|This targeted mutation of the AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (Axl) gene exhibits an overtly normal phenotype, however, in combination with mutations in other receptor tyrosine kinases, this strain may be useful in studies of autoimmunity, germ cell development and apoptosis.|
Former Names B6;129S1-Axltm1Grl/J (Changed: 09-DEC-09 ) Type Mutant Stock; Targeted Mutation; Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice. Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial. Species laboratory mouse Generation ?pN1
Donating Investigator Greg Lemke, The Salk Institute
Mice that are homozygous for the targeted mutation are viable, fertile, normal in size and do not display any gross physical or behavioral abnormalities. When combined with the mutations Tyro3tm1Grl (Stock No. 007937) and Mertktm1Grl (Stock No. 011122), mice exhibit a lymphoproliferative disorder, autoimmunity, increased apoptosis in multiple tissues, blindness, abnormal spermatogenesis and reduced (in females) fertility or infertility (in males). This mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of autoimmunity, germ cell development and apoptosis.
A targeting vector was designed to introduce a neomycin resistance cassette into exon 9. The construct was electroporated into CB1-4 embryonic stem (ES) cells. Correctly targeted ES cells were injected into blastocysts. The resulting chimeric animals were intercrossed to generate homozygotes. Upon arrival at The Jackson Laboratory, mutant mice were bred to B6129SF2/J inbred mice (Stock No. 101045) to establish the colony.
|Considerations for Choosing Controls|
Strains carrying other alleles of Axl
005777 B6.129P2-Axltm1Dgen/JView Strains carrying other alleles of Axl (1 strain)
View Mammalian Phenotype TermsMammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGIassigned by genotype
The following phenotype information is associated with a similar, but not exact match to this JAX® Mice strain.
- reproductive system phenotype
- *normal* reproductive system phenotype
- cardiovascular system phenotype
- increased vascular permeability
- in the liver (MGI Ref ID J:198769)
- *normal* mortality/aging
- homozygotes are viable and fertile (MGI Ref ID J:54681)View Research ApplicationsResearch ApplicationsThis mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:
Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
|Allele Name||targeted mutation 1, Greg Lemke|
|Allele Type||Targeted (Null/Knockout)|
|Mutation Made By||Greg Lemke, The Salk Institute|
|Strain of Origin||C57BL/6J x (Rb(11.16)2H x Rb(16.17)32Lub)F1|
|Gene Symbol and Name||Axl, AXL receptor tyrosine kinase|
|Gene Common Name(s)||AI323647; Ark; JTK11; Tyro7; UFO; Ufo; expressed sequence AI323647; ufo oncogene homolog;|
|Molecular Note||A neomycin selection cassette replaced a segment of the gene containing exon 9. Western blot analysis on total brain lysates derived from homozygous mice demonstrated that no detectable protein was produced from this allele. [MGI Ref ID J:54681]|
Lu Q; Gore M; Zhang Q; Camenisch T; Boast S; Casagranda F; Lai C; Skinner MK; Klein R; Matsushima GK; Earp HS; Goff SP; Lemke G. 1999. Tyro-3 family receptors are essential regulators of mammalian spermatogenesis. Nature 398(6729):723-8. [PubMed: 10227296] [MGI Ref ID J:54681]
Angelillo-Scherrer A; Burnier L; Flores N; Savi P; DeMol M; Schaeffer P; Herbert JM; Lemke G; Goff SP; Matsushima GK; Earp HS; Vesin C; Hoylaerts MF; Plaisance S; Collen D; Conway EM; Wehrle-Haller B; Carmeliet P. 2005. Role of Gas6 receptors in platelet signaling during thrombus stabilization and implications for antithrombotic therapy. J Clin Invest 115(2):237-46. [PubMed: 15650770] [MGI Ref ID J:95952]
Angelillo-Scherrer A; Burnier L; Lambrechts D; Fish RJ; Tjwa M; Plaisance S; Sugamele R; DeMol M; Martinez-Soria E; Maxwell PH; Lemke G; Goff SP; Matsushima GK; Earp HS; Chanson M; Collen D; Izui S; Schapira M; Conway EM; Carmeliet P. 2008. Role of Gas6 in erythropoiesis and anemia in mice. J Clin Invest 118(2):583-96. [PubMed: 18188450] [MGI Ref ID J:131177]
Bauer T; Zagorska A; Jurkin J; Yasmin N; Koffel R; Richter S; Gesslbauer B; Lemke G; Strobl H. 2012. Identification of Axl as a downstream effector of TGF-beta1 during Langerhans cell differentiation and epidermal homeostasis. J Exp Med 209(11):2033-47. [PubMed: 23071254] [MGI Ref ID J:190898]
Bellosta P; Zhang Q; Goff SP; Basilico C. 1997. Signaling through the ARK tyrosine kinase receptor protects from apoptosis in the absence of growth stimulation. Oncogene 15(20):2387-97. [PubMed: 9395235] [MGI Ref ID J:44193]
Bosurgi L; Bernink JH; Delgado Cuevas V; Gagliani N; Joannas L; Schmid ET; Booth CJ; Ghosh S; Rothlin CV. 2013. Paradoxical role of the proto-oncogene Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases in colon cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(32):13091-6. [PubMed: 23878224] [MGI Ref ID J:200704]
Burstyn-Cohen T; Heeb MJ; Lemke G. 2009. Lack of protein S in mice causes embryonic lethal coagulopathy and vascular dysgenesis. J Clin Invest 119(10):2942-53. [PubMed: 19729839] [MGI Ref ID J:198769]
Burstyn-Cohen T; Lew ED; Traves PG; Burrola PG; Hash JC; Lemke G. 2012. Genetic dissection of TAM receptor-ligand interaction in retinal pigment epithelial cell phagocytosis. Neuron 76(6):1123-32. [PubMed: 23259948] [MGI Ref ID J:197656]
Carrera Silva EA; Chan PY; Joannas L; Errasti AE; Gagliani N; Bosurgi L; Jabbour M; Perry A; Smith-Chakmakova F; Mucida D; Cheroutre H; Burstyn-Cohen T; Leighton JA; Lemke G; Ghosh S; Rothlin CV. 2013. T cell-derived protein S engages TAM receptor signaling in dendritic cells to control the magnitude of the immune response. Immunity 39(1):160-70. [PubMed: 23850380] [MGI Ref ID J:208244]
Chen Y; Wang H; Qi N; Wu H; Xiong W; Ma J; Lu Q; Han D. 2009. Functions of TAM RTKs in regulating spermatogenesis and male fertility in mice. Reproduction 138(4):655-66. [PubMed: 19602523] [MGI Ref ID J:157130]
Deng T; Zhang Y; Chen Q; Yan K; Han D. 2012. Toll-like receptor-mediated inhibition of Gas6 and ProS expression facilitates inflammatory cytokine production in mouse macrophages. Immunology 135(1):40-50. [PubMed: 22043818] [MGI Ref ID J:179716]
Hoehn HJ; Kress Y; Sohn A; Brosnan CF; Bourdon S; Shafit-Zagardo B. 2008. Axl-/- mice have delayed recovery and prolonged axonal damage following cuprizone toxicity. Brain Res 1240:1-11. [PubMed: 18804096] [MGI Ref ID J:147638]
Ji R; Tian S; Lu HJ; Lu Q; Zheng Y; Wang X; Ding J; Li Q; Lu Q. 2013. TAM receptors affect adult brain neurogenesis by negative regulation of microglial cell activation. J Immunol 191(12):6165-77. [PubMed: 24244024] [MGI Ref ID J:207107]
Pierce A; Bliesner B; Xu M; Nielsen-Preiss S; Lemke G; Tobet S; Wierman ME. 2008. Axl and Tyro3 modulate female reproduction by influencing gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron survival and migration. Mol Endocrinol 22(11):2481-95. [PubMed: 18787040] [MGI Ref ID J:141251]
Pierce A; Xu M; Bliesner B; Liu Z; Richards J; Tobet S; Wierman ME. 2011. Hypothalamic but not pituitary or ovarian defects underlie the reproductive abnormalities in Axl/Tyro3 null mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol 339(1-2):151-8. [PubMed: 21539887] [MGI Ref ID J:179535]
Qi N; Liu P; Zhang Y; Wu H; Chen Y; Han D. 2013. Development of a spontaneous liver disease resembling autoimmune hepatitis in mice lacking tyro3, axl and mer receptor tyrosine kinases. PLoS One 8(6):e66604. [PubMed: 23799121] [MGI Ref ID J:204210]
Radic MZ; Shah K; Zhang W; Lu Q; Lemke G; Hilliard GM. 2006. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein P2 is an autoantibody target in mice deficient for Mer, Axl, and Tyro3 receptor tyrosine kinases. J Immunol 176(1):68-74. [PubMed: 16365397] [MGI Ref ID J:126253]
Sandahl M; Hunter DM; Strunk KE; Earp HS; Cook RS. 2010. Epithelial cell-directed efferocytosis in the post-partum mammary gland is necessary for tissue homeostasis and future lactation. BMC Dev Biol 10:122. [PubMed: 21192804] [MGI Ref ID J:167986]
Seitz HM; Camenisch TD; Lemke G; Earp HS; Matsushima GK. 2007. Macrophages and dendritic cells use different Axl/Mertk/Tyro3 receptors in clearance of apoptotic cells. J Immunol 178(9):5635-42. [PubMed: 17442946] [MGI Ref ID J:145835]
Shang T; Zhang X; Wang T; Sun B; Deng T; Han D. 2011. Toll-like receptor-initiated testicular innate immune responses in mouse leydig cells. Endocrinology 152(7):2827-36. [PubMed: 21540291] [MGI Ref ID J:174897]
Shankar SL; O'Guin K; Kim M; Varnum B; Lemke G; Brosnan CF; Shafit-Zagardo B. 2006. Gas6/Axl signaling activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt1 survival pathway to protect oligodendrocytes from tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis. J Neurosci 26(21):5638-48. [PubMed: 16723520] [MGI Ref ID J:182390]
Sharif MN; Sosic D; Rothlin CV; Kelly E; Lemke G; Olson EN; Ivashkiv LB. 2006. Twist mediates suppression of inflammation by type I IFNs and Axl. J Exp Med 203(8):1891-901. [PubMed: 16831897] [MGI Ref ID J:124396]
Wang J; Zhang H; Young AG; Qiu R; Argalian S; Li X; Wu X; Lemke G; Lu Q. 2011. Transcriptome analysis of neural progenitor cells by a genetic dual reporter strategy. Stem Cells 29(10):1589-600. [PubMed: 21805534] [MGI Ref ID J:212600]
Williams BJ; Craven RR; Earp HS; Kawula TH; Matsushima GK. 2009. TAM receptors are dispensable in the phagocytosis and killing of bacteria. Cell Immunol 259(2):128-34. [PubMed: 19625016] [MGI Ref ID J:152808]
Williams JC; Wagner NJ; Earp HS; Vilen BJ; Matsushima GK. 2010. Increased hematopoietic cells in the mertk-/- mouse peritoneal cavity: a result of augmented migration. J Immunol 184(12):6637-48. [PubMed: 20483720] [MGI Ref ID J:161155]
Xiong W; Chen Y; Wang H; Wang H; Wu H; Lu Q; Han D. 2008. Gas6 and the Tyro 3 receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily regulate the phagocytic function of Sertoli cells. Reproduction 135(1):77-87. [PubMed: 18159085] [MGI Ref ID J:133455]
Ye F; Han L; Lu Q; Dong W; Chen Z; Shao H; Kaplan HJ; Li Q; Lu Q. 2011. Retinal self-antigen induces a predominantly Th1 effector response in Axl and Mertk double-knockout mice. J Immunol 187(8):4178-86. [PubMed: 21918185] [MGI Ref ID J:179310]
Ye F; Li Q; Ke Y; Lu Q; Han L; Kaplan HJ; Shao H; Lu Q. 2011. TAM receptor knockout mice are susceptible to retinal autoimmune induction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(7):4239-46. [PubMed: 21467176] [MGI Ref ID J:181426]
Zhong Z; Wang Y; Guo H; Sagare A; Fernandez JA; Bell RD; Barrett TM; Griffin JH; Freeman RS; Zlokovic BV. 2010. Protein S protects neurons from excitotoxic injury by activating the TAM receptor Tyro3-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway through its sex hormone-binding globulin-like region. J Neurosci 30(46):15521-34. [PubMed: 21084607] [MGI Ref ID J:182379]
Zhu D; Wang Y; Singh I; Bell RD; Deane R; Zhong Z; Sagare A; Winkler EA; Zlokovic BV. 2010. Protein S controls hypoxic/ischemic blood-brain barrier disruption through the TAM receptor Tyro3 and sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor. Blood 115(23):4963-72. [PubMed: 20348395] [MGI Ref ID J:161551]
Animal Health ReportsProduction of mice from cryopreserved embryos or sperm occurs in a maximum barrier room, G200.
Breeding & Husbandry While maintaining a live colony, these mice are bred as homozygotes.
|Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations|
Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery
Price (US dollars $) Cryorecovery* $2140.00
At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.
Cryorecovery - Standard.
Progeny testing is not required.
The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.
Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).
|Pricing for International shipping destinations|
Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery
Price (US dollars $) Cryorecovery* $2782.00
Cryorecovery - Standard.
Progeny testing is not required.
|Considerations for Choosing Controls|
|Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.|
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