress-induced apoptosis and delays motoneuron loss in ALS mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(51):20606-11. [PubMed: 18077368]  [MGI Ref ID J:130581]

Kuroki K; Virard I; Concannon CG; Engel T; Woods I; Taki W; Plesnila N; Henshall DC; Prehn JH. 2009. Effects of transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice deficient in puma. Neurosci Lett 451(3):237-40. [PubMed: 19159665]  [MGI Ref ID J:146521]

Labi V; Erlacher M; Kiessling S; Manzl C; Frenzel A; O'Reilly L; Strasser A; Villunger A. 2008. Loss of the BH3-only protein Bmf impairs B cell homeostasis and accelerates gamma irradiation-induced thymic lymphoma development. J Exp Med 205(3):641-55. [PubMed: 18299399]  [MGI Ref ID J:133084]

Manzl C; Krumschnabel G; Bock F; Sohm B; Labi V; Baumgartner F; Logette E; Tschopp J; Villunger A. 2009. Caspase-2 activation in the absence of PIDDosome formation. J Cell Biol 185(2):291-303. [PubMed: 19364921]  [MGI Ref ID J:148929]

McKenzie MD; Jamieson E; Jansen ES; Scott CL; Huang DC; Bouillet P; Allison J; Kay TW; Strasser A; Thomas HE. 2010. Glucose induces pancreatic islet cell apoptosis that requires the BH3-only proteins Bim and Puma and multi-BH domain protein Bax. Diabetes 59(3):644-52. [PubMed: 19959756]  [MGI Ref ID J:164154]

Merino D; Khaw SL; Glaser SP; Anderson DJ; Belmont LD; Wong C; Yue P; Robati M; Phipson B; Fairlie WD; Lee EF; Campbell KJ; Vandenberg CJ; Cory S; Roberts AW; Ludlam MJ; Huang DC; Bouillet P. 2012. Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), and Bcl-w are not equivalent targets of ABT-737 and navitoclax (ABT-263) in lymphoid and leukemic cells. Blood 119(24):5807-16. [PubMed: 22538851]  [MGI Ref ID J:188645]

Michalak EM; Jansen ES; Happo L; Cragg MS; Tai L; Smyth GK; Strasser A; Adams JM; Scott CL. 2009. Puma and to a lesser extent Noxa are suppressors of Myc-induced lymphomagenesis. Cell Death Differ 16(5):684-96. [PubMed: 19148184]  [MGI Ref ID J:164197]

Michalak EM; Villunger A; Adams JM; Strasser A. 2008. In several cell types tumour suppressor p53 induces apoptosis largely via Puma but Noxa can contribute. Cell Death Differ 15(6):1019-29. [PubMed: 18259198]  [MGI Ref ID J:149036]

Naik E; Michalak EM; Villunger A; Adams JM; Strasser A. 2007. Ultraviolet radiation triggers apoptosis of fibroblasts and skin keratinocytes mainly via the BH3-only protein Noxa. J Cell Biol 176(4):415-24. [PubMed: 17283183]  [MGI Ref ID J:119726]

Neal MD; Sodhi CP; Jia H; Dyer M; Egan CE; Yazji I; Good M; Afrazi A; Marino R; Slagle D; Ma C; Branca MF; Prindle T Jr; Grant Z; Ozolek J; Hackam DJ. 2012. Toll-like receptor 4 is expressed on intestinal stem cells and regulates their proliferation and apoptosis via the p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis. J Biol Chem 287(44):37296-308. [PubMed: 22955282]  [MGI Ref ID J:192131]

Nordigarden A; Kraft M; Eliasson P; Labi V; Lam EW; Villunger A; Jonsson JI. 2009. BH3-only protein Bim more critical than Puma in tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced apoptosis of human leukemic cells and transduced hematopoietic progenitors carrying oncogenic FLT3. Blood 113(10):2302-11. [PubMed: 19064725]  [MGI Ref ID J:146067]

Santidrian AF; Gonzalez-Girones DM; Iglesias-Serret D; Coll-Mulet L; Cosialls AM; de Frias M; Campas C; Gonzalez-Barca E; Alonso E; Labi V; Viollet B; Benito A; Pons G; Villunger A; Gil J. 2010. AICAR induces apoptosis independently of AMPK and p53 through up-regulation of the BH3-only proteins BIM and NOXA in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Blood 116(16):3023-32. [PubMed: 20664053]  [MGI Ref ID J:165862]

Steckley D; Karajgikar M; Dale LB; Fuerth B; Swan P; Drummond-Main C; Poulter MO; Ferguson SS; Strasser A; Cregan SP. 2007. Puma is a dominant regulator of oxidative stress induced Bax activation and neuronal apoptosis. J Neurosci 27(47):12989-99. [PubMed: 18032672]  [MGI Ref ID J:127640]

Szymczak-Workman AL; Delgoffe GM; Green DR; Vignali DA. 2011. Cutting edge: Regulatory T cells do not mediate suppression via programmed cell death pathways. J Immunol 187(9):4416-20. [PubMed: 21949016]  [MGI Ref ID J:179446]

Terrinoni A; Serra V; Bruno E; Strasser A; Valente E; Flores ER; van Bokhoven H; Lu X; Knight RA; Melino G. 2013. Role of p63 and the Notch pathway in cochlea development and sensorineural deafness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(18):7300-5. [PubMed: 23589895]  [MGI Ref ID J:196661]

Tsuchiya T; Bonner HP; Engel T; Woods I; Matsushima S; Ward MW; Taki W; Henshall DC; Concannon CG; Prehn JH. 2011. Bcl-2 homology domain 3-only proteins Puma and Bim mediate the vulnerability of CA1 hippocampal neurons to proteasome inhibition in vivo. Eur J Neurosci 33(3):401-8. [PubMed: 21198986]  [MGI Ref ID J:174462]

Urich D; Soberanes S; Burgess Z; Chiarella SE; Ghio AJ; Ridge KM; Kamp DW; Chandel NS; Mutlu GM; Budinger GR. 2009. Proapoptotic Noxa is required for particulate matter-induced cell death and lung inflammation. FASEB J 23(7):2055-64. [PubMed: 19237507]  [MGI Ref ID J:150539]

Valente LJ; Gray DH; Michalak EM; Pinon-Hofbauer J; Egle A; Scott CL; Janic A; Strasser A. 2013. p53 efficiently suppresses tumor development in the complete absence of its cell-cycle inhibitory and proapoptotic effectors p21, Puma, and Noxa. Cell Rep 3(5):1339-45. [PubMed: 23665218]  [MGI Ref ID J:198484]

Watson LA; Wang X; Elbert A; Kernohan KD; Galjart N; Berube NG. 2014. Dual Effect of CTCF Loss on Neuroprogenitor Differentiation and Survival. J Neurosci 34(8):2860-70. [PubMed: 24553927]  [MGI Ref ID J:206929]

Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Room Number           AX10

Colony Maintenance

Breeding & HusbandryWhen maintaining a live colony, these mice can be bred as homozygotes.
Mating SystemHomozygote x Homozygote         (Female x Male)   01-NOV-11
Diet Information LabDiet® 5K52/5K67

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls


Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $199.90Female or MaleHomozygous for Bbc3tm1Ast  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$399.80Homozygous for Bbc3tm1Ast x Homozygous for Bbc3tm1Ast  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $259.90Female or MaleHomozygous for Bbc3tm1Ast  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$519.80Homozygous for Bbc3tm1Ast x Homozygous for Bbc3tm1Ast  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

Control Information

  Control
   000664 C57BL/6J
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.
 

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The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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