Strain Name:

B10ScSn.Cg-Prkdcscid Dmdmdx/J

Stock Number:

018018

Order this mouse

Availability:

Repository- Live

Use Restrictions Apply, see Terms of Use
MDX/SCID mice exhibit necrosis, centrally located nuclei and and the muscle degeneration characteristic of DMD and may be used a dystrophic model for the transplantation of human donor cells to evaluate skeletal muscle regeneration.

Description

Strain Information

Type Congenic; Mutant Strain; Spontaneous Mutation;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Additional information on Congenic nomenclature.
Mating SystemSee Colony Maintenance under the Health & Care tab         (Female x Male)   22-JUN-12
Specieslaboratory mouse
GenerationN10+N1F4 (30-OCT-12)
Generation Definitions
 
Donating Investigator Johnny Huard,   University of Pittsburgh

Description
The X-linked dystrophin gene (Dmd) is highly expressed in muscle cells and encodes a cytoskeletal protein which localizes to the inner face of the sarcolemma. Dystrophin molecules bind to cytoskeletal F-actin and transmembrane beta-dystroglycan as part of a complex, multimolecular unit that mediates signaling between the intracellular cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. The structure and localization also suggest that dystrophin is important for stabilizing the plasma membrane, particularly during contraction. Like human patients who suffer from one of the most common neuromuscular diseases, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the Dmdmdx mutants do not express dystrophin and therefore have been routinely used as an animal model of the disease even though the resultant myopathology is much less severe compared to the human disease course. When combined with the Prkdcscid allele, there is some amelioration of the mdx phenotype including a reduction in the rate of muscle fibrosis, higher endurance and decreased expression of active TGFB1. However, MDX/SCID mice continue to exhibit necrosis, centrally located nuclei and and the muscle degeneration characteristic of DMD. The MDX/SCID mouse may be used a dystrophic model for the transplantation of human donor cells to evaluate skeletal muscle regeneration.

Development
The spontaneous mutation Dmdmdx arose just prior to 1977 at the Agricultural Research Council's Poultry Research Centre, U.K., in C57BL/10ScSn mice obtained from M. Festing (MRC Laboratory Animals Centre, Carshalton, Surrey, U.K.). Mice carrying the mdx allele were imported to The Jackson Laboratory in 1984 by Dr. Thomas Roderick, who received them from Dr. Karen Moore (Department of Genetics, University of California, Berkley). In 2000, under the direction of James Cummins at the University of Pittsburgh and Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, the Prkdcscid allele from B6.CB17-Prkdcscid/SzJ was introgressed into C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx/J for at least 10 generations. This strain is maintained as homozygous for Prkdcscid allele and by sibling mating homozygous Dmdmdx females with hemizygous Dmdmdx males; mice can breed up to six months of age.

Control Information

  Control
   000476 C57BL/10ScSnJ (approximate)
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Related Strains

Strains carrying   Dmdmdx allele
017929   B10.Cg-Cmahtm1Avrk Dmdmdx/PtmJ
001801   C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx/J
013141   D2.B10-Dmdmdx/J
018915   STOCK Terctm1Rdp Dmdmdx/J
016622   STOCK Utrntm1Jrs Dmdmdx/J
014563   STOCK Utrntm1Ked Dmdmdx/J
View Strains carrying   Dmdmdx     (6 strains)

Strains carrying   Prkdcscid allele
001913   B6.CB17-Prkdcscid/SzJ
017917   B6.Cg-Dysfprmd Prkdcscid/J
021146   B6.Cg-Fcgrttm1Dcr Prkdcscid Tg(CAG-FCGRT)276Dcr/DcrJ
018441   B6.Cg-Fcgrttm1Dcr Prkdcscid Tg(FCGRT)32Dcr/DcrJ
018541   B6.Cg-Fcgrttm1Dcr Prkdcscid/DcrJ
010816   B6;C-Ghrhrlit Prkdcscid/BmJ
001131   C3SnSmn.CB17-Prkdcscid/J
001803   CBySmn.CB17-Prkdcscid/J
004083   NOD.129(B6)-Prkdcscid Iduatm1Clk/J
001303   NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J
002571   NOD.Cg Prkdcscid-B2mb/Dvs
004644   NOD.Cg Prkdcscid-Tg(CSF2)2Ygy Tg(IL3)1Ygy Tg(KITLG)3Ygy/YgyJ
010636   NOD.Cg-B2mtm1Unc Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ
005345   NOD.Cg-Cd38tm1Lnd Prkdcscid/LtJ
014553   NOD.Cg-Hgftm1.1(HGF)Aveo Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/J
004262   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Tg(HLA-A2.1)1Enge/Dvs
012478   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Tg(HLA-DRA*0101,HLA-DRB1*0101)1Dmz/GckJ
004346   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Tg(Ins2-CD80)3B7Flv/DvsJ
004230   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Tg(Ins2-E3)1Dvs/DvsJ
003843   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Tg(Ins2-GAD2)1Lt/LtJ
003844   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Tg(Ins2-GAD2)2Lt/LtJ
004257   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Tg(TcrLCMV)327Sdz/DvsJ
016148   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Alox15tm1Fun/NadlJ
002570   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid B2mtm1Unc/J
006605   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Emv30b Tg(HLA-A/H2-D/B2M)1Dvs/DvsJ
002313   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Emv30b/Dvs
005053   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Gusbmps/SndsJ
004606   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid H2-Ab1tm1Doi Tg(HLA-DQA1,HLA-DQB1)1Dv/SzJ
005589   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid H2-Ab1tm1Doi/SzJ
021885   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid H2-Ab1tm1Gru Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ
023848   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid H2-K1tm1Bpe H2-D1tm1Bpe Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ
014570   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl Tg(HLA-A/H2-D/B2M)1Dvs/SzJ
012479   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl Tg(HLA-DRA*0101,HLA-DRB1*0101)1Dmz/GckRolyJ
017637   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl H2-Ab1tm1Gru Tg(HLA-DRB1)31Dmz/SzJ
012480   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl Hprtb-m3/EshJ
021937   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl Tg(CAG-EGFP)1Osb/SzJ
013062   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl Tg(CMV-IL3,CSF2,KITLG)1Eav/MloySzJ
009617   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl Tg(HLA-A2.1)1Enge/SzJ
017830   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl Tg(PGK1-KITLG*220)441Daw/SzJ
005557   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ
011066   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl Tg(CSF2)2Ygy Tg(IL3)1Ygy Tg(KITLG)3Ygy/YgyJGckRolyJ
017620   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Tg(CAG-DsRed*MST)1Nagy/KupwJ
017619   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Tg(CAG-EGFP)1Osb/KupwJ
006609   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Tg(HLA-A2.1)1Enge/DvsJ
007840   NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Tg(Ins2-CD86)12B70Flv/FswJ
002380   NOD.Cg-Tg(Ins2-TAg)1Lt Prkdcscid/DvsJ
022396   NOR.CB17(NOD)-Prkdcscid/JsdJ
014543   STOCK Hgftm1.1(HGF)Aveo Prkdcscid/J
010605   STOCK Prkdcscid Gnrh1hpg/BmJ
View Strains carrying   Prkdcscid     (49 strains)

Strains carrying other alleles of Dmd
002377   B6.Cg-Dmdmdx-3Cv/J
023535   B6.Cg-Terctm1Rdp Dmdmdx-4Cv/BlauJ
002388   B6Ros.Cg-Dmdmdx-2Cv/J
002378   B6Ros.Cg-Dmdmdx-4Cv/J
002379   B6Ros.Cg-Dmdmdx-5Cv/J
View Strains carrying other alleles of Dmd     (5 strains)

Phenotype

Phenotype Information

View Related Disease (OMIM) Terms

Related Disease (OMIM) Terms provided by MGI
- Potential model based on gene homology relationships. Phenotypic similarity to the human disease has not been tested.
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 3b; CMD3B   (DMD)
Muscular Dystrophy, Becker Type; BMD   (DMD)
Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne Type; DMD   (DMD)
View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

The following phenotype information is associated with a similar, but not exact match to this JAX® Mice strain.

Dmdmdx/Dmdmdx Prkdcscid/Prkdcscid

        involves: C57BL/10ScSn * CB17
  • hematopoietic system phenotype
  • absent CD4-positive, alpha beta T cells
    • no expression of CD4+ cells as determined by cytofluorimetric analysis   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
  • absent CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cells
    • no expression of CD8+ cells as determined by cytofluorimetric analysis   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
  • decreased B cell number
    • 9.3% of total blood derived cells express B220+ and no expression of CD19+ cells as determined by cytofluorimetric analysis   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • decreased transforming growth factor level
    • costal diaphragm (DIA) has a lower quantity of active TGFB1 in comparison to Dmdmdx mutant although total quantity is similar   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
    • tibialis anterior (TA) and quadricepts (QA) muscles have a lower quantity of total TGFB1 in comparison to Dmdmdx mutant   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
  • impaired exercise endurance
    • mice exhibit a shorter time to exhaustion than wild type controls   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
    • higher endurance on treadmill in double mutant than Dmdmdx mutants   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
  • immune system phenotype
  • absent CD4-positive, alpha beta T cells
    • no expression of CD4+ cells as determined by cytofluorimetric analysis   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
  • absent CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cells
    • no expression of CD8+ cells as determined by cytofluorimetric analysis   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
  • decreased B cell number
    • 9.3% of total blood derived cells express B220+ and no expression of CD19+ cells as determined by cytofluorimetric analysis   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
  • muscle phenotype
  • centrally nucleated skeletal muscle fibers
    • small, centrally nucleated, regenerating muscle fibers are found in 2 and 12 month old mice   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
    • 46-52% of muscle fibers exhibit centrally located nuclei   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
  • impaired skeletal muscle contractility
    • loss of normalized tetanic force in the costal diaphragm (DIA) strips is observed in 2 and 12 month old mice as compared to wild type   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
    • change appears lower in double mutant than in Dmdmdx mutants   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
    • a similar decrease in normalized tetanic force occurs in the tibialis anterior (TA)   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
  • increased skeletal muscle fiber diameter
    • area of muscle fibers is 1500-1800 um2 and coefficient of variance is 55-65   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
  • skeletal muscle fiber degeneration
    • degenerating muscle fibers are found in 2 and 12 month old mice   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
  • skeletal muscle fibrosis
    • aged 12 month old double mutant mice exhibit fibrosis, but less than in age-matched Dmdmdx mice   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
  • reproductive system phenotype
  • reduced fertility
    • double mutant mice are less fertile than Dmdmdx mice   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
  • skeleton phenotype
  • abnormal vertebral column morphology
    • progressive spinal deformity   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
  • behavior/neurological phenotype
  • impaired exercise endurance
    • mice exhibit a shorter time to exhaustion than wild type controls   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
    • higher endurance on treadmill in double mutant than Dmdmdx mutants   (MGI Ref ID J:125527)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
Immunodeficiency
      B and T cell deficiency
T Cell Receptor Signaling Defects
      B and T cell deficiency, xenograft/transplant host

Neurobiology Research
Neuromuscular Defects

Dmdmdx related

Cell Biology Research
Signal Transduction

Neurobiology Research
Muscular Dystrophy
      Duchenne type

Sensorineural Research
Cataracts

Prkdcscid related

Immunology, Inflammation and Autoimmunity Research
Immunodeficiency
      B and T cell deficiency

Internal/Organ Research
Lymphoid Tissue Defects
      B and T cell deficiency

Research Tools
Cancer Research
      B and T cell deficiency, xenograft/transplant host
Toxicology Research
      xenograft/transplant host

Virology Research
B and T Cell Deficiency
      AIDS research tool

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

 
Allele Symbol Dmdmdx
Allele Name X linked muscular dystrophy
Allele Type Spontaneous
Common Name(s) mdx; pke; pvruvate kinase expression;
Strain of OriginC57BL/10ScSn
Gene Symbol and Name Dmd, dystrophin, muscular dystrophy
Chromosome X
Gene Common Name(s) BMD; CMD3B; DXS142; DXS164; DXS206; DXS230; DXS239; DXS268; DXS269; DXS270; DXS272; Dp427; Dp71; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; MRX85; X-linked muscular dystrophy; dys; mdx; pke; pyruvate kinase expression;
Molecular Note This mutation arose in 1981 in a C57BL/10ScSn colony at University of Leicester. A C-to-T transition occurred at position 3185, resulting in a termination codon in place of a glutamine codon. This mutation is predicted to produce a truncated protein. [MGI Ref ID J:102707] [MGI Ref ID J:40541] [MGI Ref ID J:9866]
 
Allele Symbol Prkdcscid
Allele Name severe combined immunodeficiency
Allele Type Spontaneous
Common Name(s) SCID;
Strain of OriginC.B-17
Gene Symbol and Name Prkdc, protein kinase, DNA activated, catalytic polypeptide
Chromosome 16
Gene Common Name(s) AI326420; AU019811; DNA-PK; DNA-PKcs; DNAPDcs; DNAPK; DNPK1; DOXNPH; HYRC; HYRC1; XRCC7; doxorubicin nephropathy; dxnph; expressed sequence AI326420; expressed sequence AU019811; p350; scid; severe combined immunodeficiency; slip;
Molecular Note A T-to-A transversion point mutation at a position corresponding to codon 4095 created a premature stop codon. [MGI Ref ID J:35393] [MGI Ref ID J:39329]

Genotyping

Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

DmdmdxEnd Point, End Point Analysis
Prkdcscid End Point, End Point Analysis


Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting

References

References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Chirieleison SM; Feduska JM; Schugar RC; Askew Y; Deasy BM. 2012. Human muscle-derived cell populations isolated by differential adhesion rates: phenotype and contribution to skeletal muscle regeneration in Mdx/SCID mice. Tissue Eng Part A 18(3-4):232-41. [PubMed: 21854253]  [MGI Ref ID J:181239]

Park TS; Gavina M; Chen CW; Sun B; Teng PN; Huard J; Deasy BM; Zimmerlin L; Peault B. 2011. Placental perivascular cells for human muscle regeneration. Stem Cells Dev 20(3):451-63. [PubMed: 20923371]  [MGI Ref ID J:181240]

Additional References

Dmdmdx related

't Hoen PA; de Meijer EJ; Boer JM; Vossen RH; Turk R; Maatman RG; Davies KE; van Ommen GJ; van Deutekom JC; den Dunnen JT. 2008. Generation and characterization of transgenic mice with the full-length human DMD gene. J Biol Chem 283(9):5899-907. [PubMed: 18083704]  [MGI Ref ID J:132320]

Abmayr S; Crawford RW; Chamberlain JS. 2004. Characterization of ARC, apoptosis repressor interacting with CARD, in normal and dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle. Hum Mol Genet 13(2):213-21. [PubMed: 14645204]  [MGI Ref ID J:87688]

Acharyya S; Butchbach ME; Sahenk Z; Wang H; Saji M; Carathers M; Ringel MD; Skipworth RJ; Fearon KC; Hollingsworth MA; Muscarella P; Burghes AH; Rafael-Fortney JA; Guttridge DC. 2005. Dystrophin glycoprotein complex dysfunction: a regulatory link between muscular dystrophy and cancer cachexia. Cancer Cell 8(5):421-32. [PubMed: 16286249]  [MGI Ref ID J:103953]

Acharyya S; Villalta SA; Bakkar N; Bupha-Intr T; Janssen PM; Carathers M; Li ZW; Beg AA; Ghosh S; Sahenk Z; Weinstein M; Gardner KL; Rafael-Fortney JA; Karin M; Tidball JG; Baldwin AS; Guttridge DC. 2007. Interplay of IKK/NF-kappaB signaling in macrophages and myofibers promotes muscle degeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Clin Invest 117(4):889-901. [PubMed: 17380205]  [MGI Ref ID J:121279]

Acuna MJ; Pessina P; Olguin H; Cabrera D; Vio CP; Bader M; Munoz-Canoves P; Santos RA; Cabello-Verrugio C; Brandan E. 2014. Restoration of muscle strength in dystrophic muscle by angiotensin-1-7 through inhibition of TGF-beta signalling. Hum Mol Genet 23(5):1237-49. [PubMed: 24163134]  [MGI Ref ID J:206216]

Agbulut O; Noirez P; Butler-Browne G; Jockusch H. 2004. Specific isomyosin proportions in hyperexcitable and physiologically denervated mouse muscle. FEBS Lett 561(1-3):191-4. [PubMed: 15013776]  [MGI Ref ID J:117992]

Ahmad A; Brinson M; Hodges BL; Chamberlain JS; Amalfitano A. 2000. Mdx mice inducibly expressing dystrophin provide insights into the potential of gene therapy for duchenne muscular dystrophy Hum Mol Genet 9(17):2507-15. [PubMed: 11030755]  [MGI Ref ID J:65413]

Alameddine HS; Quantin B; Cartaud A; Dehaupas M; Mandel JL; Fardeau M. 1994. Expression of a recombinant dystrophin in mdx mice using adenovirus vector. Neuromuscul Disord 4(3):193-203. [PubMed: 7919968]  [MGI Ref ID J:19384]

Alfaro LA; Dick SA; Siegel AL; Anonuevo AS; McNagny KM; Megeney LA; Cornelison DD; Rossi FM. 2011. CD34 promotes satellite cell motility and entry into proliferation to facilitate efficient skeletal muscle regeneration. Stem Cells 29(12):2030-41. [PubMed: 21997891]  [MGI Ref ID J:190197]

Altamirano F; Valladares D; Henriquez-Olguin C; Casas M; Lopez JR; Allen PD; Jaimovich E. 2013. Nifedipine treatment reduces resting calcium concentration, oxidative and apoptotic gene expression, and improves muscle function in dystrophic mdx mice. PLoS One 8(12):e81222. [PubMed: 24349043]  [MGI Ref ID J:209732]

Amenta AR; Yilmaz A; Bogdanovich S; McKechnie BA; Abedi M; Khurana TS; Fallon JR. 2011. Biglycan recruits utrophin to the sarcolemma and counters dystrophic pathology in mdx mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(2):762-7. [PubMed: 21187385]  [MGI Ref ID J:170566]

Amirouche A; Tadesse H; Lunde JA; Belanger G; Cote J; Jasmin BJ. 2013. Activation of p38 signaling increases utrophin A expression in skeletal muscle via the RNA-binding protein KSRP and inhibition of AU-rich element-mediated mRNA decay: implications for novel DMD therapeutics. Hum Mol Genet 22(15):3093-111. [PubMed: 23575223]  [MGI Ref ID J:198527]

Anderson JE. 2000. A role for nitric oxide in muscle repair: nitric oxide-mediated activation of muscle satellite cells. Mol Biol Cell 11(5):1859-74. [PubMed: 10793157]  [MGI Ref ID J:120497]

Anderson JE. 1991. Dystrophic changes in mdx muscle regenerating from denervation and devascularization. Muscle Nerve 14(3):268-79. [PubMed: 2041548]  [MGI Ref ID J:116345]

Anderson JE; Bressler BH; Ovalle WK. 1988. Functional regeneration in the hindlimb skeletal muscle of the mdx mouse. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 9(6):499-515. [PubMed: 3209690]  [MGI Ref ID J:152749]

Anderson JE; Garrett K; Moor A; McIntosh L; Penner K. 1998. Dystrophy and myogenesis in mdx diaphragm muscle. Muscle Nerve 21(9):1153-65. [PubMed: 9703441]  [MGI Ref ID J:116331]

Anderson JE; Kao L; Bressler BH; Gruenstein E. 1990. Analysis of dystrophin in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles from mdx and dy2J mice at different ages. Muscle Nerve 13(1):6-11. [PubMed: 2183046]  [MGI Ref ID J:116019]

Anderson JE; Lentz DL; Johnson RB. 1993. Recovery from disuse osteopenia coincident to restoration of muscle strength in mdx mice. Bone 14(4):625-34. [PubMed: 8274305]  [MGI Ref ID J:17563]

Anderson JE; Liu L; Kardami E. 1994. The effects of hyperthyroidism on muscular dystrophy in the mdx mouse: greater dystrophy in cardiac and soleus muscle. Muscle Nerve 17(1):64-73. [PubMed: 8264704]  [MGI Ref ID J:115865]

Anderson JE; Liu L; Kardami E; Murphy LJ. 1994. The pituitary-muscle axis in mdx dystrophic mice. J Neurol Sci 123(1-2):80-7. [PubMed: 8064326]  [MGI Ref ID J:18080]

Anderson JE; McIntosh LM; Moor AN; Yablonka-Reuveni Z. 1998. Levels of MyoD protein expression following injury of mdx and normal limb muscle are modified by thyroid hormone. J Histochem Cytochem 46(1):59-67. [PubMed: 9407021]  [MGI Ref ID J:45263]

Anderson JL; Head SI; Morley JW. 2003. Altered inhibitory input to Purkinje cells of dystrophin-deficient mice. Brain Res 982(2):280-3. [PubMed: 12915262]  [MGI Ref ID J:85437]

Anderson JL; Head SI; Morley JW. 2004. Long-term depression is reduced in cerebellar Purkinje cells of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Brain Res 1019(1-2):289-92. [PubMed: 15306266]  [MGI Ref ID J:91994]

Angoli D; Corona P; Baresi R; Mora M; Wanke E. 1997. Laminin-alpha2 but not -alpha1-mediated adhesion of human (Duchenne) and murine (mdx) dystrophic myotubes is seriously defective. FEBS Lett 408(3):341-4. [PubMed: 9188790]  [MGI Ref ID J:40762]

Ardite E; Perdiguero E; Vidal B; Gutarra S; Serrano AL; Munoz-Canoves P. 2012. PAI-1-regulated miR-21 defines a novel age-associated fibrogenic pathway in muscular dystrophy. J Cell Biol 196(1):163-75. [PubMed: 22213800]  [MGI Ref ID J:179966]

Asai A; Sahani N; Kaneki M; Ouchi Y; Martyn JA; Yasuhara SE. 2007. Primary role of functional ischemia, quantitative evidence for the two-hit mechanism, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor therapy in mouse muscular dystrophy. PLoS ONE 2(8):e806. [PubMed: 17726536]  [MGI Ref ID J:129397]

Ascah A; Khairhallah M; Daussin F; Bourcier-Lucas C; Godin R; Allen BG; Petrof BJ; Des Rosiers C; Burelle Y. 2010. STRESS-INDUCED OPENING OF THE PERMEABILITY TRANSITION PORE IN THE DYSTROPHIN-DEFICIENT HEART IS ATTENUATED BY ACUTE TREATMENT WITH SILDENAFIL. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol :. [PubMed: 20971771]  [MGI Ref ID J:166227]

Asselin I; Tremblay M; Vilquin JT; Guerette B; Roy R; Tremblay JP. 1995. Quantification of normal dystrophin mRNA following myoblast transplantation in mdx mice. Muscle Nerve 18(9):980-6. [PubMed: 7643878]  [MGI Ref ID J:28866]

Asselin I; Tremblay M; Vilquin JT; Guerette B; Tremblay JP. 1994. Polymerase chain reaction-based assay to assess the success of myoblast transplantation in mdx mice. Transplant Proc 26(6):3389. [PubMed: 7527970]  [MGI Ref ID J:21945]

Attal P; Lambert F; Marchand-Adam S; Bobin S; Pourny JC; Chemla D; Lecarpentier Y; Coirault C. 2000. Severe mechanical dysfunction in pharyngeal muscle from adult mdx mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162(1):278-81. [PubMed: 10903254]  [MGI Ref ID J:103161]

Auda-Boucher G; Rouaud T; Lafoux A; Levitsky D; Huchet-Cadiou C; Feron M; Guevel L; Talon S; Fontaine-Perus J; Gardahaut MF. 2007. Fetal muscle-derived cells can repair dystrophic muscles in mdx mice. Exp Cell Res 313(5):997-1007. [PubMed: 17275812]  [MGI Ref ID J:119767]

Augustin M; Klopp N; Ewald K; Jockusch H. 1998. A multicopy c-Myc transgene as a nuclear label: overgrowth of Myctg50 cells in allophenic mice. Cell Biol Int 22(6):401-11. [PubMed: 10328848]  [MGI Ref ID J:127669]

Austin L; Bower JJ; Bennett TM; Lynch GS; Kapsa R; White JD; Barnard W; Gregorevic P; Byrne E. 2000. Leukemia inhibitory factor ameliorates muscle fiber degeneration in the mdx mouse. Muscle Nerve 23(11):1700-5. [PubMed: 11054748]  [MGI Ref ID J:116201]

Azzena GB; Mancinelli R. 1999. Nitric oxide regenerates the normal colonic peristaltic activity in mdx dystrophic mouse. Neurosci Lett 261(1-2):9-12. [PubMed: 10081914]  [MGI Ref ID J:107984]

Baccari MC; Romagnani P; Calamai F. 2000. Impaired nitrergic relaxations in the gastric fundus of dystrophic (mdx) mice. Neurosci Lett 282(1-2):105-8. [PubMed: 10713407]  [MGI Ref ID J:107938]

Badalamente MA; Stracher A. 2000. Delay of muscle degeneration and necrosis in mdx mice by calpain inhibition. Muscle Nerve 23(1):106-11. [PubMed: 10590413]  [MGI Ref ID J:116195]

Bagher P; Duan D; Segal SS. 2011. Evidence for impaired neurovascular transmission in a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Appl Physiol 110(3):601-9. [PubMed: 21109597]  [MGI Ref ID J:185890]

Bakker AJ; Head SI; Williams DA; Stephenson DG. 1993. Ca2+ levels in myotubes grown from the skeletal muscle of dystrophic (mdx) and normal mice. J Physiol 460:1-13. [PubMed: 8487190]  [MGI Ref ID J:15813]

Baltgalvis KA; Jaeger MA; Fitzsimons DP; Thayer SA; Lowe DA; Ervasti JM. 2011. Transgenic overexpression of gamma-cytoplasmic actin protects against eccentric contraction-induced force loss in mdx mice. Skelet Muscle 1(1):32. [PubMed: 21995957]  [MGI Ref ID J:183731]

Banks GB; Chamberlain JS; Froehner SC. 2009. Truncated dystrophins can influence neuromuscular synapse structure. Mol Cell Neurosci 40(4):433-41. [PubMed: 19171194]  [MGI Ref ID J:146866]

Banks GB; Combs AC; Chamberlain JR; Chamberlain JS. 2008. Molecular and cellular adaptations to chronic myotendinous strain injury in mdx mice expressing a truncated dystrophin. Hum Mol Genet 17(24):3975-86. [PubMed: 18799475]  [MGI Ref ID J:142565]

Barnabei MS; Metzger JM. 2012. Ex vivo stretch reveals altered mechanical properties of isolated dystrophin-deficient hearts. PLoS One 7(3):e32880. [PubMed: 22427904]  [MGI Ref ID J:186918]

Barton ER. 2006. Impact of sarcoglycan complex on mechanical signal transduction in murine skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 290(2):C411-9. [PubMed: 16162659]  [MGI Ref ID J:104967]

Barton ER; Morris L; Musaro A; Rosenthal N; Sweeney HL. 2002. Muscle-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor I counters muscle decline in mdx mice. J Cell Biol 157(1):137-48. [PubMed: 11927606]  [MGI Ref ID J:75770]

Barton-Davis ER; Cordier L; Shoturma DI; Leland SE; Sweeney HL. 1999. Aminoglycoside antibiotics restore dystrophin function to skeletal muscles of mdx mice [see comments] J Clin Invest 104(4):375-81. [PubMed: 10449429]  [MGI Ref ID J:56908]

Bates G; Sigurdardottir S; Kachmar L; Zitouni NB; Benedetti A; Petrof BJ; Rassier D; Lauzon AM. 2013. Molecular, cellular, and muscle strip mechanics of the mdx mouse diaphragm. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 304(9):C873-80. [PubMed: 23426972]  [MGI Ref ID J:196389]

Beastrom N; Lu H; Macke A; Canan BD; Johnson EK; Penton CM; Kaspar BK; Rodino-Klapac LR; Zhou L; Janssen PM; Montanaro F. 2011. mdx(5cv) Mice Manifest More Severe Muscle Dysfunction and Diaphragm Force Deficits than Do mdx Mice. Am J Pathol 179(5):2464-74. [PubMed: 21893021]  [MGI Ref ID J:177391]

Beedle AM; Nienaber PM; Campbell KP. 2007. Fukutin-related protein associates with the sarcolemmal dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. J Biol Chem 282(23):16713-7. [PubMed: 17452335]  [MGI Ref ID J:122734]

Belanto JJ; Mader TL; Eckhoff MD; Strandjord DM; Banks GB; Gardner MK; Lowe DA; Ervasti JM. 2014. Microtubule binding distinguishes dystrophin from utrophin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(15):5723-8. [PubMed: 24706788]  [MGI Ref ID J:208636]

Bellinger AM; Reiken S; Carlson C; Mongillo M; Liu X; Rothman L; Matecki S; Lacampagne A; Marks AR. 2009. Hypernitrosylated ryanodine receptor calcium release channels are leaky in dystrophic muscle. Nat Med 15(3):325-30. [PubMed: 19198614]  [MGI Ref ID J:146474]

Bentzinger CF; Romanino K; Cloetta D; Lin S; Mascarenhas JB; Oliveri F; Xia J; Casanova E; Costa CF; Brink M; Zorzato F; Hall MN; Ruegg MA. 2008. Skeletal muscle-specific ablation of raptor, but not of rictor, causes metabolic changes and results in muscle dystrophy. Cell Metab 8(5):411-24. [PubMed: 19046572]  [MGI Ref ID J:143748]

Bertoni C; Lau C; Rando TA. 2003. Restoration of dystrophin expression in mdx muscle cells by chimeraplast-mediated exon skipping. Hum Mol Genet 12(10):1087-99. [PubMed: 12719373]  [MGI Ref ID J:83434]

Bhagwati S; Ghatpande A; Shafiq SA; Leung B. 1996. In situ hybridization analysis for expression of myogenic regulatory factors in regenerating muscle of mdx mouse. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 55(5):509-14. [PubMed: 8627340]  [MGI Ref ID J:33889]

Bia BL; Cassidy PJ; Young ME; Rafael JA; Leighton B; Davies KE; Radda GK; Clarke K. 1999. Decreased myocardial nNOS, increased iNOS and abnormal ECGs in mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Mol Cell Cardiol 31(10):1857-62. [PubMed: 10525423]  [MGI Ref ID J:102663]

Bittner RE; Streubel B; Shorny S; Schaden G; Voit T; Hoger H. 1994. Coisogenic all-plus-one immunization: a model for identifying missing proteins in null-mutant conditions. Antibodies to dystrophin in mdx mouse after transplantation of muscle from normal coisogenic donor. Neuropediatrics 25(4):176-82. [PubMed: 7824089]  [MGI Ref ID J:23190]

Blaauw B; Agatea L; Toniolo L; Canato M; Quarta M; Dyar KA; Danieli-Betto D; Betto R; Schiaffino S; Reggiani C. 2010. Eccentric contractions lead to myofibrillar dysfunction in muscular dystrophy. J Appl Physiol 108(1):105-11. [PubMed: 19910334]  [MGI Ref ID J:185865]

Blaauw B; Mammucari C; Toniolo L; Agatea L; Abraham R; Sandri M; Reggiani C; Schiaffino S. 2008. Akt activation prevents the force drop induced by eccentric contractions in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle. Hum Mol Genet 17(23):3686-96. [PubMed: 18753145]  [MGI Ref ID J:141001]

Blain A; Greally E; Laval S; Blamire A; Straub V; MacGowan GA. 2013. Beta-blockers, left and right ventricular function, and in-vivo calcium influx in muscular dystrophy cardiomyopathy. PLoS One 8(2):e57260. [PubMed: 23437355]  [MGI Ref ID J:199333]

Blanchet E; Annicotte JS; Pradelli LA; Hugon G; Matecki S; Mornet D; Rivier F; Fajas L. 2012. E2F transcription factor-1 deficiency reduces pathophysiology in the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy through increased muscle oxidative metabolism. Hum Mol Genet 21(17):3910-7. [PubMed: 22678059]  [MGI Ref ID J:185978]

Bloom TJ. 2005. Age-related alterations in cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity in dystrophic mouse leg muscle. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 83(11):1055-60. [PubMed: 16391714]  [MGI Ref ID J:110508]

Bloom TJ. 2002. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase isozymes expressed in mouse skeletal muscle. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 80(12):1132-5. [PubMed: 12564638]  [MGI Ref ID J:102408]

Bobet J; Mooney RF; Gordon T. 1998. Force and stiffness of old dystrophic (mdx) mouse skeletal muscles. Muscle Nerve 21(4):536-9. [PubMed: 9533791]  [MGI Ref ID J:116778]

Boland B; Himpens B; Casteels R; Gillis JM. 1993. Lack of dystrophin but normal calcium homeostasis in smooth muscle from dystrophic mdx mice. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 14(1):133-9. [PubMed: 8478423]  [MGI Ref ID J:13345]

Boland B; Himpens B; Denef JF; Gillis JM. 1995. Site-dependent pathological differences in smooth muscles and skeletal muscles of the adult mdx mouse. Muscle Nerve 18(6):649-57. [PubMed: 7753128]  [MGI Ref ID J:26592]

Boppart MD; Burkin DJ; Kaufman SJ. 2011. Activation of AKT signaling promotes cell growth and survival in alpha7beta1 integrin-mediated alleviation of muscular dystrophy. Biochim Biophys Acta 1812(4):439-46. [PubMed: 21216283]  [MGI Ref ID J:170661]

Bornman L; Rossouw H; Gericke GS; Polla BS. 1998. Effects of iron deprivation on the pathology and stress protein expression in murine X-linked muscular dystrophy. Biochem Pharmacol 56(6):751-7. [PubMed: 9751080]  [MGI Ref ID J:49859]

Bostick B; Yue Y; Long C; Duan D. 2008. Prevention of dystrophin-deficient cardiomyopathy in twenty-one-month-old carrier mice by mosaic dystrophin expression or complementary dystrophin/utrophin expression. Circ Res 102(1):121-30. [PubMed: 17967782]  [MGI Ref ID J:145095]

Bostick B; Yue Y; Long C; Marschalk N; Fine DM; Chen J; Duan D. 2009. Cardiac expression of a mini-dystrophin that normalizes skeletal muscle force only partially restores heart function in aged Mdx mice. Mol Ther 17(2):253-61. [PubMed: 19066599]  [MGI Ref ID J:163970]

Braun U; Paju K; Eimre M; Seppet E; Orlova E; Kadaja L; Trumbeckaite S; Gellerich FN; Zierz S; Jockusch H; Seppet EK. 2001. Lack of dystrophin is associated with altered integration of the mitochondria and ATPases in slow-twitch muscle cells of MDX mice. Biochim Biophys Acta 1505(2-3):258-70. [PubMed: 11334790]  [MGI Ref ID J:69364]

Brazeau GA; Mathew M; Entrikin RK. 1992. Serum and organ indices of the mdx dystrophic mouse. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 77(2):179-89. [PubMed: 1439189]  [MGI Ref ID J:3928]

Briguet A; Erb M; Courdier-Fruh I; Barzaghi P; Santos G; Herzner H; Lescop C; Siendt H; Henneboehle M; Weyermann P; Magyar JP; Dubach-Powell J; Metz G; Meier T. 2008. Effect of calpain and proteasome inhibition on Ca2+-dependent proteolysis and muscle histopathology in the mdx mouse. FASEB J 22(12):4190-200. [PubMed: 18728218]  [MGI Ref ID J:146043]

Bueno Junior CR; Pantaleao LC; Voltarelli VA; Bozi LH; Brum PC; Zatz M. 2012. Combined effect of AMPK/PPAR agonists and exercise training in mdx mice functional performance. PLoS One 7(9):e45699. [PubMed: 23029189]  [MGI Ref ID J:191984]

Bulfield G; Siller WG; Wight PA; Moore KJ. 1984. X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81(4):1189-92. [PubMed: 6583703]  [MGI Ref ID J:7361]

Bulfield G; Siller WG; Wight PAL. 1982. Change pke, pyruvate kinase expression to X-linked muscular dystrophy, mdx. Mouse News Lett 66:57.  [MGI Ref ID J:13903]

Burkin DJ; Wallace GQ; Nicol KJ; Kaufman DJ; Kaufman SJ. 2001. Enhanced Expression of the alpha7beta1 Integrin Reduces Muscular Dystrophy and Restores Viability in Dystrophic Mice. J Cell Biol 152(6):1207-18. [PubMed: 11257121]  [MGI Ref ID J:68194]

Burr AR; Millay DP; Goonasekera SA; Park KH; Sargent MA; Collins J; Altamirano F; Philipson KD; Allen PD; Ma J; Lopez JR; Molkentin JD. 2014. Na+ dysregulation coupled with Ca2+ entry through NCX1 promotes muscular dystrophy in mice. Mol Cell Biol 34(11):1991-2002. [PubMed: 24662047]  [MGI Ref ID J:212146]

Burzyn D; Kuswanto W; Kolodin D; Shadrach JL; Cerletti M; Jang Y; Sefik E; Tan TG; Wagers AJ; Benoist C; Mathis D. 2013. A special population of regulatory T cells potentiates muscle repair. Cell 155(6):1282-95. [PubMed: 24315098]  [MGI Ref ID J:205258]

Buttgereit A; Weber C; Garbe CS; Friedrich O. 2013. From chaos to split-ups - SHG microscopy reveals a specific remodelling mechanism in ageing dystrophic muscle. J Pathol 229(3):477-85. [PubMed: 23132094]  [MGI Ref ID J:192258]

Cacchiarelli D; Incitti T; Martone J; Cesana M; Cazzella V; Santini T; Sthandier O; Bozzoni I. 2011. miR-31 modulates dystrophin expression: new implications for Duchenne muscular dystrophy therapy. EMBO Rep 12(2):136-41. [PubMed: 21212803]  [MGI Ref ID J:168844]

Call JA; Warren GL; Verma M; Lowe DA. 2013. Acute failure of action potential conduction in mdx muscle reveals new mechanism of contraction-induced force loss. J Physiol 591(Pt 15):3765-76. [PubMed: 23753524]  [MGI Ref ID J:212138]

Camboni M; Hammond S; Martin LT; Martin PT. 2012. Induction of a regenerative microenvironment in skeletal muscle is sufficient to induce embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in p53-deficient mice. J Pathol 226(1):40-9. [PubMed: 21915858]  [MGI Ref ID J:180024]

Capote J; DiFranco M; Vergara JL. 2010. Excitation-contraction coupling alterations in mdx and utrophin/dystrophin double knockout mice: a comparative study. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 298(5):C1077-86. [PubMed: 20130206]  [MGI Ref ID J:159256]

Carlson CG. 1996. Acetylcholine receptor and calcium leakage activity in nondystrophic and dystrophic myotubes (MDX) Muscle Nerve 19(10):1258-67. [PubMed: 8808651]  [MGI Ref ID J:117913]

Carlson CG; Roshek DM. 2001. Adult dystrophic (mdx) endplates exhibit reduced quantal size and enhanced quantal variation. Pflugers Arch 442(3):369-75. [PubMed: 11484767]  [MGI Ref ID J:106311]

Carretta D; Santarelli M; Sbriccoli A; Pinto F; Catini C; Minciacchi D. 2004. Spatial analysis reveals alterations of parvalbumin- and calbindin-positive local circuit neurons in the cerebral cortex of mutant mdx mice. Brain Res 1016(1):1-11. [PubMed: 15234246]  [MGI Ref ID J:91225]

Carretta D; Santarelli M; Vanni D; Carrai R; Sbriccoli A; Pinto F; Minciacchi D. 2001. The organisation of spinal projecting brainstem neurons in an animal model of muscular dystrophy. A retrograde tracing study on mdx mutant mice. Brain Res 895(1-2):213-22. [PubMed: 11259780]  [MGI Ref ID J:68354]

Carretta D; Santarelli M; Vanni D; Ciabatti S; Sbriccoli A; Pinto F; Minciacchi D. 2003. Cortical and brainstem neurons containing calcium-binding proteins in a murine model of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy: selective changes in the sensorimotor cortex. J Comp Neurol 456(1):48-59. [PubMed: 12508313]  [MGI Ref ID J:125669]

Carter GT; Abresch RT; Walsh SA; Wineinger MA. 1997. The mdx mouse diaphragm: exercise-induced injury. Muscle Nerve 20(3):393-4. [PubMed: 9052828]  [MGI Ref ID J:116363]

Carter GT; Wineinger MA; Walsh SA; Horasek SJ; Abresch RT; Fowler WM Jr. 1995. Effect of voluntary wheel-running exercise on muscles of the mdx mouse. Neuromuscul Disord 5(4):323-32. [PubMed: 7580246]  [MGI Ref ID J:27376]

Cascabulho CM; Correa CB; Cotta-de-Almeida V; Henriques-Pons A. 2012. Defective T-lymphocyte migration to muscles in dystrophin-deficient mice. Am J Pathol 181(2):593-604. [PubMed: 22733008]  [MGI Ref ID J:186409]

Chakkalakal JV; Harrison MA; Carbonetto S; Chin E; Michel RN; Jasmin BJ. 2004. Stimulation of calcineurin signaling attenuates the dystrophic pathology in mdx mice. Hum Mol Genet 13(4):379-88. [PubMed: 14681302]  [MGI Ref ID J:88329]

Chakkalakal JV; Michel SA; Chin ER; Michel RN; Jasmin BJ. 2006. Targeted inhibition of Ca2+ /calmodulin signaling exacerbates the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mouse muscle. Hum Mol Genet 15(9):1423-35. [PubMed: 16551657]  [MGI Ref ID J:108236]

Chamberlain JS. 2010. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age. Cell 143(7):1040-2. [PubMed: 21183068]  [MGI Ref ID J:167707]

Chamberlain JS; Metzger J; Reyes M; Townsend D; Faulkner JA. 2007. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice display a reduced life span and are susceptible to spontaneous rhabdomyosarcoma. FASEB J 21(9):2195-204. [PubMed: 17360850]  [MGI Ref ID J:122706]

Chamberlain JS; Phelps SF; Cox GA; Maichele AJ; Greenwood AD. 1993. PCR analysis of muscular dystrophy in mdx mice. Mol Cell Biol Hum Dis Ser 3:167-89. [PubMed: 8111539]  [MGI Ref ID J:18427]

Chan S; Head SI; Morley JW. 2007. Branched fibers in dystrophic mdx muscle are associated with a loss of force following lengthening contractions. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 293(3):C985-92. [PubMed: 17567750]  [MGI Ref ID J:125837]

Chandrasekharan K; Yoon JH; Xu Y; deVries S; Camboni M; Janssen PM; Varki A; Martin PT. 2010. A human-specific deletion in mouse Cmah increases disease severity in the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Sci Transl Med 2(42):42ra54. [PubMed: 20668298]  [MGI Ref ID J:164594]

Chang WJ; Iannaccone ST; Lau KS; Masters BS; McCabe TJ; McMillan K; Padre RC; Spencer MJ; Tidball JG; Stull JT. 1996. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase and dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(17):9142-7. [PubMed: 8799168]  [MGI Ref ID J:35595]

Chao DS; Silvagno F; Bredt DS. 1998. Muscular dystrophy in mdx mice despite lack of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. J Neurochem 71(2):784-9. [PubMed: 9681470]  [MGI Ref ID J:48851]

Chapman VM; Miller DR; Armstrong D; Caskey CT. 1989. Recovery of induced mutations for X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86(4):1292-6. [PubMed: 2919177]  [MGI Ref ID J:9638]

Charan RA; Hanson R; Clemens PR. 2012. Deubiquitinating enzyme A20 negatively regulates NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle in mdx mice. FASEB J 26(2):587-95. [PubMed: 22012122]  [MGI Ref ID J:180624]

Chen G; Bressler BH; Quinn LS. 1994. Extracts from mdx and normal mouse skeletal muscle contain similar levels of mitogenic activity for myoblasts. Cell Biol Int 18(4):229-35. [PubMed: 8044140]  [MGI Ref ID J:18325]

Chen M; Li HJ; Fang Q; Goodwin TG; Florendo JA; Law PK. 1992. Dystrophin cytochemistry in mdx mouse muscles injected with labeled normal myoblasts. Cell Transplant 1(1):17-22. [PubMed: 1344288]  [MGI Ref ID J:18529]

Chen TJ; Chen SS; Wang DC; Hsieh YL. 2002. Increased vulnerability of auditory system to noise exposure in mdx mice. Laryngoscope 112(3):520-5. [PubMed: 12148865]  [MGI Ref ID J:105938]

Cheng YJ; Lang D; Caruthers SD; Efimov IR; Chen J; Wickline SA. 2012. Focal but reversible diastolic sheet dysfunction reflects regional calcium mishandling in dystrophic mdx mouse hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 303(5):H559-68. [PubMed: 22777417]  [MGI Ref ID J:189172]

Chiu YH; Hornsey MA; Klinge L; Jorgensen LH; Laval SH; Charlton R; Barresi R; Straub V; Lochmuller H; Bushby K. 2009. Attenuated muscle regeneration is a key factor in dysferlin-deficient muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet 18(11):1976-89. [PubMed: 19286669]  [MGI Ref ID J:148110]

Chu V; Otero JM; Lopez O; Sullivan MF; Morgan JP; Amende I; Hampton TG. 2002. Electrocardiographic findings in mdx mice: a cardiac phenotype of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Muscle Nerve 26(4):513-9. [PubMed: 12362417]  [MGI Ref ID J:116340]

Chun JL; O'Brien R; Berry SE. 2012. Cardiac dysfunction and pathology in the dystrophin and utrophin-deficient mouse during development of dilated cardiomyopathy. Neuromuscul Disord 22(4):368-79. [PubMed: 22266080]  [MGI Ref ID J:187876]

Coccurello R; Castellano C; Paggi P; Mele A; Oliverio A. 2002. Genetically dystrophic mdx/mdx mice exhibit decreased response to nicotine in passive avoidance. Neuroreport 13(9):1219-22. [PubMed: 12151773]  [MGI Ref ID J:103674]

Cohn RD; Durbeej M; Moore SA; Coral-Vazquez R; Prouty S; Campbell KP. 2001. Prevention of cardiomyopathy in mouse models lacking the smooth muscle sarcoglycan-sarcospan complex. J Clin Invest 107(2):R1-7. [PubMed: 11160141]  [MGI Ref ID J:66973]

Cohn RD; Liang HY; Shetty R; Abraham T; Wagner KR. 2007. Myostatin does not regulate cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis. Neuromuscul Disord 17(4):290-6. [PubMed: 17336525]  [MGI Ref ID J:124477]

Cohn RD; van Erp C; Habashi JP; Soleimani AA; Klein EC; Lisi MT; Gamradt M; Ap Rhys CM; Holm TM; Loeys BL; Ramirez F; Judge DP; Ward CW; Dietz HC. 2007. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade attenuates TGF-beta-induced failure of muscle regeneration in multiple myopathic states. Nat Med 13(2):204-210. [PubMed: 17237794]  [MGI Ref ID J:117885]

Coirault C; Pignol B; Cooper RN; Butler-Browne G; Chabrier PE; Lecarpentier Y. 2003. Severe muscle dysfunction precedes collagen tissue proliferation in mdx mouse diaphragm. J Appl Physiol 94(5):1744-50. [PubMed: 12679345]  [MGI Ref ID J:103042]

Cole MA; Rafael JA; Taylor DJ; Lodi R; Davies KE; Styles P. 2002. A quantitative study of bioenergetics in skeletal muscle lacking utrophin and dystrophin. Neuromuscul Disord 12(3):247-57. [PubMed: 11801396]  [MGI Ref ID J:103103]

Collet C; Allard B; Tourneur Y; Jacquemond V. 1999. Intracellular calcium signals measured with indo-1 in isolated skeletal muscle fibres from control and mdx mice. J Physiol 520 Pt 2:417-29. [PubMed: 10523411]  [MGI Ref ID J:106307]

Colussi C; Gurtner A; Rosati J; Illi B; Ragone G; Piaggio G; Moggio M; Lamperti C; D'Angelo G; Clementi E; Minetti G; Mozzetta C; Antonini A; Capogrossi MC; Puri PL; Gaetano C. 2009. Nitric oxide deficiency determines global chromatin changes in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. FASEB J 23(7):2131-41. [PubMed: 19264835]  [MGI Ref ID J:150530]

Colussi C; Mozzetta C; Gurtner A; Illi B; Rosati J; Straino S; Ragone G; Pescatori M; Zaccagnini G; Antonini A; Minetti G; Martelli F; Piaggio G; Gallinari P; Steinkulher C; Clementi E; Dell'Aversana C; Altucci L; Mai A; Capogrossi MC; Puri PL; Gaetano C. 2008. HDAC2 blockade by nitric oxide and histone deacetylase inhibitors reveals a common target in Duchenne muscular dystrophy treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(49):19183-7. [PubMed: 19047631]  [MGI Ref ID J:142085]

Combaret L; Taillandier D; Voisin L; Samuels SE; Boespflug-Tanguy O; Attaix D. 1996. No alteration in gene expression of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway in dystrophin-deficient muscles. FEBS Lett 393(2-3):292-6. [PubMed: 8814307]  [MGI Ref ID J:35369]

Connolly AM; Keeling RM; Mehta S; Pestronk A; Sanes JR. 2001. Three mouse models of muscular dystrophy: the natural history of strength and fatigue in dystrophin-, dystrophin/utrophin-, and laminin alpha2-deficient mice. Neuromuscul Disord 11(8):703-12. [PubMed: 11595512]  [MGI Ref ID J:103061]

Corrado K; Rafael JA; Mills PL; Cole NM; Faulkner JA; Wang K; Chamberlain JS. 1996. Transgenic mdx mice expressing dystrophin with a deletion in the actin-binding domain display a mild Becker phenotype. J Cell Biol 134(4):873-84. [PubMed: 8769413]  [MGI Ref ID J:34924]

Coulton GR; Morgan JE; Partridge TA; Sloper JC. 1988. The mdx mouse skeletal muscle myopathy: I. A histological, morphometric and biochemical investigation. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 14(1):53-70. [PubMed: 2967442]  [MGI Ref ID J:152524]

Cox GA; Cole NM; Matsumura K; Phelps SF; Hauschka SD; Campbell KP; Faulkner JA; Chamberlain JS. 1993. Overexpression of dystrophin in transgenic mdx mice eliminates dystrophic symptoms without toxicity [see comments] Nature 364(6439):725-9. [PubMed: 8355788]  [MGI Ref ID J:14332]

Cox GA; Phelps SF; Chapman VM; Chamberlain JS. 1993. New mdx mutation disrupts expression of muscle and nonmuscle isoforms of dystrophin. Nat Genet 4(1):87-93. [PubMed: 8099842]  [MGI Ref ID J:12150]

Crisp A; Yin H; Goyenvalle A; Betts C; Moulton HM; Seow Y; Babbs A; Merritt T; Saleh AF; Gait MJ; Stuckey DJ; Clarke K; Davies KE; Wood MJ. 2011. Diaphragm rescue alone prevents heart dysfunction in dystrophic mice. Hum Mol Genet 20(3):413-21. [PubMed: 21062902]  [MGI Ref ID J:167240]

Crosbie RH; Dovico SA; Flanagan JD; Chamberlain JS; Ownby CL; Campbell KP. 2002. Characterization of aquaporin-4 in muscle and muscular dystrophy. FASEB J 16(9):943-9. [PubMed: 12087055]  [MGI Ref ID J:120469]

Crosbie RH; Straub V; Yun HY; Lee JC; Rafael JA; Chamberlain JS; Dawson VL; Dawson TM; Campbell KP. 1998. mdx muscle pathology is independent of nNOS perturbation. Hum Mol Genet 7(5):823-9. [PubMed: 9536086]  [MGI Ref ID J:47623]

Cullen MJ; Jaros E. 1988. Ultrastructure of the skeletal muscle in the X chromosome-linked dystrophic (mdx) mouse. Comparison with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Acta Neuropathol 77(1):69-81. [PubMed: 3239377]  [MGI Ref ID J:152892]

Cully TR; Edwards JN; Friedrich O; Stephenson DG; Murphy RM; Launikonis BS. 2012. Changes in plasma membrane Ca-ATPase and stromal interacting molecule 1 expression levels for Ca(2+) signaling in dystrophic mdx mouse muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 303(5):C567-76. [PubMed: 22785116]  [MGI Ref ID J:192667]

D'Souza VN; Nguyen TM; Morris GE; Karges W; Pillers DA; Ray PN. 1995. A novel dystrophin isoform is required for normal retinal electrophysiology. Hum Mol Genet 4(5):837-42. [PubMed: 7633443]  [MGI Ref ID J:25211]

Dahiya S; Bhatnagar S; Hindi SM; Jiang C; Paul PK; Kuang S; Kumar A. 2011. Elevated levels of active matrix metalloproteinase-9 cause hypertrophy in skeletal muscle of normal and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Hum Mol Genet 20(22):4345-59. [PubMed: 21846793]  [MGI Ref ID J:176891]

Dahiya S; Givvimani S; Bhatnagar S; Qipshidze N; Tyagi SC; Kumar A. 2011. Osteopontin-stimulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 causes cardiomyopathy in the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Immunol 187(5):2723-31. [PubMed: 21810612]  [MGI Ref ID J:179125]

Dallerac G; Perronnet C; Chagneau C; Leblanc-Veyrac P; Samson-Desvignes N; Peltekian E; Danos O; Garcia L; Laroche S; Billard JM; Vaillend C. 2011. Rescue of a dystrophin-like protein by exon skipping normalizes synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of the mdx mouse. Neurobiol Dis :. [PubMed: 21624465]  [MGI Ref ID J:173321]

Dangain J; Vrbova G. 1984. Muscle development in mdx mutant mice. Muscle Nerve 7(9):700-4. [PubMed: 6543918]  [MGI Ref ID J:8039]

Daoud F; Candelario-Martinez A; Billard JM; Avital A; Khelfaoui M; Rozenvald Y; Guegan M; Mornet D; Jaillard D; Nudel U; Chelly J; Martinez-Rojas D; Laroche S; Yaffe D; Vaillend C. 2009. Role of mental retardation-associated dystrophin-gene product Dp71 in excitatory synapse organization, synaptic plasticity and behavioral functions. PLoS One 4(8):e6574. [PubMed: 19649270]  [MGI Ref ID J:152485]

Darabi R; Gehlbach K; Bachoo RM; Kamath S; Osawa M; Kamm KE; Kyba M; Perlingeiro RC. 2008. Functional skeletal muscle regeneration from differentiating embryonic stem cells. Nat Med 14(2):134-43. [PubMed: 18204461]  [MGI Ref ID J:133565]

De Backer F; Vandebrouck C; Gailly P; Gillis JM. 2002. Long-term study of Ca(2+) homeostasis and of survival in collagenase-isolated muscle fibres from normal and mdx mice. J Physiol 542(Pt 3):855-65. [PubMed: 12154184]  [MGI Ref ID J:106014]

De Luca A; Nico B; Liantonio A; Didonna MP; Fraysse B; Pierno S; Burdi R; Mangieri D; Rolland JF; Camerino C; Zallone A; Confalonieri P; Andreetta F; Arnoldi E; Courdier-Fruh I; Magyar JP; Frigeri A; Pisoni M; Svelto M; Conte Camerino D. 2005. A multidisciplinary evaluation of the effectiveness of cyclosporine a in dystrophic mdx mice. Am J Pathol 166(2):477-89. [PubMed: 15681831]  [MGI Ref ID J:95973]

De Luca A; Pierno S; Camerino DC. 1995. Changes of membrane electrical properties in extensor digitorum longus muscle from dystrophic (mdx) mice. Muscle Nerve 18(10):1196-8. [PubMed: 7659114]  [MGI Ref ID J:115862]

De Stefano ME; Leone L; Lombardi L; Paggi P. 2005. Lack of dystrophin leads to the selective loss of superior cervical ganglion neurons projecting to muscular targets in genetically dystrophic mdx mice. Neurobiol Dis 20(3):929-42. [PubMed: 16023353]  [MGI Ref ID J:104656]

Deconinck AE; Rafael JA; Skinner JA; Brown SC; Potter AC; Metzinger L ; Watt DJ ; Dickson JG ; Tinsley JM ; Davies KE. 1997. Utrophin-dystrophin-deficient mice as a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Cell 90(4):717-27. [PubMed: 9288751]  [MGI Ref ID J:42388]

Deconinck N; Rafael JA; Beckers-Bleukx G; Kahn D; Deconinck AE; Davies KE; Gillis JM. 1998. Consequences of the combined deficiency in dystrophin and utrophin on the mechanical properties and myosin composition of some limb and respiratory muscles of the mouse. Neuromuscul Disord 8(6):362-70. [PubMed: 9713852]  [MGI Ref ID J:110988]

Deconinck N; Tinsley J; De Backer F; Fisher R; Kahn D; Phelps S; Davies K; Gillis JM. 1997. Expression of truncated utrophin leads to major functional improvements in dystrophin-deficient muscles of mice. Nat Med 3(11):1216-21. [PubMed: 9359695]  [MGI Ref ID J:44111]

Decrouy A; Even PC; Chinet A. 1993. Decreased rates of Ca(2+)-dependent heat production in slow- and fast-twitch muscles from the dystrophic (mdx) mouse. Experientia 49(10):843-9. [PubMed: 8224098]  [MGI Ref ID J:15722]

Demoule A; Divangahi M; Danialou G; Gvozdic D; Larkin G; Bao W; Petrof BJ. 2005. Expression and regulation of CC class chemokines in the dystrophic (mdx) diaphragm. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 33(2):178-85. [PubMed: 15860797]  [MGI Ref ID J:112940]

Deng B; Glanzman D; Tidball JG. 2009. Nitric oxide generated by muscle corrects defects in hippocampal neurogenesis and neural differentiation caused by muscular dystrophy. J Physiol 587(Pt 8):1769-78. [PubMed: 19237426]  [MGI Ref ID J:176544]

Di Angelantonio S; De Stefano ME; Piccioni A; Lombardi L; Gotti C; Paggi P. 2011. Lack of dystrophin functionally affects alpha3beta2/beta4-nicotinic acethylcholine receptors in sympathetic neurons of dystrophic mdx mice. Neurobiol Dis 41(2):528-37. [PubMed: 21056666]  [MGI Ref ID J:168343]

Di Certo MG; Corbi N; Strimpakos G; Onori A; Luvisetto S; Severini C; Guglielmotti A; Batassa EM; Pisani C; Floridi A; Benassi B; Fanciulli M; Magrelli A; Mattei E; Passananti C. 2010. The artificial gene Jazz, a transcriptional regulator of utrophin, corrects the dystrophic pathology in mdx mice. Hum Mol Genet 19(5):752-60. [PubMed: 19965907]  [MGI Ref ID J:157115]

DiFranco M; Woods CE; Capote J; Vergara JL. 2008. Dystrophic skeletal muscle fibers display alterations at the level of calcium microdomains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(38):14698-703. [PubMed: 18787128]  [MGI Ref ID J:141246]

Diaz-Ramos A; Roig-Borrellas A; Garcia-Melero A; Llorens A; Lopez-Alemany R. 2012. Requirement of plasminogen binding to its cell-surface receptor alpha-enolase for efficient regeneration of normal and dystrophic skeletal muscle. PLoS One 7(12):e50477. [PubMed: 23239981]  [MGI Ref ID J:195546]

Dick J; Vrbova G. 1993. Progressive deterioration of muscles in mdx mice induced by overload. Clin Sci (Colch) 84(2):145-50. [PubMed: 8382579]  [MGI Ref ID J:12242]

Disatnik MH; Chamberlain JS; Rando TA. 2000. Dystrophin mutations predict cellular susceptibility to oxidative stress. Muscle Nerve 23(5):784-92. [PubMed: 10797403]  [MGI Ref ID J:116192]

Divet A; Huchet-Cadiou C. 2002. Sarcoplasmic reticulum function in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscles from mdx mice. Pflugers Arch 444(5):634-43. [PubMed: 12194017]  [MGI Ref ID J:106172]

Dominov JA; Kravetz AJ; Ardelt M; Kostek CA; Beermann ML; Miller JB. 2005. Muscle-specific BCL2 expression ameliorates muscle disease in laminin {alpha}2-deficient, but not in dystrophin-deficient, mice. Hum Mol Genet 14(8):1029-40. [PubMed: 15757977]  [MGI Ref ID J:98004]

Dubois C; Figarella-Branger D; Pastoret C; Rampini C; Karpati G; Rougon G. 1994. Expression of NCAM and its polysialylated isoforms during mdx mouse muscle regeneration and in vitro myogenesis. Neuromuscul Disord 4(3):171-82. [PubMed: 7919966]  [MGI Ref ID J:19382]

Dudley RW; Danialou G; Govindaraju K; Lands L; Eidelman DE; Petrof BJ. 2006. Sarcolemmal damage in dystrophin deficiency is modulated by synergistic interactions between mechanical and oxidative/nitrosative stresses. Am J Pathol 168(4):1276-87; quiz 1404-5. [PubMed: 16565501]  [MGI Ref ID J:107332]

Dunant P; Larochelle N; Thirion C; Stucka R; Ursu D; Petrof BJ; Wolf E; Lochmuller H. 2003. Expression of dystrophin driven by the 1.35-kb MCK promoter ameliorates muscular dystrophy in fast, but not in slow muscles of transgenic mdx mice. Mol Ther 8(1):80-9. [PubMed: 12842431]  [MGI Ref ID J:105122]

Dunckley MG; Wells KE; Piper TA; Wells DJ; Dickson G. 1994. Independent localization of dystrophin N- and C-terminal regions to the sarcolemma of mdx mouse myofibres in vivo. J Cell Sci 107(Pt 6):1469-75. [PubMed: 7962190]  [MGI Ref ID J:19097]

Dunn JF; Bannister N; Kemp GJ; Publicover SJ. 1993. Sodium is elevated in mdx muscles: ionic interactions in dystrophic cells. J Neurol Sci 114(1):76-80. [PubMed: 8433102]  [MGI Ref ID J:3666]

Dunn JF; Tracey I; Radda GK. 1992. A 31P-NMR study of muscle exercise metabolism in mdx mice: evidence for abnormal pH regulation. J Neurol Sci 113(1):108-13. [PubMed: 1469448]  [MGI Ref ID J:3269]

Dunn JF; Zaim-Wadghiri Y. 1999. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Muscle Nerve 22(10):1367-71. [PubMed: 10487902]  [MGI Ref ID J:116233]

Dupont-Versteegden EE; Baldwin RA; McCarter RJ; Vonlanthen MG. 1994. Does muscular dystrophy affect metabolic rate? A study in mdx mice. J Neurol Sci 121(2):203-7. [PubMed: 8158216]  [MGI Ref ID J:16597]

Dupont-Versteegden EE; McCarter RJ. 1992. Differential expression of muscular dystrophy in diaphragm versus hindlimb muscles of mdx mice. Muscle Nerve 15(10):1105-10. [PubMed: 1406767]  [MGI Ref ID J:116342]

Dye WW; Gleason RL; Wilson E; Humphrey JD. 2007. Altered biomechanical properties of carotid arteries in two mouse models of muscular dystrophy. J Appl Physiol 103(2):664-72. [PubMed: 17525297]  [MGI Ref ID J:148308]

Ebihara S; Guibinga GH; Gilbert R; Nalbantoglu J; Massie B; Karpati G; Petrof BJ. 2000. Differential effects of dystrophin and utrophin gene transfer in immunocompetent muscular dystrophy (mdx) mice Physiol Genomics 3(3):133-44. [PubMed: 11015608]  [MGI Ref ID J:65385]

Edwards JN; Friedrich O; Cully TR; von Wegner F; Murphy RM; Launikonis BS. 2010. Upregulation of store-operated Ca2+ entry in dystrophic mdx mouse muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 299(1):C42-50. [PubMed: 20427714]  [MGI Ref ID J:162510]

Elsherif L; Huang MS; Shai SY; Yang Y; Li RY; Chun J; Mekany MA; Chu AL; Kaufman SJ; Ross RS. 2008. Combined deficiency of dystrophin and beta1 integrin in the cardiac myocyte causes myocardial dysfunction, fibrosis and calcification. Circ Res 102(9):1109-17. [PubMed: 18340010]  [MGI Ref ID J:149030]

Enwere EK; Boudreault L; Holbrook J; Timusk K; Earl N; Lacasse E; Renaud JM; Korneluk RG. 2013. Loss of cIAP1 attenuates soleus muscle pathology and improves diaphragm function in mdx mice. Hum Mol Genet 22(5):867-78. [PubMed: 23184147]  [MGI Ref ID J:192578]

Farini A; Meregalli M; Belicchi M; Battistelli M; Parolini D; D'Antona G; Gavina M; Ottoboni L; Constantin G; Bottinelli R; Torrente Y. 2007. T and B lymphocyte depletion has a marked effect on the fibrosis of dystrophic skeletal muscles in the scid/mdx mouse. J Pathol 213(2):229-38. [PubMed: 17668421]  [MGI Ref ID J:125527]

Fauconnier J; Thireau J; Reiken S; Cassan C; Richard S; Matecki S; Marks AR; Lacampagne A. 2010. Leaky RyR2 trigger ventricular arrhythmias in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A :. [PubMed: 20080623]  [MGI Ref ID J:156537]

Fernandez K; Serinagaoglu Y; Hammond S; Martin LT; Martin PT. 2010. Mice lacking dystrophin or alpha sarcoglycan spontaneously develop embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with cancer-associated p53 mutations and alternatively spliced or mutant Mdm2 transcripts. Am J Pathol 176(1):416-34. [PubMed: 20019182]  [MGI Ref ID J:156447]

Ferretti R; Neto HS; Marques MJ. 2011. Expression of utrophin at dystrophin-deficient neuromuscular synapses of mdx mice: a study of protected and affected muscles. Anat Rec (Hoboken) 294(2):283-6. [PubMed: 21235003]  [MGI Ref ID J:175589]

Fiore F; Sebille A; Birnbaum D. 2000. Skeletal muscle regeneration is not impaired in Fgf6 -/- mutant mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 272(1):138-43. [PubMed: 10872817]  [MGI Ref ID J:62522]

Fisher R; Tinsley JM; Phelps SR; Squire SE; Townsend ER; Martin JE; Davies KE. 2001. Non-toxic ubiquitous over-expression of utrophin in the mdx mouse. Neuromuscul Disord 11(8):713-21. [PubMed: 11595513]  [MGI Ref ID J:103062]

Floss T; Arnold HH; Braun T. 1997. A role for FGF-6 in skeletal muscle regeneration. Genes Dev 11(16):2040-51. [PubMed: 9284044]  [MGI Ref ID J:42574]

Fortier M; Figeac N; White RB; Knopp P; Zammit PS. 2013. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 influences cell cycle progression in muscle satellite cells. Dev Biol 382(2):504-16. [PubMed: 23911934]  [MGI Ref ID J:202223]

Franco A Jr; Lansman JB. 1990. Calcium entry through stretch-inactivated ion channels in mdx myotubes. Nature 344(6267):670-3. [PubMed: 1691450]  [MGI Ref ID J:12240]

Franco-Obregon A; Lansman JB. 2002. Changes in mechanosensitive channel gating following mechanical stimulation in skeletal muscle myotubes from the mdx mouse. J Physiol 539(Pt 2):391-407. [PubMed: 11882673]  [MGI Ref ID J:105953]

Friedrich O; Both M; Gillis JM; Chamberlain JS; Fink RH. 2004. Mini-dystrophin restores L-type calcium currents in skeletal muscle of transgenic mdx mice. J Physiol 555(Pt 1):251-65. [PubMed: 14594987]  [MGI Ref ID J:105401]

Frigeri A; Nicchia GP; Balena R; Nico B; Svelto M. 2004. Aquaporins in skeletal muscle: reassessment of the functional role of aquaporin-4. FASEB J 18(7):905-7. [PubMed: 15033928]  [MGI Ref ID J:118506]

Frigeri A; Nicchia GP; Nico B; Quondamatteo F; Herken R; Roncali L; Svelto M. 2001. Aquaporin-4 deficiency in skeletal muscle and brain of dystrophic mdx mice. FASEB J 15(1):90-98. [PubMed: 11149896]  [MGI Ref ID J:66891]

Fukada S; Morikawa D; Yamamoto Y; Yoshida T; Sumie N; Yamaguchi M; Ito T; Miyagoe-Suzuki Y; Takeda S; Tsujikawa K; Yamamoto H. 2010. Genetic background affects properties of satellite cells and mdx phenotypes. Am J Pathol 176(5):2414-24. [PubMed: 20304955]  [MGI Ref ID J:160773]

Gaedigk R; Law DJ; Fitzgerald-Gustafson KM; McNulty SG; Nsumu NN; Modrcin AC; Rinaldi RJ; Pinson D; Fowler SC; Bilgen M; Burns J; Hauschka SD; White RA. 2006. Improvement in survival and muscle function in an mdx/utrn(-/-) double mutant mouse using a human retinal dystrophin transgene. Neuromuscul Disord 16(3):192-203. [PubMed: 16487708]  [MGI Ref ID J:112787]

Gailly P; Boland B; Himpens B; Casteels R; Gillis JM. 1993. Critical evaluation of cytosolic calcium determination in resting muscle fibres from normal and dystrophic (mdx) mice. Cell Calcium 14(6):473-83. [PubMed: 8358771]  [MGI Ref ID J:16250]

Gailly P; Hermans E; Octave JN; Gillis JM. 1993. Specific increase of genetic expression of parvalbumin in fast skeletal muscles of mdx mice. FEBS Lett 326(1-3):272-4. [PubMed: 8325378]  [MGI Ref ID J:13734]

Gang EJ; Darabi R; Bosnakovski D; Xu Z; Kamm KE; Kyba M; Perlingeiro RC. 2009. Engraftment of mesenchymal stem cells into dystrophin-deficient mice is not accompanied by functional recovery. Exp Cell Res 315(15):2624-36. [PubMed: 19460366]  [MGI Ref ID J:154502]

Gannoun-Zaki L; Fournier-Bidoz S; Le Cam G; Chambon C; Millasseau P; Leger JJ; Dechesne CA. 1995. Down-regulation of mitochondrial mRNAs in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. FEBS Lett 375(3):268-72. [PubMed: 7498514]  [MGI Ref ID J:29965]

Gao HL; Li C; Nabeka H; Shimokawa T; Kobayashi N; Saito S; Wang ZY; Cao YM; Matsuda S. 2013. Decrease in prosaposin in the Dystrophic mdx mouse brain. PLoS One 8(11):e80032. [PubMed: 24244600]  [MGI Ref ID J:209694]

Garrett KL; Anderson JE. 1995. Colocalization of bFGF and the myogenic regulatory gene myogenin in dystrophic mdx muscle precursors and young myotubes in vivo. Dev Biol 169(2):596-608. [PubMed: 7781901]  [MGI Ref ID J:26128]

Garry DJ; Meeson A; Elterman J; Zhao Y; Yang P; Bassel-Duby R; Williams RS. 2000. Myogenic stem cell function is impaired in mice lacking the forkhead/winged helix protein MNF. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(10):5416-21. [PubMed: 10792059]  [MGI Ref ID J:62225]

Gawlik KI; Holmberg J; Durbeej M. 2014. Loss of Dystrophin and beta-Sarcoglycan Significantly Exacerbates the Phenotype of Laminin alpha2 Chain-Deficient Animals. Am J Pathol 184(3):740-52. [PubMed: 24393714]  [MGI Ref ID J:206359]

Gawlik KI; Oliveira BM; Durbeej M. 2011. Transgenic Expression of Laminin alpha1 Chain Does Not Prevent Muscle Disease in the mdx Mouse Model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Am J Pathol 178(4):1728-37. [PubMed: 21435454]  [MGI Ref ID J:169848]

Gehrig SM; Koopman R; Naim T; Tjoakarfa C; Lynch GS. 2010. Making fast-twitch dystrophic muscles bigger protects them from contraction injury and attenuates the dystrophic pathology. Am J Pathol 176(1):29-33. [PubMed: 19959813]  [MGI Ref ID J:156505]

Gehrig SM; van der Poel C; Sayer TA; Schertzer JD; Henstridge DC; Church JE; Lamon S; Russell AP; Davies KE; Febbraio MA; Lynch GS. 2012. Hsp72 preserves muscle function and slows progression of severe muscular dystrophy. Nature 484(7394):394-8. [PubMed: 22495301]  [MGI Ref ID J:183833]

Gervasio OL; Whitehead NP; Yeung EW; Phillips WD; Allen DG. 2008. TRPC1 binds to caveolin-3 and is regulated by Src kinase - role in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Cell Sci 121(Pt 13):2246-55. [PubMed: 18544631]  [MGI Ref ID J:139759]

Ghahramani Seno MM; Graham IR; Athanasopoulos T; Trollet C; Pohlschmidt M; Crompton MR; Dickson G. 2008. RNAi-mediated knockdown of dystrophin expression in adult mice does not lead to overt muscular dystrophy pathology. Hum Mol Genet 17(17):2622-32. [PubMed: 18511456]  [MGI Ref ID J:138171]

Ghedini PC; Avellar MC; De Lima TC; Lima-Landman MT; Lapa AJ; Souccar C. 2012. Quantitative changes of nicotinic receptors in the hippocampus of dystrophin-deficient mice. Brain Res 1483:96-104. [PubMed: 22995368]  [MGI Ref ID J:193571]

Gilbert R; Dudley RW; Liu AB; Petrof BJ; Nalbantoglu J; Karpati G. 2003. Prolonged dystrophin expression and functional correction of mdx mouse muscle following gene transfer with a helper-dependent (gutted) adenovirus-encoding murine dystrophin. Hum Mol Genet 12(11):1287-99. [PubMed: 12761044]  [MGI Ref ID J:83809]

Gillet B; Doan BT; Verre-Serrie C; Barbere B; Berenger G; Morin S; Koenig J; Peres M; Sebille A; Beloeil JC. 1993. In vivo 2D 1H NMR of mdx mouse muscle and myoblast cells during fusion: evidence for a characteristic signal of long chain fatty acids. Neuromuscul Disord 3(5-6):433-8. [PubMed: 8186688]  [MGI Ref ID J:19036]

Godfraind JM; Tekkok SB; Krnjevic K. 2000. Hypoxia on hippocampal slices from mice deficient in dystrophin (mdx) and isoforms (mdx3cv). J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 20(1):145-52. [PubMed: 10616803]  [MGI Ref ID J:60086]

Godin R; Daussin F; Matecki S; Li T; Petrof BJ; Burelle Y. 2012. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator1- gene alpha transfer restores mitochondrial biomass and improves mitochondrial calcium handling in post-necrotic mdx mouse skeletal muscle. J Physiol 590(Pt 21):5487-502. [PubMed: 22907054]  [MGI Ref ID J:202448]

Goldspink G; Fernandes K; Williams PE; Wells DJ. 1994. Age-related changes in collagen gene expression in the muscles of mdx dystrophic and normal mice. Neuromuscul Disord 4(3):183-91. [PubMed: 7919967]  [MGI Ref ID J:19383]

Golumbek PT; Keeling RM; Connolly AM. 2007. Strength and corticosteroid responsiveness of mdx mice is unchanged by RAG2 gene knockout. Neuromuscul Disord 17(5):376-84. [PubMed: 17452104]  [MGI Ref ID J:124559]

Goodall MH; Ward CW; Pratt SJ; Bloch RJ; Lovering RM. 2012. Structural and functional evaluation of branched myofibers lacking intermediate filaments. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 303(2):C224-32. [PubMed: 22592402]  [MGI Ref ID J:191363]

Gosselin LE; Barkley JE; Spencer MJ; McCormick KM; Farkas GA. 2003. Ventilatory dysfunction in mdx mice: impact of tumor necrosis factor-alpha deletion. Muscle Nerve 28(3):336-43. [PubMed: 12929194]  [MGI Ref ID J:116208]

Gotic I; Leschnik M; Kolm U; Markovic M; Haubner BJ; Biadasiewicz K; Metzler B; Stewart CL; Foisner R. 2010. Lamina-associated polypeptide 2alpha loss impairs heart function and stress response in mice. Circ Res 106(2):346-53. [PubMed: 19926876]  [MGI Ref ID J:170061]

Goyenvalle A; Babbs A; Wright J; Wilkins V; Powell D; Garcia L; Davies KE. 2012. Rescue of severely affected dystrophin/utrophin-deficient mice through scAAV-U7snRNA-mediated exon skipping. Hum Mol Genet 21(11):2559-71. [PubMed: 22388933]  [MGI Ref ID J:183897]

Graciotti L; Becker J; Granata AL; Procopio AD; Tessarollo L; Fulgenzi G. 2011. Dystrophin Is Required for the Normal Function of the Cardio-Protective K(ATP) Channel in Cardiomyocytes. PLoS One 6(10):e27034. [PubMed: 22066028]  [MGI Ref ID J:178064]

Grady RM; Grange RW; Lau KS; Maimone MM; Nichol MC; Stull JT; Sanes JR. 1999. Role for alpha-dystrobrevin in the pathogenesis of dystrophin-dependent muscular dystrophies. Nat Cell Biol 1(4):215-20. [PubMed: 10559919]  [MGI Ref ID J:59675]

Grady RM; Teng H; Nichol MC; Cunningham JC; Wilkinson RS; Sanes JR. 1997. Skeletal and cardiac myopathies in mice lacking utrophin and dystrophin: a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Cell 90(4):729-38. [PubMed: 9288752]  [MGI Ref ID J:42389]

Grady RM; Wozniak DF; Ohlemiller KK; Sanes JR. 2006. Cerebellar synaptic defects and abnormal motor behavior in mice lacking alpha- and beta-dystrobrevin. J Neurosci 26(11):2841-51. [PubMed: 16540561]  [MGI Ref ID J:106640]

Grady RM; Zhou H; Cunningham JM; Henry MD; Campbell KP; Sanes JR. 2000. Maturation and maintenance of the neuromuscular synapse: genetic evidence for roles of the dystrophin--glycoprotein complex. Neuron 25(2):279-93. [PubMed: 10719885]  [MGI Ref ID J:60776]

Granchelli JA; Pollina C; Hudecki MS. 1995. Duchenne-like myopathy in double-mutant mdx mice expressing exaggerated mast cell activity. J Neurol Sci 131(1):1-7. [PubMed: 7561939]  [MGI Ref ID J:26738]

Grange RW; Gainer TG; Marschner KM; Talmadge RJ; Stull JT. 2002. Fast-twitch skeletal muscles of dystrophic mouse pups are resistant to injury from acute mechanical stress. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 283(4):C1090-101. [PubMed: 12225973]  [MGI Ref ID J:107767]

Greenberg DS; Schatz Y; Levy Z; Pizzo P; Yaffe D; Nudel U. 1996. Reduced levels of dystrophin associated proteins in the brains of mice deficient for Dp71. Hum Mol Genet 5(9):1299-303. [PubMed: 8872469]  [MGI Ref ID J:35275]

Greenberg DS; Sunada Y; Campbell KP; Yaffe D; Nudel U. 1994. Exogenous Dp71 restores the levels of dystrophin associated proteins but does not alleviate muscle damage in mdx mice [see comments] Nat Genet 8(4):340-4. [PubMed: 7894483]  [MGI Ref ID J:22142]

Gregorevic P; Allen JM; Minami E; Blankinship MJ; Haraguchi M; Meuse L; Finn E; Adams ME; Froehner SC; Murry CE; Chamberlain JS. 2006. rAAV6-microdystrophin preserves muscle function and extends lifespan in severely dystrophic mice. Nat Med 12(7):787-9. [PubMed: 16819550]  [MGI Ref ID J:111980]

Griffin JL; Sang E; Evens T; Davies K; Clarke K. 2002. Metabolic profiles of dystrophin and utrophin expression in mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. FEBS Lett 530(1-3):109. [PubMed: 12387876]  [MGI Ref ID J:79770]

Griffin JL; Williams HJ; Sang E; Clarke K; Rae C; Nicholson JK. 2001. Metabolic profiling of genetic disorders: a multitissue (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and pattern recognition study into dystrophic tissue. Anal Biochem 293(1):16-21. [PubMed: 11373073]  [MGI Ref ID J:102707]

Grounds MD; McGeachie JK. 1992. Skeletal muscle regeneration after crush injury in dystrophic mdx mice: an autoradiographic study. Muscle Nerve 15(5):580-6. [PubMed: 1584249]  [MGI Ref ID J:1466]

Guido AN; Campos GE; Neto HS; Marques MJ; Minatel E. 2010. Fiber type composition of the sternomastoid and diaphragm muscles of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Anat Rec (Hoboken) 293(10):1722-8. [PubMed: 20730859]  [MGI Ref ID J:175593]

Guo C; Willem M; Werner A; Raivich G; Emerson M; Neyses L; Mayer U. 2006. Absence of alpha7 integrin in dystrophin-deficient mice causes a myopathy similar to Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet 15(6):989-98. [PubMed: 16476707]  [MGI Ref ID J:106836]

Guo Y; Petrof BJ; Hussain SN. 2001. Expression and localization of protein inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Muscle Nerve 24(11):1468-75. [PubMed: 11745948]  [MGI Ref ID J:116637]

Gurpur PB ; Liu J ; Burkin DJ ; Kaufman SJ. 2009. Valproic acid activates the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in muscle and ameliorates pathology in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Am J Pathol 174(3):999-1008. [PubMed: 19179609]  [MGI Ref ID J:146661]

Gussoni E; Soneoka Y; Strickland CD; Buzney EA; Khan MK; Flint AF; Kunkel LM; Mulligan RC. 1999. Dystrophin expression in the mdx mouse restored by stem cell transplantation. Nature 401(6751):390-4. [PubMed: 10517639]  [MGI Ref ID J:57901]

Hack AA; Lam MY; Cordier L; Shoturma DI; Ly CT; Hadhazy MA; Hadhazy MR; Sweeney HL; McNally EM. 2000. Differential requirement for individual sarcoglycans and dystrophin in the assembly and function of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. J Cell Sci 113(Pt 14):2535-44. [PubMed: 10862711]  [MGI Ref ID J:76730]

Haenggi T; Schaub MC; Fritschy JM. 2005. Molecular heterogeneity of the dystrophin-associated protein complex in the mouse kidney nephron: differential alterations in the absence of utrophin and dystrophin. Cell Tissue Res 319(2):299-313. [PubMed: 15565469]  [MGI Ref ID J:105083]

Hager M; Bigotti MG; Meszaros R; Carmignac V; Holmberg J; Allamand V; Akerlund M; Kalamajski S; Brancaccio A; Mayer U; Durbeej M. 2008. Cib2 binds integrin alpha7Bbeta1D and is reduced in laminin alpha2 chain-deficient muscular dystrophy. J Biol Chem 283(36):24760-9. [PubMed: 18611855]  [MGI Ref ID J:142018]

Hainsey TA; Senapati S; Kuhn DE; Rafael JA. 2003. Cardiomyopathic features associated with muscular dystrophy are independent of dystrophin absence in cardiovasculature. Neuromuscul Disord 13(4):294-302. [PubMed: 12868498]  [MGI Ref ID J:132534]

Han R; Bansal D; Miyake K; Muniz VP; Weiss RM; McNeil PL; Campbell KP. 2007. Dysferlin-mediated membrane repair protects the heart from stress-induced left ventricular injury. J Clin Invest 117(7):1805-13. [PubMed: 17607357]  [MGI Ref ID J:124212]

Han R; Frett EM; Levy JR; Rader EP; Lueck JD; Bansal D; Moore SA; Ng R; Beltran-Valero de Bernabe D; Faulkner JA; Campbell KP. 2010. Genetic ablation of complement C3 attenuates muscle pathology in dysferlin-deficient mice. J Clin Invest 120(12):4366-74. [PubMed: 21060153]  [MGI Ref ID J:171870]

Han R; Rader EP; Levy JR; Bansal D; Campbell KP. 2011. Dystrophin deficiency exacerbates skeletal muscle pathology in dysferlin-null mice. Skelet Muscle 1(1):35. [PubMed: 22132688]  [MGI Ref ID J:183725]

Handschin C; Kobayashi YM; Chin S; Seale P; Campbell KP; Spiegelman BM. 2007. PGC-1alpha regulates the neuromuscular junction program and ameliorates Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Genes Dev 21(7):770-83. [PubMed: 17403779]  [MGI Ref ID J:120376]

Hanft LM; Bogan DJ; Mayer U; Kaufman SJ; Kornegay JN; Ervasti JM. 2007. Cytoplasmic gamma-actin expression in diverse animal models of muscular dystrophy. Neuromuscul Disord 17(7):569-74. [PubMed: 17475492]  [MGI Ref ID J:124551]

Hanft LM; Rybakova IN; Patel JR; Rafael-Fortney JA; Ervasti JM. 2006. Cytoplasmic gamma-actin contributes to a compensatory remodeling response in dystrophin-deficient muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(14):5385-90. [PubMed: 16565216]  [MGI Ref ID J:108299]

Hara H; Nolan PM; Scott MO; Bucan M; Wakayama Y; Fischbeck KH. 2002. Running endurance abnormality in mdx mice. Muscle Nerve 25(2):207-11. [PubMed: 11870688]  [MGI Ref ID J:116636]

Harcourt LJ; Holmes AG; Gregorevic P; Schertzer JD; Stupka N; Plant DR; Lynch GS. 2005. Interleukin-15 Administration Improves Diaphragm Muscle Pathology and Function in Dystrophic mdx Mice. Am J Pathol 166(4):1131-41. [PubMed: 15793293]  [MGI Ref ID J:97063]

Harper SQ; Crawford RW; DelloRusso C; Chamberlain JS. 2002. Spectrin-like repeats from dystrophin and alpha-actinin-2 are not functionally interchangeable. Hum Mol Genet 11(16):1807-15. [PubMed: 12140183]  [MGI Ref ID J:118411]

Harper SQ; Hauser MA; DelloRusso C; Duan D; Crawford RW; Phelps SF; Harper HA; Robinson AS; Engelhardt JF; Brooks SV; Chamberlain JS. 2002. Modular flexibility of dystrophin: implications for gene therapy of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Nat Med 8(3):253-61. [PubMed: 11875496]  [MGI Ref ID J:109823]

Hartel JV; Granchelli JA; Hudecki MS; Pollina CM; Gosselin LE. 2001. Impact of prednisone on TGF-beta1 and collagen in diaphragm muscle from mdx mice. Muscle Nerve 24(3):428-32. [PubMed: 11353432]  [MGI Ref ID J:116196]

Hartigan-O'Connor D; Kirk CJ; Crawford R; Mule JJ; Chamberlain JS. 2001. Immune evasion by muscle-specific gene expression in dystrophic muscle. Mol Ther 4(6):525-33. [PubMed: 11735336]  [MGI Ref ID J:127849]

Haslett JN; Kang PB; Han M; Kho AT; Sanoudou D; Volinski JM; Beggs AH; Kohane IS; Kunkel LM. 2005. The influence of muscle type and dystrophin deficiency on murine expression profiles. Mamm Genome 16(10):739-48. [PubMed: 16261416]  [MGI Ref ID J:102635]

Hawke TJ; Atkinson DJ; Kanatous SB; Van der Ven PF; Goetsch SC; Garry DJ. 2007. Xin, an actin binding protein, is expressed within muscle satellite cells and newly regenerated skeletal muscle fibers. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 293(5):C1636-44. [PubMed: 17855775]  [MGI Ref ID J:128715]

Haws CM; Lansman JB. 1991. Developmental regulation of mechanosensitive calcium channels in skeletal muscle from normal and mdx mice. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 245(1314):173-7. [PubMed: 1684042]  [MGI Ref ID J:3912]

Hayes A; Lynch GS; Williams DA. 1993. The effects of endurance exercise on dystrophic mdx mice. I. Contractile and histochemical properties of intact muscles. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 253(1336):19-25. [PubMed: 8396774]  [MGI Ref ID J:14058]

Hayes A; Williams DA. 1998. Contractile function and low-intensity exercise effects of old dystrophic (mdx) mice. Am J Physiol 274(4 Pt 1):C1138-44. [PubMed: 9575811]  [MGI Ref ID J:47176]

He WA; Berardi E; Cardillo VM; Acharyya S; Aulino P; Thomas-Ahner J; Wang J; Bloomston M; Muscarella P; Nau P; Shah N; Butchbach ME; Ladner K; Adamo S; Rudnicki MA; Keller C; Coletti D; Montanaro F; Guttridge DC. 2013. NF-kappaB-mediated Pax7 dysregulation in the muscle microenvironment promotes cancer cachexia. J Clin Invest :. [PubMed: 24084740]  [MGI Ref ID J:203988]

Head S; Williams D; Stephenson G. 1994. Increased susceptibility of EDL muscles from mdx mice to damage induced by contraction with stretch [letter; comment] J Muscle Res Cell Motil 15(4):490-2. [PubMed: 7848493]  [MGI Ref ID J:23202]

Head SI; Williams DA; Stephenson DG. 1992. Abnormalities in structure and function of limb skeletal muscle fibres of dystrophic mdx mice. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 248(1322):163-9. [PubMed: 1352891]  [MGI Ref ID J:1202]

Heimann P; Augustin M; Wieneke S; Heising S; Jockusch H. 1998. Mutual interference of myotonia and muscular dystrophy in the mouse: a study on ADR-MDX double mutants. Neuromuscul Disord 8(8):551-60. [PubMed: 10093061]  [MGI Ref ID J:52182]

Henriques-Pons A; Yu Q; Rayavarapu S; Cohen TV; Ampong B; Cha HJ; Jahnke V; Van der Meulen J; Wang D; Jiang W; Kandimalla ER; Agrawal S; Spurney CF; Nagaraju K. 2014. Role of Toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of dystrophin-deficient skeletal and heart muscle. Hum Mol Genet 23(10):2604-17. [PubMed: 24368419]  [MGI Ref ID J:209059]

Hindi SM; Sato S; Choi Y; Kumar A. 2014. Distinct roles of TRAF6 at early and late stages of muscle pathology in the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet 23(6):1492-505. [PubMed: 24163132]  [MGI Ref ID J:206217]

Hirota M; Furukawa Y; Shinoda I; Yoneoka T; Ito T; Furukawa S; Hayashi K. 1994. Changes in nerve growth factor content of the submaxillary gland in the genetically dystrophic (mdx) mouse. J Neurol Sci 121(2):176-82. [PubMed: 8158212]  [MGI Ref ID J:16617]

Hnia K; Gayraud J; Hugon G; Ramonatxo M; De La Porte S; Matecki S; Mornet D. 2008. L-arginine decreases inflammation and modulates the nuclear factor-kappaB/matrix metalloproteinase cascade in mdx muscle fibers. Am J Pathol 172(6):1509-19. [PubMed: 18458097]  [MGI Ref ID J:136234]

Hnia K; Hugon G; Masmoudi A; Mercier J; Rivier F; Mornet D. 2006. Effect of beta-dystroglycan processing on utrophin/Dp116 anchorage in normal and mdx mouse Schwann cell membrane. Neuroscience 141(2):607-620. [PubMed: 16735092]  [MGI Ref ID J:111763]

Hollingworth S; Marshall MW; Robson E. 1990. Excitation contraction coupling in normal and mdx mice. Muscle Nerve 13(1):16-20. [PubMed: 2183043]  [MGI Ref ID J:115990]

Hourde C; Joanne P; Medja F; Mougenot N; Jacquet A; Mouisel E; Pannerec A; Hatem S; Butler-Browne G; Agbulut O; Ferry A. 2013. Voluntary Physical Activity Protects from Susceptibility to Skeletal Muscle Contraction-Induced Injury But Worsens Heart Function in mdx Mice. Am J Pathol 182(5):1509-18. [PubMed: 23465861]  [MGI Ref ID J:195304]

Howard PL; Dally GY; Wong MH; Ho A; Weleber RG; Pillers DA; Ray PN. 1998. Localization of dystrophin isoform Dp71 to the inner limiting membrane of the retina suggests a unique functional contribution of Dp71 in the retina. Hum Mol Genet 7(9):1385-91. [PubMed: 9700191]  [MGI Ref ID J:115134]

Hoyte K; Jayasinha V; Xia B; Martin PT. 2004. Transgenic overexpression of dystroglycan does not inhibit muscular dystrophy in mdx mice. Am J Pathol 164(2):711-8. [PubMed: 14742274]  [MGI Ref ID J:88377]

Hulmi JJ; Oliveira BM; Silvennoinen M; Hoogaars WM; Pasternack A; Kainulainen H; Ritvos O. 2013. Exercise restores decreased physical activity levels and increases markers of autophagy and oxidative capacity in myostatin/activin-blocked mdx mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 305(2):E171-82. [PubMed: 23695214]  [MGI Ref ID J:199262]

Hutter OF; Burton FL; Bovell DL. 1991. Mechanical properties of normal and mdx mouse sarcolemma: bearing on function of dystrophin. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 12(6):585-9. [PubMed: 1791198]  [MGI Ref ID J:2820]

Huynh T; Uaesoontrachoon K; Quinn JL; Tatem KS; Heier CR; Van Der Meulen JH; Yu Q; Harris M; Nolan CJ; Haegeman G; Grounds MD; Nagaraju K. 2013. Selective modulation through the glucocorticoid receptor ameliorates muscle pathology in mdx mice. J Pathol 231(2):223-35. [PubMed: 23794417]  [MGI Ref ID J:202506]

Im WB; Phelps SF; Copen EH; Adams EG; Slightom JL; Chamberlain JS. 1996. Differential expression of dystrophin isoforms in strains of mdx mice with different mutations. Hum Mol Genet 5(8):1149-53. [PubMed: 8842734]  [MGI Ref ID J:34517]

Inanlou MR; Dhillon GS; Belliveau AC; Reid GA; Ying C; Rudnicki MA; Kablar B. 2003. A significant reduction of the diaphragm in mdx:MyoD-/-(9th) embryos suggests a role for MyoD in the diaphragm development. Dev Biol 261(2):324-36. [PubMed: 14499644]  [MGI Ref ID J:85548]

Inanlou MR; Kablar B. 2003. Abnormal development of the diaphragm in mdx:MyoD-/-(9th) embryos leads to pulmonary hypoplasia. Int J Dev Biol 47(5):363-71. [PubMed: 12895031]  [MGI Ref ID J:100052]

Ishizaki M; Suga T; Kimura E; Shiota T; Kawano R; Uchida Y; Uchino K; Yamashita S; Maeda Y; Uchino M. 2008. Mdx respiratory impairment following fibrosis of the diaphragm. Neuromuscul Disord 18(4):342-8. [PubMed: 18358722]  [MGI Ref ID J:139598]

Ito T; Ogawa R; Uezumi A; Ohtani T; Watanabe Y; Tsujikawa K; Miyagoe-Suzuki Y; Takeda S; Yamamoto H; Fukada S. 2013. Imatinib attenuates severe mouse dystrophy and inhibits proliferation and fibrosis-marker expression in muscle mesenchymal progenitors. Neuromuscul Disord 23(4):349-56. [PubMed: 23313020]  [MGI Ref ID J:197819]

Iwata Y; Katanosaka Y; Arai Y; Shigekawa M; Wakabayashi S. 2009. Dominant-negative inhibition of Ca2+ influx via TRPV2 ameliorates muscular dystrophy in animal models. Hum Mol Genet 18(5):824-34. [PubMed: 19050039]  [MGI Ref ID J:145007]

Janke A; Upadhaya R; Snow WM; Anderson JE. 2013. A new look at cytoskeletal NOS-1 and beta-dystroglycan changes in developing muscle and brain in control and mdx dystrophic mice. Dev Dyn 242(12):1369-81. [PubMed: 23940011]  [MGI Ref ID J:203003]

Janssen PM. 2010. Kinetics of cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation are linked and determined by properties of the cardiac sarcomere. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 299(4):H1092-9. [PubMed: 20656885]  [MGI Ref ID J:165683]

Janssen PM; Hiranandani N; Mays TA; Rafael-Fortney JA. 2005. Utrophin deficiency worsens cardiac contractile dysfunction present in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 289(6):H2373-8. [PubMed: 16024571]  [MGI Ref ID J:104747]

Jasmin BJ; Alameddine H; Lunde JA; Stetzkowski-Marden F; Collin H; Tinsley JM; Davies KE; Tome FM; Parry DJ; Cartaud J. 1995. Expression of utrophin and its mRNA in denervated mdx mouse muscle. FEBS Lett 374(3):393-8. [PubMed: 7589578]  [MGI Ref ID J:29669]

Joanne P; Hourde C; Ochala J; Cauderan Y; Medja F; Vignaud A; Mouisel E; Hadj-Said W; Arandel L; Garcia L; Goyenvalle A; Mounier R; Zibroba D; Sakamato K; Butler-Browne G; Agbulut O; Ferry A. 2012. Impaired adaptive response to mechanical overloading in dystrophic skeletal muscle. PLoS One 7(4):e35346. [PubMed: 22511986]  [MGI Ref ID J:187085]

Johnson BD; Scheuer T; Catterall WA. 2005. Convergent regulation of skeletal muscle Ca2+ channels by dystrophin, the actin cytoskeleton, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(11):4191-6. [PubMed: 15753322]  [MGI Ref ID J:97171]

Jones GL; Sang E; Goddard C; Mortishire-Smith RJ; Sweatman BC; Haselden JN; Davies K; Grace AA; Clarke K; Griffin JL. 2005. A functional analysis of mouse models of cardiac disease through metabolic profiling. J Biol Chem 280(9):7530-9. [PubMed: 15546876]  [MGI Ref ID J:105049]

Jorgensen LH; Blain A; Greally E; Laval SH; Blamire AM; Davison BJ; Brinkmeier H; MacGowan GA; Schroder HD; Bushby K; Straub V; Lochmuller H. 2011. Long-term blocking of calcium channels in mdx mice results in differential effects on heart and skeletal muscle. Am J Pathol 178(1):273-83. [PubMed: 21224064]  [MGI Ref ID J:168085]

Jorgensen LH; Jensen CH; Wewer UM; Schroder HD. 2007. Transgenic overexpression of ADAM12 suppresses muscle regeneration and aggravates dystrophy in aged mdx mice. Am J Pathol 171(5):1599-607. [PubMed: 17982130]  [MGI Ref ID J:127259]

Judge LM; Arnett AL; Banks GB; Chamberlain JS. 2011. Expression of the dystrophin isoform Dp116 preserves functional muscle mass and extends lifespan without preventing dystrophy in severely dystrophic mice. Hum Mol Genet 20(24):4978-90. [PubMed: 21949353]  [MGI Ref ID J:177877]

Jung C; Martins AS; Niggli E; Shirokova N. 2008. Dystrophic cardiomyopathy: amplification of cellular damage by Ca2+ signalling and reactive oxygen species-generating pathways. Cardiovasc Res 77(4):766-73. [PubMed: 18056762]  [MGI Ref ID J:161914]

Kaczor JJ; Hall JE; Payne E; Tarnopolsky MA. 2007. Low intensity training decreases markers of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of mdx mice. Free Radic Biol Med 43(1):145-54. [PubMed: 17561103]  [MGI Ref ID J:122382]

Kafadar KA; Yi L; Ahmad Y; So L; Rossi F; Pavlath GK. 2009. Sca-1 expression is required for efficient remodeling of the extracellular matrix during skeletal muscle regeneration. Dev Biol 326(1):47-59. [PubMed: 19059231]  [MGI Ref ID J:145180]

Kamogawa Y; Biro S; Maeda M; Setoguchi M; Hirakawa T; Yoshida H; Tei C. 2001. Dystrophin-deficient myocardium is vulnerable to pressure overload in vivo. Cardiovasc Res 50(3):509-15. [PubMed: 11376626]  [MGI Ref ID J:162753]

Kanai A; Epperly M; Pearce L; Birder L; Zeidel M; Meyers S; Greenberger J; de Groat W; Apodaca G; Peterson J. 2004. Differing roles of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase in cardiomyocytes and urothelial cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 286(1):H13-21. [PubMed: 14684357]  [MGI Ref ID J:87605]

Kanai AJ; Pearce LL; Clemens PR; Birder LA; VanBibber MM; Choi SY; de Groat WC; Peterson J. 2001. Identification of a neuronal nitric oxide synthase in isolated cardiac mitochondria using electrochemical detection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(24):14126-31. [PubMed: 11717466]  [MGI Ref ID J:125463]

Karpati G; Zubrzycka-Gaarn EE; Carpenter S; Bulman DE; Ray PN; Worton RG. 1990. Age-related conversion of dystrophin-negative to -positive fiber segments of skeletal but not cardiac muscle fibers in heterozygote mdx mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 49(2):96-105. [PubMed: 2407807]  [MGI Ref ID J:121251]

Kayali R; Ku JM; Khitrov G; Jung ME; Prikhodko O; Bertoni C. 2012. Read-through compound 13 restores dystrophin expression and improves muscle function in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet 21(18):4007-20. [PubMed: 22692682]  [MGI Ref ID J:187428]

Kendall GC; Mokhonova EI; Moran M; Sejbuk NE; Wang DW; Silva O; Wang RT; Martinez L; Lu QL; Damoiseaux R; Spencer MJ; Nelson SF; Miceli MC. 2012. Dantrolene enhances antisense-mediated exon skipping in human and mouse models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Sci Transl Med 4(164):164ra160. [PubMed: 23241744]  [MGI Ref ID J:194409]

Khairallah M; Khairallah R; Young ME; Dyck JR; Petrof BJ; Des Rosiers C. 2007. Metabolic and signaling alterations in dystrophin-deficient hearts precede overt cardiomyopathy. J Mol Cell Cardiol 43(2):119-29. [PubMed: 17583724]  [MGI Ref ID J:123076]

Khairallah M; Khairallah RJ; Young ME; Allen BG; Gillis MA; Danialou G; Deschepper CF; Petrof BJ; Des Rosiers C. 2008. Sildenafil and cardiomyocyte-specific cGMP signaling prevent cardiomyopathic changes associated with dystrophin deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(19):7028-33. [PubMed: 18474859]  [MGI Ref ID J:134880]

Kim JH; Lawler JM. 2012. Amplification of proinflammatory phenotype, damage, and weakness by oxidative stress in the diaphragm muscle of mdx mice. Free Radic Biol Med 52(9):1597-606. [PubMed: 22330042]  [MGI Ref ID J:183264]

Kinoshita I; Vilquin JT; Tremblay JP. 1995. Pretreatment of myoblast cultures with basic fibroblast growth factor increases the efficacy of their transplantation in mdx mice. Muscle Nerve 18(8):834-41. [PubMed: 7630343]  [MGI Ref ID J:115863]

Kitamoto T; Hanaoka K. 2010. Notch3 null mutation in mice causes muscle hyperplasia by repetitive muscle regeneration. Stem Cells 28(12):2205-16. [PubMed: 20960513]  [MGI Ref ID J:168858]

Knuesel I; Mastrocola M; Zuellig RA; Bornhauser B; Schaub MC; Fritschy JM. 1999. Short communication: altered synaptic clustering of GABAA receptors in mice lacking dystrophin (mdx mice). Eur J Neurosci 11(12):4457-62. [PubMed: 10594673]  [MGI Ref ID J:89883]

Knuesel I; Riban V; Zuellig RA; Schaub MC; Grady RM; Sanes JR; Fritschy JM. 2002. Increased vulnerability to kainate-induced seizures in utrophin-knockout mice. Eur J Neurosci 15(9):1474-84. [PubMed: 12028357]  [MGI Ref ID J:89397]

Kobayashi K. 1993. Effect of submaximal treadmill running on skeletal muscles of MDX mice Jikeikai Med J 40:453-63.  [MGI Ref ID J:17056]

Kobayashi YM; Rader EP; Crawford RW; Iyengar NK; Thedens DR; Faulkner JA; Parikh SV; Weiss RM; Chamberlain JS; Moore SA; Campbell KP. 2008. Sarcolemma-localized nNOS is required to maintain activity after mild exercise. Nature 456(7221):511-5. [PubMed: 18953332]  [MGI Ref ID J:144084]

Koenig X; Dysek S; Kimbacher S; Mike AK; Cervenka R; Lukacs P; Nagl K; Dang XB; Todt H; Bittner RE; Hilber K. 2011. Voltage-gated ion channel dysfunction precedes cardiomyopathy development in the dystrophic heart. PLoS One 6(5):e20300. [PubMed: 21677768]  [MGI Ref ID J:196253]

Koenig X; Rubi L; Obermair GJ; Cervenka R; Dang XB; Lukacs P; Kummer S; Bittner RE; Kubista H; Todt H; Hilber K. 2014. Enhanced currents through L-type calcium channels in cardiomyocytes disturb the electrophysiology of the dystrophic heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 306(4):H564-73. [PubMed: 24337461]  [MGI Ref ID J:208702]

Kolodziejczyk SM; Walsh GS; Balazsi K; Seale P; Sandoz J; Hierlihy AM; Rudnicki MA; Chamberlain JS; Miller FD; Megeney LA. 2001. Activation of JNK1 contributes to dystrophic muscle pathogenesis. Curr Biol 11(16):1278-82. [PubMed: 11525743]  [MGI Ref ID J:71463]

Koltgen D; Franke C. 1994. The coexistence of embryonic and adult acetylcholine receptors in sarcolemma of mdx dystrophic mouse muscle: an effect of regeneration or muscular dystrophy? Neurosci Lett 173(1-2):79-82. [PubMed: 7936429]  [MGI Ref ID J:21986]

Kong J; Anderson JE. 2001. Dynamic restoration of dystrophin to dystrophin-deficient myotubes. Muscle Nerve 24(1):77-88. [PubMed: 11150969]  [MGI Ref ID J:116200]

Kong J; Anderson JE. 1999. Dystrophin is required for organizing large acetylcholine receptor aggregates. Brain Res 839(2):298-304. [PubMed: 10519053]  [MGI Ref ID J:57508]

Korner Z; Fontes-Oliveira CC; Holmberg J; Carmignac V; Durbeej M. 2014. Bortezomib Partially Improves Laminin alpha2 Chain-Deficient Muscular Dystrophy. Am J Pathol 184(5):1518-28. [PubMed: 24631023]  [MGI Ref ID J:208398]

Kossler N; Stricker S; Rodelsperger C; Robinson PN; Kim J; Dietrich C; Osswald M; Kuhnisch J; Stevenson DA; Braun T; Mundlos S; Kolanczyk M. 2011. Neurofibromin (Nf1) is required for skeletal muscle development. Hum Mol Genet 20(14):2697-709. [PubMed: 21478499]  [MGI Ref ID J:173779]

Krag TO; Bogdanovich S; Jensen CJ; Fischer MD; Hansen-Schwartz J; Javazon EH; Flake AW; Edvinsson L; Khurana TS. 2004. Heregulin ameliorates the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(38):13856-60. [PubMed: 15365169]  [MGI Ref ID J:92602]

Krahn MJ; Anderson JE. 1994. Anabolic steroid treatment increases myofiber damage in mdx mouse muscular dystrophy. J Neurol Sci 125(2):138-46. [PubMed: 7807158]  [MGI Ref ID J:19960]

Kramer R; Lochmuller H; Abicht A; Rudel R; Brinkmeier H. 1998. Myotonic ADR-MDX mutant mice show less severe muscular dystrophy than MDX mice. Neuromuscul Disord 8(8):542-50. [PubMed: 10093060]  [MGI Ref ID J:52181]

Kronqvist P; Kawaguchi N; Albrechtsen R; Xu X; Schroder HD; Moghadaszadeh B; Nielsen FC; Frohlich C; Engvall E; Wewer UM. 2002. ADAM12 alleviates the skeletal muscle pathology in mdx dystrophic mice. Am J Pathol 161(5):1535-40. [PubMed: 12414501]  [MGI Ref ID J:79904]

Kueh SL; Dempster J; Head SI; Morley JW. 2011. Reduced postsynaptic GABA(A) receptor number and enhanced gaboxadol induced change in holding currents in Purkinje cells of the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse. Neurobiol Dis :. [PubMed: 21601636]  [MGI Ref ID J:173345]

Kumar A; Bhatnagar S; Kumar A. 2010. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat alleviates pathology and improves skeletal muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Am J Pathol 177(1):248-60. [PubMed: 20472898]  [MGI Ref ID J:162127]

Kumar A; Khandelwal N; Malya R; Reid MB; Boriek AM. 2004. Loss of dystrophin causes aberrant mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle fibers. FASEB J 18(1):102-13. [PubMed: 14718391]  [MGI Ref ID J:87819]

Kuno A; Hori YS; Hosoda R; Tanno M; Miura T; Shimamoto K; Horio Y. 2013. Resveratrol improves cardiomyopathy in dystrophin-deficient mice through SIRT1 protein-mediated modulation of p300 protein. J Biol Chem 288(8):5963-72. [PubMed: 23297412]  [MGI Ref ID J:196087]

Kuraitis D; Berardinelli MG; Suuronen EJ; Musaro A. 2013. A necrotic stimulus is required to maximize matrix-mediated myogenesis in mice. Dis Model Mech 6(3):793-801. [PubMed: 23471914]  [MGI Ref ID J:196369]

Kurek JB; Nouri S; Kannourakis G; Murphy M; Austin L. 1996. Leukemia inhibitory factor and interleukin-6 are produced by diseased and regenerating skeletal muscle. Muscle Nerve 19(10):1291-301. [PubMed: 8808655]  [MGI Ref ID J:116333]

Kurihara T; Kishi M; Saito N; Komoto M; Hidaka T; Kinoshita M. 1990. Electrical myotonia and cataract in X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse. J Neurol Sci 99(1):83-92. [PubMed: 2250175]  [MGI Ref ID J:142492]

Kyrychenko S; Polakova E; Kang C; Pocsai K; Ullrich ND; Niggli E; Shirokova N. 2013. Hierarchical accumulation of RyR post-translational modifications drives disease progression in dystrophic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovasc Res 97(4):666-75. [PubMed: 23263329]  [MGI Ref ID J:196427]

Lagrota-Candido J; Canella I; Savino W; Quirico-Santos T. 1999. Expression of extracellular matrix ligands and receptors in the muscular tissue and draining lymph nodes of mdx dystrophic mice. Clin Immunol 93(2):143-51. [PubMed: 10527690]  [MGI Ref ID J:114168]

Lagrota-Candido J; Vasconcellos R; Cavalcanti M; Bozza M; Savino W; Quirico-Santos T. 2002. Resolution of skeletal muscle inflammation in mdx dystrophic mouse is accompanied by increased immunoglobulin and interferon-gamma production. Int J Exp Pathol 83(3):121-32. [PubMed: 12383191]  [MGI Ref ID J:79589]

Lai Y; Zhao J; Yue Y; Duan D. 2013. alpha2 and alpha3 helices of dystrophin R16 and R17 frame a microdomain in the alpha1 helix of dystrophin R17 for neuronal NOS binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(2):525-30. [PubMed: 23185009]  [MGI Ref ID J:192576]

Lancioni A; Luisa Rotundo I; Monique Kobayashi Y; D'Orsi L; Aurino S; Nigro G; Piluso G; Acampora D; Cacciottolo M; Campbell KP; Nigro V. 2011. Combined deficiency of alpha and epsilon sarcoglycan disrupts the cardiac dystrophin complex. Hum Mol Genet 20(23):4644-54. [PubMed: 21890494]  [MGI Ref ID J:177563]

Lang JM; Esser KA; Dupont-Versteegden EE. 2004. Altered activity of signaling pathways in diaphragm and tibialis anterior muscle of dystrophic mice. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 229(6):503-11. [PubMed: 15169969]  [MGI Ref ID J:102072]

Law DJ; Allen DL; Tidball JG. 1994. Talin, vinculin and DRP (utrophin) concentrations are increased at mdx myotendinous junctions following onset of necrosis. J Cell Sci 107(Pt 6):1477-83. [PubMed: 7962191]  [MGI Ref ID J:19098]

Laws N; Hoey A. 2004. Progression of kyphosis in mdx mice. J Appl Physiol 97(5):1970-7. [PubMed: 15234960]  [MGI Ref ID J:103692]

Lee CC; Pons F; Jones PG; Bies RD; Schlang AM; Leger JJ; Caskey CT. 1993. Mdx transgenic mouse: restoration of recombinant dystrophin to the dystrophic muscle. Hum Gene Ther 4(3):273-81. [PubMed: 8338875]  [MGI Ref ID J:21429]

Lefaucheur JP; Pastoret C; Sebille A. 1995. Phenotype of dystrophinopathy in old mdx mice. Anat Rec 242(1):70-6. [PubMed: 7604983]  [MGI Ref ID J:25057]

Lefaucheur JP; Sebille A. 1996. Features of dystrophy in smooth and skeletal muscles of mdx mice. Muscle Nerve 19(6):793-4. [PubMed: 8609936]  [MGI Ref ID J:116334]

Leng Y; Zheng Z; Zhou C; Zhang C; Shi X; Zhang W. 2012. A comparative study of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell functionality in C57BL and mdx mice. Neurosci Lett 523(2):139-44. [PubMed: 22766138]  [MGI Ref ID J:188800]

Levi S; Grady RM; Henry MD; Campbell KP; Sanes JR; Craig AM. 2002. Dystroglycan is selectively associated with inhibitory GABAergic synapses but is dispensable for their differentiation. J Neurosci 22(11):4274-85. [PubMed: 12040032]  [MGI Ref ID J:125567]

Lewis C; Ohlendieck K. 2010. Proteomic profiling of naturally protected extraocular muscles from the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 396(4):1024-9. [PubMed: 20471957]  [MGI Ref ID J:162430]

Li D; Long C; Yue Y; Duan D. 2009. Sub-physiological sarcoglycan expression contributes to compensatory muscle protection in mdx mice. Hum Mol Genet 18(7):1209-20. [PubMed: 19131360]  [MGI Ref ID J:146188]

Li D; Yue Y; Duan D. 2010. Marginal level dystrophin expression improves clinical outcome in a strain of dystrophin/utrophin double knockout mice. PLoS One 5(12):e15286. [PubMed: 21187970]  [MGI Ref ID J:168677]

Li D; Yue Y; Lai Y; Hakim CH; Duan D. 2011. Nitrosative stress elicited by nNOSmicro delocalization inhibits muscle force in dystrophin-null mice. J Pathol 223(1):88-98. [PubMed: 21125668]  [MGI Ref ID J:167308]

Li H; Mittal A; Makonchuk DY; Bhatnagar S; Kumar A. 2009. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibition ameliorates pathogenesis and improves skeletal muscle regeneration in muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet 18(14):2584-98. [PubMed: 19401296]  [MGI Ref ID J:150030]

Li R; Ren M; Chen N; Luo M; Zhang Z; Wu J. 2012. Vitronectin increases vascular permeability by promoting VE-cadherin internalization at cell junctions. PLoS One 7(5):e37195. [PubMed: 22606350]  [MGI Ref ID J:187242]

Licursi V; Caiello I; Lombardi L; De Stefano ME; Negri R; Paggi P. 2012. Lack of dystrophin in mdx mice modulates the expression of genes involved in neuron survival and differentiation. Eur J Neurosci 35(5):691-701. [PubMed: 22309284]  [MGI Ref ID J:184295]

Lin B; Govindan S; Lee K; Zhao P; Han R; Runte KE; Craig R; Palmer BM; Sadayappan S. 2013. Cardiac myosin binding protein-C plays no regulatory role in skeletal muscle structure and function. PLoS One 8(7):e69671. [PubMed: 23936073]  [MGI Ref ID J:204454]

Lin X; Miller JW; Mankodi A; Kanadia RN; Yuan Y; Moxley RT; Swanson MS; Thornton CA. 2006. Failure of MBNL1-dependent post-natal splicing transitions in myotonic dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet 15(13):2087-97. [PubMed: 16717059]  [MGI Ref ID J:112061]

Liu J; Milner DJ; Boppart MD; Ross RS; Kaufman SJ. 2012. beta1D chain increases alpha7beta1 integrin and laminin and protects against sarcolemmal damage in mdx mice. Hum Mol Genet 21(7):1592-603. [PubMed: 22180459]  [MGI Ref ID J:181562]

Liu N; Williams AH; Maxeiner JM; Bezprozvannaya S; Shelton JM; Richardson JA; Bassel-Duby R; Olson EN. 2012. microRNA-206 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration and delays progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in mice. J Clin Invest 122(6):2054-65. [PubMed: 22546853]  [MGI Ref ID J:188300]

Ljubicic V; Khogali S; Renaud JM; Jasmin BJ. 2012. Chronic AMPK stimulation attenuates adaptive signaling in dystrophic skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 302(1):C110-21. [PubMed: 21940670]  [MGI Ref ID J:180633]

Ljubicic V; Miura P; Burt M; Boudreault L; Khogali S; Lunde JA; Renaud JM; Jasmin BJ. 2011. Chronic AMPK activation evokes the slow, oxidative myogenic program and triggers beneficial adaptations in mdx mouse skeletal muscle. Hum Mol Genet 20(17):3478-93. [PubMed: 21659335]  [MGI Ref ID J:174458]

Lombardi L; De Stefano ME; Paggi P. 2008. Components of the NGF signaling complex are altered in mdx mouse superior cervical ganglion and its target organs. Neurobiol Dis 32(3):402-11. [PubMed: 18725298]  [MGI Ref ID J:142260]

Louboutin JP; Fichter-Gagnepain V; Thaon E; Fardeau M. 1993. Morphometric analysis of mdx diaphragm muscle fibres. Comparison with hindlimb muscles. Neuromuscul Disord 3(5-6):463-9. [PubMed: 8186695]  [MGI Ref ID J:19035]

Loufrani L; Levy BI; Henrion D. 2002. Defect in microvascular adaptation to chronic changes in blood flow in mice lacking the gene encoding for dystrophin. Circ Res 91(12):1183-9. [PubMed: 12480820]  [MGI Ref ID J:108996]

Lovering RM; Michaelson L; Ward CW. 2009. Malformed mdx myofibers have normal cytoskeletal architecture yet altered EC coupling and stress-induced Ca2+ signaling. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 297(3):C571-80. [PubMed: 19605736]  [MGI Ref ID J:152090]

Lu S; Hoey A. 2000. Changes in function of cardiac receptors mediating the effects of the autonomic nervous system in the muscular dystrophy (MDX) mouse J Mol Cell Cardiol 32(1):143-52. [PubMed: 10652198]  [MGI Ref ID J:60523]

Lucas-Heron B; Schmitt N; Ollivier B. 1994. Mdx mouse skeletal muscle: could a mitochondrial factor be responsible for the absence of progressive necrosis? Neurosci Lett 169(1-2):97-100. [PubMed: 8047301]  [MGI Ref ID J:20768]

Lueck JD; Lungu C; Mankodi A; Osborne RJ; Welle SL; Dirksen RT; Thornton CA. 2007. Chloride channelopathy in myotonic dystrophy resulting from loss of posttranscriptional regulation for CLCN1. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 292(4):C1291-7. [PubMed: 17135300]  [MGI Ref ID J:125885]

Luz MA; Marques MJ; Santo Neto H. 2002. Impaired regeneration of dystrophin-deficient muscle fibers is caused by exhaustion of myogenic cells. Braz J Med Biol Res 35(6):691-5. [PubMed: 12045834]  [MGI Ref ID J:102527]

Lynch GS; Hayes A; Lam MH; Williams DA. 1993. The effects of endurance exercise on dystrophic mdx mice. II. Contractile properties of skinned muscle fibres. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 253(1336):27-33. [PubMed: 8396775]  [MGI Ref ID J:15490]

Lynch GS; Hinkle RT; Chamberlain JS; Brooks SV; Faulkner JA. 2001. Force and power output of fast and slow skeletal muscles from mdx mice 6-28 months old. J Physiol 535(Pt 2):591-600. [PubMed: 11533147]  [MGI Ref ID J:106518]

Lynch GS; Hinkle RT; Faulkner JA. 2000. Power output of fast and slow skeletal muscles of mdx (dystrophic) and control mice after clenbuterol treatment. Exp Physiol 85(3):295-9. [PubMed: 10825417]  [MGI Ref ID J:62414]

Lynch GS; Rafael JA; Chamberlain JS; Faulkner JA. 2000. Contraction-induced injury to single permeabilized muscle fibers from mdx, transgenic mdx, and control mice Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 279(4):C1290-4. [PubMed: 11003610]  [MGI Ref ID J:65220]

Lynch GS; Rafael JA; Hinkle RT; Cole NM; Chamberlain JS; Faulkner JA. 1997. Contractile properties of diaphragm muscle segments from old mdx and old transgenic mdx mice. Am J Physiol 272(6 Pt 1):C2063-8. [PubMed: 9227435]  [MGI Ref ID J:113048]

Lyons PR; Slater CR. 1991. Structure and function of the neuromuscular junction in young adult mdx mice. J Neurocytol 20(12):969-81. [PubMed: 1686056]  [MGI Ref ID J:121319]

Maillet M; Lynch JM; Sanna B; York AJ; Zheng Y; Molkentin JD. 2009. Cdc42 is an antihypertrophic molecular switch in the mouse heart. J Clin Invest 119(10):3079-88. [PubMed: 19741299]  [MGI Ref ID J:154646]

Mallouk N; Jacquemond V; Allard B. 2000. Elevated subsarcolemmal Ca2+ in mdx mouse skeletal muscle fibers detected with Ca2+-activated K+ channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(9):4950-5. [PubMed: 10781103]  [MGI Ref ID J:126699]

Mancinelli R; Tonali P; Romani R; Tringali A; Vargiu R; AZZENA GB. 1999. Mechanical properties of smooth muscle portal vein in normal and dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice. Exp Physiol 84(5):929-40. [PubMed: 10502660]  [MGI Ref ID J:106559]

Mann CJ; Honeyman K; Cheng AJ; Ly T; Lloyd F; Fletcher S; Morgan JE; Partridge TA; Wilton SD. 2001. Antisense-induced exon skipping and synthesis of dystrophin in the mdx mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(1):42-7. [PubMed: 11120883]  [MGI Ref ID J:66709]

Marques MJ; Minatel E; Guimaraes AO; Neto HS. 2004. Distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide at the neuromuscular junction of mdx mice. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 279(2):798-803. [PubMed: 15278951]  [MGI Ref ID J:174186]

Marques MJ; Taniguti AP; Minatel E; Neto HS. 2007. Nerve terminal contributes to acetylcholine receptor organization at the dystrophic neuromuscular junction of mdx mice. Anat Rec (Hoboken) 290(2):181-7. [PubMed: 17441210]  [MGI Ref ID J:174176]

Marshall JL; Holmberg J; Chou E; Ocampo AC; Oh J; Lee J; Peter AK; Martin PT; Crosbie-Watson RH. 2012. Sarcospan-dependent Akt activation is required for utrophin expression and muscle regeneration. J Cell Biol 197(7):1009-27. [PubMed: 22734004]  [MGI Ref ID J:185346]

Martin PT; Xu R; Rodino-Klapac LR; Oglesbay E; Camboni M; Montgomery CL; Shontz K; Chicoine LG; Clark KR; Sahenk Z; Mendell JR; Janssen PM. 2009. Overexpression of Galgt2 in skeletal muscle prevents injury resulting from eccentric contractions in both mdx and wild-type mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 296(3):C476-88. [PubMed: 19109526]  [MGI Ref ID J:146366]

Martins PC; Ayub-Guerrieri D; Martins-Bach AB; Onofre-Oliveira P; Malheiros JM; Tannus A; de Sousa PL; Carlier PG; Vainzof M. 2013. Dmdmdx/Largemyd: a new mouse model of neuromuscular diseases useful for studying physiopathological mechanisms and testing therapies. Dis Model Mech 6(5):1167-74. [PubMed: 23798567]  [MGI Ref ID J:201690]

Matecki S; Guibinga GH; Petrof BJ. 2004. Regenerative capacity of the dystrophic (mdx) diaphragm after induced injury. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 287(4):R961-8. [PubMed: 15191902]  [MGI Ref ID J:109378]

Matsakas A; Yadav V; Lorca S; Narkar V. 2013. Muscle ERRgamma mitigates Duchenne muscular dystrophy via metabolic and angiogenic reprogramming. FASEB J 27(10):4004-4016. [PubMed: 23781095]  [MGI Ref ID J:201176]

Matsumura CY; Menezes de Oliveira B; Durbeej M; Marques MJ. 2013. Isobaric Tagging-Based Quantification for Proteomic Analysis: A Comparative Study of Spared and Affected Muscles from Mice at the Early Phase of Dystrophy. PLoS One 8(6):e65831. [PubMed: 23823696]  [MGI Ref ID J:203463]

Matsumura CY; Taniguti AP; Pertille A; Neto HS; Marques MJ. 2011. Stretch-activated calcium channel protein TRPC1 is correlated with the different degrees of the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 301(6):C1344-50. [PubMed: 21900691]  [MGI Ref ID J:178321]

Matsumura K; Ervasti JM; Ohlendieck K; Kahl SD; Campbell KP. 1992. Association of dystrophin-related protein with dystrophin-associated proteins in mdx mouse muscle. Nature 360(6404):588-91. [PubMed: 1461282]  [MGI Ref ID J:3426]

McArdle A; Edwards RH; Jackson MJ. 1992. Accumulation of calcium by normal and dystrophin-deficient mouse muscle during contractile activity in vitro. Clin Sci (Colch) 82(4):455-9. [PubMed: 1315657]  [MGI Ref ID J:4056]

McArdle A; Edwards RH; Jackson MJ. 1994. Time course of changes in plasma membrane permeability in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse. Muscle Nerve 17(12):1378-84. [PubMed: 7969238]  [MGI Ref ID J:21964]

McCarthy JJ; Esser KA; Andrade FH. 2007. MicroRNA-206 is overexpressed in the diaphragm but not the hindlimb muscle of mdx mouse. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 293(1):C451-7. [PubMed: 17459947]  [MGI Ref ID J:125844]

McDonald AA; Kunz MD; McLoon LK. 2014. Dystrophic changes in extraocular muscles after gamma irradiation in mdx:utrophin(+/-) mice. PLoS One 9(1):e86424. [PubMed: 24466085]  [MGI Ref ID J:212562]

McGeachie JK; Grounds MD. 1999. The timing between skeletal muscle myoblast replication and fusion into myotubes, and the stability of regenerated dystrophic myofibres: an autoradiographic study in mdx mice. J Anat 194(Pt 2):287-95. [PubMed: 10337961]  [MGI Ref ID J:54955]

McIntosh LM; Anderson JE. 1995. Hypothyroidism prolongs and increases mdx muscle precursor proliferation and delays myotube formation in normal and dystrophic limb muscle. Biochem Cell Biol 73(3-4):181-90. [PubMed: 7576492]  [MGI Ref ID J:28051]

McIntosh LM; Pernitsky AN; Anderson JE. 1994. The effects of altered metabolism (hypothyroidism) on muscle repair in the mdx dystrophic mouse. Muscle Nerve 17(4):444-53. [PubMed: 8170492]  [MGI Ref ID J:19048]

Meadows E; Flynn JM; Klein WH. 2011. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity but is dispensable for skeletal muscle regeneration in adult mdx mice. PLoS One 6(1):e16184. [PubMed: 21264243]  [MGI Ref ID J:169466]

Mechalchuk CL; Bressler BH. 1992. Contractility of mdx skeletal muscle after denervation and devascularization. Muscle Nerve 15(3):310-7. [PubMed: 1557078]  [MGI Ref ID J:116343]

Meech R; Gonzalez KN; Barro M; Gromova A; Zhuang L; Hulin JA; Makarenkova HP. 2012. Barx2 is expressed in satellite cells and is required for normal muscle growth and regeneration. Stem Cells 30(2):253-65. [PubMed: 22076929]  [MGI Ref ID J:187799]

Meeson AP; Shi X; Alexander MS; Williams RS; Allen RE; Jiang N; Adham IM; Goetsch SC; Hammer RE; Garry DJ. 2007. Sox15 and Fhl3 transcriptionally coactivate Foxk1 and regulate myogenic progenitor cells. EMBO J 26(7):1902-12. [PubMed: 17363903]  [MGI Ref ID J:122510]

Megeney LA; Kablar B; Garrett K; Anderson JE; Rudnicki MA. 1996. MyoD is required for myogenic stem cell function in adult skeletal muscle. Genes Dev 10(10):1173-83. [PubMed: 8675005]  [MGI Ref ID J:33260]

Megeney LA; Kablar B; Perry RL; Ying C; May L; Rudnicki MA. 1999. Severe cardiomyopathy in mice lacking dystrophin and MyoD. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(1):220-5. [PubMed: 9874799]  [MGI Ref ID J:52248]

Meinen S; Lin S; Ruegg MA; Punga AR. 2012. Fatigue and muscle atrophy in a mouse model of myasthenia gravis is paralleled by loss of sarcolemmal nNOS. PLoS One 7(8):e44148. [PubMed: 22952904]  [MGI Ref ID J:191651]

Menazza S; Blaauw B; Tiepolo T; Toniolo L; Braghetta P; Spolaore B; Reggiani C; Di Lisa F; Bonaldo P; Canton M. 2010. Oxidative stress by monoamine oxidases is causally involved in myofiber damage in muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet 19(21):4207-15. [PubMed: 20716577]  [MGI Ref ID J:164888]

Merrick D; Stadler LK; Larner D; Smith J. 2009. Muscular dystrophy begins early in embryonic development deriving from stem cell loss and disrupted skeletal muscle formation. Dis Model Mech 2(7-8):374-88. [PubMed: 19535499]  [MGI Ref ID J:150127]

Messina S; Altavilla D; Aguennouz M; Seminara P; Minutoli L; Monici MC; Bitto A; Mazzeo A; Marini H; Squadrito F; Vita G. 2006. Lipid peroxidation inhibition blunts nuclear factor-kappaB activation, reduces skeletal muscle degeneration, and enhances muscle function in mdx mice. Am J Pathol 168(3):918-26. [PubMed: 16507907]  [MGI Ref ID J:106560]

Messina S; Bitto A; Aguennouz M; Minutoli L; Monici MC; Altavilla D; Squadrito F; Vita G. 2006. Nuclear factor kappa-B blockade reduces skeletal muscle degeneration and enhances muscle function in Mdx mice. Exp Neurol 198(1):234-41. [PubMed: 16410003]  [MGI Ref ID J:107902]

Millay DP; Goonasekera SA; Sargent MA; Maillet M; Aronow BJ; Molkentin JD. 2009. Calcium influx is sufficient to induce muscular dystrophy through a TRPC-dependent mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(45):19023-8. [PubMed: 19864620]  [MGI Ref ID J:154908]

Millay DP; Sargent MA; Osinska H; Baines CP; Barton ER; Vuagniaux G; Sweeney HL; Robbins J; Molkentin JD. 2008. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of mitochondrial-dependent necrosis attenuates muscular dystrophy. Nat Med 14(4):442-7. [PubMed: 18345011]  [MGI Ref ID J:133679]

Miller G; Moore CJ; Terry R; La Riviere T; Mitchell A; Piggott R; Dear TN; Wells DJ; Winder SJ. 2012. Preventing phosphorylation of dystroglycan ameliorates the dystrophic phenotype in mdx mouse. Hum Mol Genet 21(20):4508-20. [PubMed: 22810924]  [MGI Ref ID J:187750]

Minatel E; Neto HS; Marques MJ. 2003. Acetylcholine receptor distribution and synapse elimination at the developing neuromuscular junction of mdx mice. Muscle Nerve 28(5):561-9. [PubMed: 14571457]  [MGI Ref ID J:105143]

Minatel E; Santo Neto H; Marques MJ. 2001. Acetylcholine receptors and neuronal nitric oxide synthase distribution at the neuromuscular junction of regenerated muscle fibers. Muscle Nerve 24(3):410-6. [PubMed: 11353428]  [MGI Ref ID J:116197]

Minciacchi D; Del Tongo C; Carretta D; Nosi D; Granato A. 2010. Alterations of the cortico-cortical network in sensori-motor areas of dystrophin deficient mice. Neuroscience 166(4):1129-39. [PubMed: 20109538]  [MGI Ref ID J:159718]

Miranda R; Nudel U; Laroche S; Vaillend C. 2011. Altered presynaptic ultrastructure in excitatory hippocampal synapses of mice lacking dystrophins Dp427 or Dp71. Neurobiol Dis 43(1):134-41. [PubMed: 21397023]  [MGI Ref ID J:174331]

Miranda R; Sebrie C; Degrouard J; Gillet B; Jaillard D; Laroche S; Vaillend C. 2009. Reorganization of inhibitory synapses and increased PSD length of perforated excitatory synapses in hippocampal area CA1 of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Cereb Cortex 19(4):876-88. [PubMed: 18794205]  [MGI Ref ID J:174113]

Miyagoe-Suzuki Y; Masubuchi N; Miyamoto K; Wada MR; Yuasa S; Saito F; Matsumura K; Kanesaki H; Kudo A; Manya H; Endo T; Takeda S. 2008. Reduced proliferative activity of primary POMGnT1-null myoblasts in vitro. Mech Dev :. [PubMed: 19114101]  [MGI Ref ID J:144928]

Miyazaki D; Nakamura A; Fukushima K; Yoshida K; Takeda S; Ikeda S. 2011. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 ablation in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles reduces angiogenesis resulting in impaired growth of regenerated muscle fibers. Hum Mol Genet 20(9):1787-99. [PubMed: 21320869]  [MGI Ref ID J:170485]

Mizunoya W; Upadhaya R; Burczynski FJ; Wang G; Anderson JE. 2011. Nitric oxide donors improve prednisone effects on muscular dystrophy in the mdx mouse diaphragm. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 300(5):C1065-77. [PubMed: 21270295]  [MGI Ref ID J:174258]

Moghadaszadeh B; Albrechtsen R; Guo LT; Zaik M; Kawaguchi N; Borup RH; Kronqvist P; Schroder HD; Davies KE; Voit T; Nielsen FC; Engvall E; Wewer UM. 2003. Compensation for dystrophin-deficiency: ADAM12 overexpression in skeletal muscle results in increased alpha 7 integrin, utrophin and associated glycoproteins. Hum Mol Genet 12(19):2467-79. [PubMed: 12915458]  [MGI Ref ID J:85973]

Mohri I; Aritake K; Taniguchi H; Sato Y; Kamauchi S; Nagata N; Maruyama T; Taniike M; Urade Y. 2009. Inhibition of prostaglandin D synthase suppresses muscular necrosis. Am J Pathol 174(5):1735-44. [PubMed: 19359520]  [MGI Ref ID J:148025]

Mokalled MH; Johnson AN; Creemers EE; Olson EN. 2012. MASTR directs MyoD-dependent satellite cell differentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration. Genes Dev 26(2):190-202. [PubMed: 22279050]  [MGI Ref ID J:179880]

Mokhtarian A; Lefaucheur JP; Even PC; Sebille A. 1999. Hindlimb immobilization applied to 21-day-old mdx mice prevents the occurrence of muscle degeneration. J Appl Physiol 86(3):924-31. [PubMed: 10066706]  [MGI Ref ID J:103296]

Montanaro F; Carbonetto S; Campbell KP; Lindenbaum M. 1995. Dystroglycan expression in the wild type and mdx mouse neural retina: synaptic colocalization with dystrophin, dystrophin-related protein but not laminin. J Neurosci Res 42(4):528-38. [PubMed: 8568939]  [MGI Ref ID J:29769]

Montgomery E; Pennington C; Isales CM; Hamrick MW. 2005. Muscle-bone interactions in dystrophin-deficient and myostatin-deficient mice. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 286(1):814-22. [PubMed: 16078270]  [MGI Ref ID J:174184]

Moore K; Bulfield G. 1981. Research News (Dmd) Mouse News Lett 64:61.  [MGI Ref ID J:28684]

Morales MG; Gutierrez J; Cabello-Verrugio C; Cabrera D; Lipson KE; Goldschmeding R; Brandan E. 2013. Reducing CTGF/CCN2 slows down mdx muscle dystrophy and improves cell therapy. Hum Mol Genet 22(24):4938-51. [PubMed: 23904456]  [MGI Ref ID J:203131]

Morgan JE; Pagel CN; Sherratt T; Partridge TA. 1993. Long-term persistence and migration of myogenic cells injected into pre-irradiated muscles of mdx mice. J Neurol Sci 115(2):191-200. [PubMed: 7683332]  [MGI Ref ID J:4395]

Morin S; de la Porte S; Fiszman M; Koenig J. 1995. Inhibition of proliferation in 8-week-old mdx mouse muscle fibroblasts in vitro. Differentiation 59(3):145-54. [PubMed: 7589898]  [MGI Ref ID J:29793]

Morris CA; Selsby JT; Morris LD; Pendrak K; Sweeney HL. 2010. Bowman-Birk inhibitor attenuates dystrophic pathology in mdx mice. J Appl Physiol 109(5):1492-9. [PubMed: 20847128]  [MGI Ref ID J:185904]

Morrison J; Lu QL; Pastoret C; Partridge T; Bou-Gharios G. 2000. T-cell-dependent fibrosis in the mdx dystrophic mouse. Lab Invest 80(6):881-91. [PubMed: 10879739]  [MGI Ref ID J:62881]

Morrison J; Palmer DB; Cobbold S; Partridge T; Bou-Gharios G. 2005. Effects of T-Lymphocyte Depletion on Muscle Fibrosis in the mdx Mouse. Am J Pathol 166(6):1701-10. [PubMed: 15920155]  [MGI Ref ID J:98815]

Morrison J; Partridge T; Bou-Gharios G. 2005. Nude mutation influences limb skeletal muscle development. Matrix Biol 23(8):535-42. [PubMed: 15694130]  [MGI Ref ID J:95776]

Mu X; Usas A; Tang Y; Lu A; Wang B; Weiss K; Huard J. 2013. RhoA mediates defective stem cell function and heterotopic ossification in dystrophic muscle of mice. FASEB J 27(9):3619-31. [PubMed: 23704088]  [MGI Ref ID J:201105]

Mu X; Xiang G; Rathbone CR; Pan H; Bellayr IH; Walters TJ; Li Y. 2011. Slow-adhering stem cells derived from injured skeletal muscle have improved regenerative capacity. Am J Pathol 179(2):931-41. [PubMed: 21684246]  [MGI Ref ID J:174133]

Mueck T; Berger F; Buechsler I; Valchanova RS; Landuzzi L; Lollini PL; Klingel K; Munz B. 2011. TRAF6 regulates proliferation and differentiation of skeletal myoblasts. Differentiation 81(2):99-106. [PubMed: 21131124]  [MGI Ref ID J:168480]

Mule F; Vannucchi MG; Corsani L; Serio R; Faussone-Pellegrini MS. 2001. Myogenic NOS and endogenous NO production are defective in colon from dystrophic (mdx) mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 281(5):G1264-70. [PubMed: 11668035]  [MGI Ref ID J:72563]

Muntoni F; Mateddu A; Marchei F; Clerk A; Serra G. 1993. Muscular weakness in the mdx mouse. J Neurol Sci 120(1):71-7. [PubMed: 8289081]  [MGI Ref ID J:15976]

Murphy KT; Ryall JG; Snell SM; Nair L; Koopman R; Krasney PA; Ibebunjo C; Holden KS; Loria PM; Salatto CT; Lynch GS. 2010. Antibody-directed myostatin inhibition improves diaphragm pathology in young but not adult dystrophic mdx mice. Am J Pathol 176(5):2425-34. [PubMed: 20363926]  [MGI Ref ID J:160748]

Murphy RM; Dutka TL; Horvath D; Bell JR; Delbridge LM; Lamb GD. 2013. Ca2+-dependent proteolysis of junctophilin-1 and junctophilin-2 in skeletal and cardiac muscle. J Physiol 591(Pt 3):719-29. [PubMed: 23148318]  [MGI Ref ID J:205977]

Nagaraju K; Rawat R; Veszelovszky E; Thapliyal R; Kesari A; Sparks S; Raben N; Plotz P; Hoffman EP. 2008. Dysferlin Deficiency Enhances Monocyte Phagocytosis: A Model for the Inflammatory Onset of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2B. Am J Pathol 172(3):774-785. [PubMed: 18276788]  [MGI Ref ID J:132272]

Nahirney PC; Ovalle WK. 1993. Distribution of dystrophin and neurofilament protein in muscle spindles of normal and Mdx-dystrophic mice: an immunocytochemical study. Anat Rec 235(4):501-10. [PubMed: 8465985]  [MGI Ref ID J:4328]

Nakagaki WR; Bertran CA; Matsumura CY; Santo-Neto H; Camilli JA. 2011. Mechanical, biochemical and morphometric alterations in the femur of mdx mice. Bone 48(2):372-9. [PubMed: 20850579]  [MGI Ref ID J:170207]

Nakagaki WR; Camilli JA. 2012. Spontaneous Healing Capacity of Calvarial Bone Defects in mdx Mice. Anat Rec (Hoboken) 295(4):590-6. [PubMed: 22271453]  [MGI Ref ID J:181555]

Nakagaki WR; Tomiosso TC; Pimentel ER; Camilli JA. 2013. Mechanical and morphological aspects of the calcaneal tendon of mdx mice at 21 days of age. Anat Rec (Hoboken) 296(10):1546-51. [PubMed: 23934706]  [MGI Ref ID J:202862]

Nakamura A; Harrod GV; Davies KE. 2001. Activation of calcineurin and stress activated protein kinase/p38-mitogen activated protein kinase in hearts of utrophin-dystrophin knockout mice. Neuromuscul Disord 11(3):251-9. [PubMed: 11297940]  [MGI Ref ID J:112432]

Nakamura A; Yoshida K; Takeda S; Dohi N; Ikeda S. 2002. Progression of dystrophic features and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and calcineurin by physical exercise, in hearts of mdx mice. FEBS Lett 520(1-3):18-24. [PubMed: 12044863]  [MGI Ref ID J:119432]

Nakatani M; Takehara Y; Sugino H; Matsumoto M; Hashimoto O; Hasegawa Y; Murakami T; Uezumi A; Takeda S; Noji S; Sunada Y; Tsuchida K. 2008. Transgenic expression of a myostatin inhibitor derived from follistatin increases skeletal muscle mass and ameliorates dystrophic pathology in mdx mice. FASEB J 22(2):477-87. [PubMed: 17893249]  [MGI Ref ID J:134809]

Narita S; Yorifuji H. 1999. Centrally nucleated fibers (CNFs) compensate the fragility of myofibers in mdx mouse. Neuroreport 10(15):3233-5. [PubMed: 10574566]  [MGI Ref ID J:103724]

Nelson CA; Hunter RB; Quigley LA; Girgenrath S; Weber WD; McCullough JA; Dinardo CJ; Keefe KA; Ceci L; Clayton NP; McVie-Wylie A; Cheng SH; Leonard JP; Wentworth BM. 2011. Inhibiting TGF-beta Activity Improves Respiratory Function in mdx Mice. Am J Pathol 178(6):2611-21. [PubMed: 21641384]  [MGI Ref ID J:173295]

Neuhaus P; Oustanina S; Loch T; Kruger M; Bober E; Dono R; Zeller R; Braun T. 2003. Reduced mobility of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-deficient myoblasts might contribute to dystrophic changes in the musculature of FGF2/FGF6/mdx triple-mutant mice. Mol Cell Biol 23(17):6037-48. [PubMed: 12917328]  [MGI Ref ID J:85088]

Ng R; Metzger JM; Claflin DR; Faulkner JA. 2008. Poloxamer 188 reduces the contraction-induced force decline in lumbrical muscles from mdx mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 295(1):C146-50. [PubMed: 18495816]  [MGI Ref ID J:138653]

Nguyen HH; Jayasinha V; Xia B; Hoyte K; Martin PT. 2002. Overexpression of the cytotoxic T cell GalNAc transferase in skeletal muscle inhibits muscular dystrophy in mdx mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(8):5616-21. [PubMed: 11960016]  [MGI Ref ID J:76069]

Nguyen-Tran DH; Hait NC; Sperber H; Qi J; Fischer K; Ieronimakis N; Pantoja M; Hays A; Allegood J; Reyes M; Spiegel S; Ruohola-Baker H. 2014. Molecular mechanism of sphingosine-1-phosphate action in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Dis Model Mech 7(1):41-54. [PubMed: 24077965]  [MGI Ref ID J:208735]

Nico B; Corsi P; Ria R; Crivellato E; Vacca A; Roccaro AM; Mangieri D; Ribatti D; Roncali L. 2006. Increased matrix-metalloproteinase-2 and matrix-metalloproteinase-9 expression in the brain of dystrophic mdx mouse. Neuroscience 140(3):835-48. [PubMed: 16650610]  [MGI Ref ID J:110290]

Nico B; Frigeri A; Nicchia GP; Corsi P; Ribatti D; Quondamatteo F; Herken R; Girolamo F; Marzullo A; Svelto M; Roncali L. 2003. Severe alterations of endothelial and glial cells in the blood-brain barrier of dystrophic mdx mice. Glia 42(3):235-51. [PubMed: 12673830]  [MGI Ref ID J:104866]

Nico B; Mangieri D; De Luca A; Corsi P; Benagiano V; Tamma R; Annese T; Longo V; Crivellato E; Ribatti D. 2009. Nerve growth factor and its receptors TrkA and p75 are upregulated in the brain of mdx dystrophic mouse. Neuroscience 161(4):1057-66. [PubMed: 19376199]  [MGI Ref ID J:152938]

Nico B; Marzullo A; Corsi P; Vacca A; Roncali L; Ribatti D. 2004. A possible role of tryptase in angiogenesis in the brain of mdx mouse, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Neuroscience 123(3):585-8. [PubMed: 14706770]  [MGI Ref ID J:89994]

Nico B; Paola Nicchia G; Frigeri A; Corsi P; Mangieri D; Ribatti D; Svelto M; Roncali L. 2004. Altered blood-brain barrier development in dystrophic MDX mice. Neuroscience 125(4):921-35. [PubMed: 15120852]  [MGI Ref ID J:89984]

Nico B; Tamma R; Annese T; Mangieri D; De Luca A; Corsi P; Benagiano V; Longo V; Crivellato E; Salmaggi A; Ribatti D. 2010. Glial dystrophin-associated proteins, laminin and agrin, are downregulated in the brain of mdx mouse. Lab Invest 90(11):1645-60. [PubMed: 20714324]  [MGI Ref ID J:165342]

Nitahara-Kasahara Y; Hayashita-Kinoh H; Chiyo T; Nishiyama A; Okada H; Takeda S; Okada T. 2014. Dystrophic mdx mice develop severe cardiac and respiratory dysfunction following genetic ablation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Hum Mol Genet 23(15):3990-4000. [PubMed: 24659498]  [MGI Ref ID J:211195]

Oh HJ; Abraham LS; van Hengel J; Stove C; Proszynski TJ; Gevaert K; DiMario JX; Sanes JR; van Roy F; Kim H. 2012. Interaction of alpha-catulin with dystrobrevin contributes to integrity of dystrophin complex in muscle. J Biol Chem 287(26):21717-28. [PubMed: 22577143]  [MGI Ref ID J:192994]

Ohlendieck K; Campbell KP. 1991. Dystrophin-associated proteins are greatly reduced in skeletal muscle from mdx mice. J Cell Biol 115(6):1685-94. [PubMed: 1757468]  [MGI Ref ID J:1875]

Okamoto Y; Takahashi K; Toriyama K; Takeda N; Kitagawa K; Hosokawa M; Takeda T. 1995. Femoral peak bone mass and osteoclast number in an animal model of age-related spontaneous osteopenia. Anat Rec 242(1):21-8. [PubMed: 7604978]  [MGI Ref ID J:25058]

Olichon-Berthe C; Gautier N; Van Obberghen E; Le Marchand-Brustel Y. 1993. Expression of the glucose transporter GLUT4 in the muscular dystrophic mdx mouse. Biochem J 291(Pt 1):257-61. [PubMed: 8471042]  [MGI Ref ID J:4547]

Pagel C; Watt D; Naudeer S; Partridge T; Morgan J. 1991. The change in dystrophin phenotype in heterozygous mdx mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 50(3):278-80. [PubMed: 2022969]  [MGI Ref ID J:121258]

Park CW; Ryu HW; Ryu KY. 2012. Locus coeruleus neurons are resistant to dysfunction and degeneration by maintaining free ubiquitin levels although total ubiquitin levels decrease upon disruption of polyubiquitin gene Ubb. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 418(3):541-6. [PubMed: 22285186]  [MGI Ref ID J:181255]

Pastoret C; Sebille A. 1995. Age-related differences in regeneration of dystrophic (mdx) and normal muscle in the mouse. Muscle Nerve 18(10):1147-54. [PubMed: 7659109]  [MGI Ref ID J:29605]

Pastoret C; Sebille A. 1993. Fibres of intermediate type 1C and 2C are found continuously in mdx soleus muscle up to 52 weeks. Histochemistry 100(4):271-6. [PubMed: 8276641]  [MGI Ref ID J:17566]

Pastoret C; Sebille A. 1993. Further aspects of muscular dystrophy in mdx mice. Neuromuscul Disord 3(5-6):471-5. [PubMed: 8186696]  [MGI Ref ID J:19034]

Pastoret C; Sebille A. 1993. Time course study of the isometric contractile properties of mdx mouse striated muscles. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 14(4):423-31. [PubMed: 8227301]  [MGI Ref ID J:15488]

Pastoret C; Sebille A. 1995. mdx mice show progressive weakness and muscle deterioration with age. J Neurol Sci 129(2):97-105. [PubMed: 7608742]  [MGI Ref ID J:24527]

Pauly M; Daussin F; Burelle Y; Li T; Godin R; Fauconnier J; Koechlin-Ramonatxo C; Hugon G; Lacampagne A; Coisy-Quivy M; Liang F; Hussain S; Matecki S; Petrof BJ. 2012. AMPK Activation Stimulates Autophagy and Ameliorates Muscular Dystrophy in the mdx Mouse Diaphragm. Am J Pathol 181(2):583-92. [PubMed: 22683340]  [MGI Ref ID J:187001]

Percival JM; Siegel MP; Knowels G; Marcinek DJ. 2013. Defects in mitochondrial localization and ATP synthesis in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy are not alleviated by PDE5 inhibition. Hum Mol Genet 22(1):153-67. [PubMed: 23049075]  [MGI Ref ID J:191136]

Percival JM; Whitehead NP; Adams ME; Adamo CM; Beavo JA; Froehner SC. 2012. Sildenafil reduces respiratory muscle weakness and fibrosis in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Pathol 228(1):77-87. [PubMed: 22653783]  [MGI Ref ID J:188433]

Pereon Y; Dettbarn C; Navarro J; Noireaud J; Palade PT. 1997. Dihydropyridine receptor gene expression in skeletal muscle from mdx and control mice. Biochim Biophys Acta 1362(2-3):201-7. [PubMed: 9540851]  [MGI Ref ID J:46983]

Pereon Y; Elkhammari A; Noireaud J. 1993. Differential susceptibility to repetitive potassium induced contractures in diaphragm versus extensor digitorum longus muscles of mdx mice [letter] Muscle Nerve 16(12):1423-4. [PubMed: 8232408]  [MGI Ref ID J:16472]

Perronnet C; Chagneau C; Le Blanc P; Samson-Desvignes N; Mornet D; Laroche S; De La Porte S; Vaillend C. 2012. Upregulation of brain utrophin does not rescue behavioral alterations in dystrophin-deficient mice. Hum Mol Genet 21(10):2263-76. [PubMed: 22343141]  [MGI Ref ID J:183789]

Personius KE; Sawyer RP. 2006. Variability and failure of neurotransmission in the diaphragm of mdx mice. Neuromuscul Disord 16(3):168-77. [PubMed: 16483776]  [MGI Ref ID J:112783]

Peter AK; Marshall JL; Crosbie RH. 2008. Sarcospan reduces dystrophic pathology: stabilization of the utrophin-glycoprotein complex. J Cell Biol 183(3):419-27. [PubMed: 18981229]  [MGI Ref ID J:141069]

Peter AK; Miller G; Crosbie RH. 2007. Disrupted mechanical stability of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex causes severe muscular dystrophy in sarcospan transgenic mice. J Cell Sci 120(Pt 6):996-1008. [PubMed: 17311848]  [MGI Ref ID J:120731]

Petitprez S; Zmoos AF; Ogrodnik J; Balse E; Raad N; El-Haou S; Albesa M; Bittihn P; Luther S; Lehnart SE; Hatem SN; Coulombe A; Abriel H. 2011. SAP97 and dystrophin macromolecular complexes determine two pools of cardiac sodium channels Nav1.5 in cardiomyocytes. Circ Res 108(3):294-304. [PubMed: 21164104]  [MGI Ref ID J:183504]

Phelps SF; Hauser MA; Cole NM; Rafael JA; Hinkle RT; Faulkner JA; Chamberlain JS. 1995. Expression of full-length and truncated dystrophin mini-genes in transgenic mdx mice. Hum Mol Genet 4(8):1251-8. [PubMed: 7581361]  [MGI Ref ID J:27471]

Pigozzo SR; Da Re L; Romualdi C; Mazzara PG; Galletta E; Fletcher S; Wilton SD; Vitiello L. 2013. Revertant fibers in the mdx murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: an age- and muscle-related reappraisal. PLoS One 8(8):e72147. [PubMed: 24015212]  [MGI Ref ID J:206411]

Pillers DA; Weleber RG; Green DG; Rash SM; Dally GY; Howard PL ; Powers MR ; Hood DC ; Chapman VM ; Ray PN ; Woodward WR. 1999. Effects of dystrophin isoforms on signal transduction through neural retina: genotype-phenotype analysis of duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse mutants. Mol Genet Metab 66(2):100-10. [PubMed: 10068512]  [MGI Ref ID J:53822]

Pillers DM; Weleber RG; Woodward WR; Green DG; Chapman VM; Ray PN. 1995. mdxCv3 mouse is a model for electroretinography of Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 36(2):462-6. [PubMed: 7843915]  [MGI Ref ID J:23375]

Pinto ML; Tokunaga HH; Souccar C; Schoorlemmer GH; Lapa Rde C. 2007. Morphological changes in the trigemino-rubral pathway in dystrophic (mdx) mice. Neurosci Lett 416(2):175-9. [PubMed: 17324512]  [MGI Ref ID J:141668]

Pinto ML; Tokunaga HH; Souccar C; Schoorlemmer GH; da Silva Lapa Rde C. 2008. Loss of neuronal projections in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse is not progressive. Brain Res 1224:127-32. [PubMed: 18603229]  [MGI Ref ID J:139873]

Pistilli EE; Bogdanovich S; Goncalves MD; Ahima RS; Lachey J; Seehra J; Khurana T. 2011. Targeting the Activin Type IIB Receptor to Improve Muscle Mass and Function in the mdx Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Am J Pathol 178(3):1287-97. [PubMed: 21356379]  [MGI Ref ID J:169683]

Pistoni M; Shiue L; Cline MS; Bortolanza S; Neguembor MV; Xynos A; Ares M Jr; Gabellini D. 2013. Rbfox1 downregulation and altered calpain 3 splicing by FRG1 in a mouse model of Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). PLoS Genet 9(1):e1003186. [PubMed: 23300487]  [MGI Ref ID J:195085]

Pons F; Robert A; Marini JF; Leger JJ. 1994. Does utrophin expression in muscles of mdx mice during postnatal development functionally compensate for dystrophin deficiency? J Neurol Sci 122(2):162-70. [PubMed: 8021701]  [MGI Ref ID J:17298]

Porter JD; Khanna S; Kaminski HJ; Rao JS; Merriam AP; Richmonds CR; Leahy P; Li J; Guo W; Andrade FH. 2002. A chronic inflammatory response dominates the skeletal muscle molecular signature in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Hum Mol Genet 11(3):263-72. [PubMed: 11823445]  [MGI Ref ID J:74738]

Porter JD; Merriam AP; Khanna S; Andrade FH; Richmonds CR; Leahy P; Cheng G; Karathanasis P; Zhou X; Kusner LL; Adams ME; Willem M; Mayer U; Kaminski HJ. 2003. Constitutive properties, not molecular adaptations, mediate extraocular muscle sparing in dystrophic mdx mice. FASEB J 17(8):893-5. [PubMed: 12670877]  [MGI Ref ID J:118481]

Porter JD; Merriam AP; Leahy P; Gong B; Feuerman J; Cheng G; Khanna S. 2004. Temporal gene expression profiling of dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mouse diaphragm identifies conserved and muscle group-specific mechanisms in the pathogenesis of muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet 13(3):257-69. [PubMed: 14681298]  [MGI Ref ID J:119422]

Porter JD; Rafael JA; Ragusa RJ; Brueckner JK; Trickett JI; Davies KE. 1998. The sparing of extraocular muscle in dystrophinopathy is lost in mice lacking utrophin and dystrophin. J Cell Sci 111(Pt 13):1801-11. [PubMed: 9625743]  [MGI Ref ID J:48675]

Pratt SJ; Shah SB; Ward CW; Inacio MP; Stains JP; Lovering RM. 2013. Effects of in vivo injury on the neuromuscular junction in healthy and dystrophic muscles. J Physiol 591(Pt 2):559-70. [PubMed: 23109110]  [MGI Ref ID J:205097]

Prattis SM; Horton SB; van Camp SD; Kornegay JN. 1994. Immunohistochemical detection of neural cell adhesion molecule and laminin in X-linked dystrophic dogs and mdx mice. J Comp Pathol 110(3):253-66. [PubMed: 8040390]  [MGI Ref ID J:20707]

Pressmar J; Brinkmeier H; Seewald MJ; Naumann T; Rudel R. 1994. Intracellular Ca2+ concentrations are not elevated in resting cultured muscle from Duchenne (DMD) patients and in MDX mouse muscle fibres. Pflugers Arch 426(6):499-505. [PubMed: 8052519]  [MGI Ref ID J:20764]

Pribiag H; Peng H; Shah WA; Stellwagen D; Carbonetto S. 2014. Dystroglycan mediates homeostatic synaptic plasticity at GABAergic synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(18):6810-5. [PubMed: 24753587]  [MGI Ref ID J:211088]

Prins KW; Humston JL; Mehta A; Tate V; Ralston E; Ervasti JM. 2009. Dystrophin is a microtubule-associated protein. J Cell Biol 186(3):363-9. [PubMed: 19651889]  [MGI Ref ID J:153847]

Prins KW; Lowe DA; Ervasti JM. 2008. Skeletal muscle-specific ablation of gamma(cyto)-actin does not exacerbate the mdx phenotype. PLoS ONE 3(6):e2419. [PubMed: 18545671]  [MGI Ref ID J:137146]

Prosser BL; Ward CW; Lederer WJ. 2011. X-ROS signaling: rapid mechano-chemo transduction in heart. Science 333(6048):1440-5. [PubMed: 21903813]  [MGI Ref ID J:176664]

Quinlan JG; Cambier D; Lyden S; Dalvi A; Upputuri RK; Gartside P; Michaels SE; Denman D. 1997. Regeneration-blocked mdx muscle: in vivo model for testing treatments. Muscle Nerve 20(8):1016-23. [PubMed: 9236793]  [MGI Ref ID J:116234]

Quinlan JG; Hahn HS; Wong BL; Lorenz JN; Wenisch AS; Levin LS. 2004. Evolution of the mdx mouse cardiomyopathy: physiological and morphological findings. Neuromuscul Disord 14(8-9):491-6. [PubMed: 15336690]  [MGI Ref ID J:102071]

Quinlan JG; Lyden SP; Cambier DM; Johnson SR; Michaels SE; Denman DL. 1995. Radiation inhibition of mdx mouse muscle regeneration: dose and age factors. Muscle Nerve 18(2):201-6. [PubMed: 7823979]  [MGI Ref ID J:115864]

Quirico-Santos T; Ribeiro MM; Savino W. 1995. Increased deposition of extracellular matrix components in the thymus gland of MDX mouse: correlation with the muscular lesion. J Neuroimmunol 59(1-2):9-18. [PubMed: 7797624]  [MGI Ref ID J:28353]

Rae C; Griffin JL; Blair DH; Bothwell JH; Bubb WA; Maitland A; Head S. 2002. Abnormalities in brain biochemistry associated with lack of dystrophin: studies of the mdx mouse. Neuromuscul Disord 12(2):121-9. [PubMed: 11738353]  [MGI Ref ID J:102988]

Rafael JA; Nitta Y; Peters J; Davies KE. 2000. Testing of SHIRPA, a mouse phenotypic assessment protocol, on Dmd(mdx) and Dmd(mdx3cv) dystrophin-deficient mice. Mamm Genome 11(9):725-8. [PubMed: 10967129]  [MGI Ref ID J:64319]

Rafael JA; Sunada Y; Cole NM; Campbell KP; Faulkner JA; Chamberlain JS. 1994. Prevention of dystrophic pathology in mdx mice by a truncated dystrophin isoform. Hum Mol Genet 3(10):1725-33. [PubMed: 7849695]  [MGI Ref ID J:20979]

Rafael JA; Tinsley JM; Potter AC; Deconinck AE; Davies KE. 1998. Skeletal muscle-specific expression of a utrophin transgene rescues utrophin-dystrophin deficient mice. Nat Genet 19(1):79-82. [PubMed: 9590295]  [MGI Ref ID J:47311]

Ramachandran J; Schneider JS; Crassous PA; Zheng R; Gonzalez JP; Xie LH; Beuve A; Fraidenraich D; Peluffo RD. 2013. Nitric oxide signalling pathway in Duchenne muscular dystrophy mice: up-regulation of L-arginine transporters. Biochem J 449(1):133-42. [PubMed: 23009292]  [MGI Ref ID J:192880]

Ramaswamy KS; Palmer ML; van der Meulen JH; Renoux A; Kostrominova TY; Michele DE; Faulkner JA. 2011. Lateral transmission of force is impaired in skeletal muscles of dystrophic mice and very old rats. J Physiol 589(Pt 5):1195-208. [PubMed: 21224224]  [MGI Ref ID J:183137]

Rawat R; Cohen TV; Ampong B; Francia D; Henriques-Pons A; Hoffman EP; Nagaraju K. 2010. Inflammasome up-regulation and activation in dysferlin-deficient skeletal muscle. Am J Pathol 176(6):2891-900. [PubMed: 20413686]  [MGI Ref ID J:161333]

Raymackers JM; Debaix H; Colson-Van Schoor M; De Backer F; Tajeddine N; Schwaller B; Gailly P; Gillis JM. 2003. Consequence of parvalbumin deficiency in the mdx mouse: histological, biochemical and mechanical phenotype of a new double mutant. Neuromuscul Disord 13(5):376-87. [PubMed: 12798793]  [MGI Ref ID J:102770]

Reay DP; Yang M; Watchko JF; Daood M; O'Day TL; Rehman KK; Guttridge DC; Robbins PD; Clemens PR. 2011. Systemic delivery of NEMO binding domain/IKKgamma inhibitory peptide to young mdx mice improves dystrophic skeletal muscle histopathology. Neurobiol Dis :. [PubMed: 21624467]  [MGI Ref ID J:173320]

Reed P; Bloch RJ. 2005. Postnatal changes in sarcolemmal organization in the mdx mouse. Neuromuscul Disord 15(8):552-61. [PubMed: 16051092]  [MGI Ref ID J:103939]

Reeve JL; McArdle A; Jackson MJ. 1997. Age-related changes in muscle calcium content in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Muscle Nerve 20(3):357-60. [PubMed: 9052816]  [MGI Ref ID J:116434]

Reimann J; Irintchev A; Wernig A. 2000. Regenerative capacity and the number of satellite cells in soleus muscles of normal and mdx mice. Neuromuscul Disord 10(4-5):276-82. [PubMed: 10838255]  [MGI Ref ID J:103095]

Rezniczek GA; Konieczny P; Nikolic B; Reipert S; Schneller D; Abrahamsberg C; Davies KE; Winder SJ; Wiche G. 2007. Plectin 1f scaffolding at the sarcolemma of dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers through multiple interactions with beta-dystroglycan. J Cell Biol 176(7):965-77. [PubMed: 17389230]  [MGI Ref ID J:134710]

Rhoads RP; Flann KL; Cardinal TR; Rathbone CR; Liu X; Allen RE. 2013. Satellite cells isolated from aged or dystrophic muscle exhibit a reduced capacity to promote angiogenesis in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 440(3):399-404. [PubMed: 24070607]  [MGI Ref ID J:211416]

Ribaux P; Bleicher F; Couble ML; Amsellem J; Cohen SA; Berthier C; Blaineau S. 2001. Voltage-gated sodium channel (SkM1) content in dystrophin-deficient muscle. Pflugers Arch 441(6):746-55. [PubMed: 11316257]  [MGI Ref ID J:106474]

Roder IV; Strack S; Reischl M; Dahley O; Khan MM; Kassel O; Zaccolo M; Rudolf R. 2012. Participation of myosin Va and Pka type I in the regeneration of neuromuscular junctions. PLoS One 7(7):e40860. [PubMed: 22815846]  [MGI Ref ID J:189610]

Rodino-Klapac LR; Janssen PM; Shontz KM; Canan B; Montgomery CL; Griffin D; Heller K; Schmelzer L; Handy C; Clark KR; Sahenk Z; Mendell JR; Kaspar BK. 2013. Micro-dystrophin and follistatin co-delivery restores muscle function in aged DMD model. Hum Mol Genet 22(24):4929-37. [PubMed: 23863459]  [MGI Ref ID J:203139]

Rooney JE; Gurpur PB; Burkin DJ. 2009. Laminin-111 protein therapy prevents muscle disease in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(19):7991-6. [PubMed: 19416897]  [MGI Ref ID J:148396]

Rooney JE; Welser JV; Dechert MA; Flintoff-Dye NL; Kaufman SJ; Burkin DJ. 2006. Severe muscular dystrophy in mice that lack dystrophin and alpha7 integrin. J Cell Sci 119(Pt 11):2185-95. [PubMed: 16684813]  [MGI Ref ID J:110358]

Rouger K; Le Cunff M; Steenman M; Potier MC; Gibelin N; Dechesne CA; Leger JJ. 2002. Global/temporal gene expression in diaphragm and hindlimb muscles of dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 283(3):C773-84. [PubMed: 12176734]  [MGI Ref ID J:107769]

Rufo A; Del Fattore A; Capulli M; Carvello F; De Pasquale L; Ferrari S; Pierroz D; Morandi L; De Simone M; Rucci N; Bertini E; Bianchi ML; De Benedetti F; Teti A. 2011. Mechanisms inducing low bone density in Duchenne muscular dystrophy in mice and humans. J Bone Miner Res 26(8):1891-903. [PubMed: 21509823]  [MGI Ref ID J:184354]

Sacco A; Mourkioti F; Tran R; Choi J; Llewellyn M; Kraft P; Shkreli M; Delp S; Pomerantz JH; Artandi SE; Blau HM. 2010. Short telomeres and stem cell exhaustion model Duchenne muscular dystrophy in mdx/mTR mice. Cell 143(7):1059-71. [PubMed: 21145579]  [MGI Ref ID J:167294]

Saccone V; Consalvi S; Giordani L; Mozzetta C; Barozzi I; Sandona M; Ryan T; Rojas-Munoz A; Madaro L; Fasanaro P; Borsellino G; De Bardi M; Frige G; Termanini A; Sun X; Rossant J; Bruneau BG; Mercola M; Minucci S; Puri PL. 2014. HDAC-regulated myomiRs control BAF60 variant exchange and direct the functional phenotype of fibro-adipogenic progenitors in dystrophic muscles. Genes Dev 28(8):841-57. [PubMed: 24682306]  [MGI Ref ID J:209577]

Sakamoto M; Yuasa K; Yoshimura M; Yokota T; Ikemoto T; Suzuki M; Dickson G; Miyagoe-Suzuki Y; Takeda S. 2002. Micro-dystrophin cDNA ameliorates dystrophic phenotypes when introduced into mdx mice as a transgene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 293(4):1265-72. [PubMed: 12054513]  [MGI Ref ID J:76949]

Sali A; Many GM; Gordish-Dressman H; van der Meulen JH; Phadke A; Spurney CF; Cnaan A; Hoffman EP; Nagaraju K. 2013. The proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole improves the skeletal phenotype in dystrophin deficient mdx mice. PLoS One 8(7):e66617. [PubMed: 23843959]  [MGI Ref ID J:204312]

Salimena MC; Lagrota-Candido J; Quirico-Santos T. 2004. Gender dimorphism influences extracellular matrix expression and regeneration of muscular tissue in mdx dystrophic mice. Histochem Cell Biol 122(5):435-44. [PubMed: 15452719]  [MGI Ref ID J:108178]

Sandri M; Massimino ML; Cantini M; Giurisato E; Sandri C; Arslan P; Carraro U. 1998. Dystrophin deficient myotubes undergo apoptosis in mouse primary muscle cell culture after DNA damage. Neurosci Lett 252(2):123-6. [PubMed: 9756337]  [MGI Ref ID J:51579]

Sandri M; Podhorska-Okolow M; Geromel V; Rizzi C; Arslan P; Franceschi C; Carraro U. 1997. Exercise induces myonuclear ubiquitination and apoptosis in dystrophin-deficient muscle of mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 56(1):45-57. [PubMed: 8990128]  [MGI Ref ID J:38431]

Sanford JL; Edwards JD; Mays TA; Gong B; Merriam AP; Rafael-Fortney JA. 2005. Claudin-5 localizes to the lateral membranes of cardiomyocytes and is altered in utrophin/dystrophin-deficient cardiomyopathic mice. J Mol Cell Cardiol 38(2):323-32. [PubMed: 15698839]  [MGI Ref ID J:101912]

Santo Neto H; Martins AJ; Minatel E; Marques MJ. 2003. Axonal sprouting in mdx mice and its relevance to cell and gene mediated therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Neurosci Lett 343(1):67-9. [PubMed: 12749999]  [MGI Ref ID J:107959]

Sawada H; Kikukawa Y; Ban S; Kakudo T; Yokosawa H. 2004. Expression of trypsin-like proteases and protease nexin-1 in mdx mouse muscles. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 314(2):654-8. [PubMed: 14733957]  [MGI Ref ID J:113601]

Sbriccoli A; Santarelli M; Carretta D; Pinto F; Granato A; Minciacchi D. 1995. Architectural changes of the cortico-spinal system in the dystrophin defective mdx mouse. Neurosci Lett 200(1):53-6. [PubMed: 8584266]  [MGI Ref ID J:32173]

Schafer R; Zweyer M; Knauf U; Mundegar RR; Wernig A. 2005. The ontogeny of soleus muscles in mdx and wild type mice. Neuromuscul Disord 15(1):57-64. [PubMed: 15639122]  [MGI Ref ID J:101871]

Schertzer JD; Gehrig SM; Ryall JG; Lynch GS. 2007. Modulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein interactions enhances skeletal muscle regeneration and ameliorates the dystrophic pathology in mdx mice. Am J Pathol 171(4):1180-8. [PubMed: 17823291]  [MGI Ref ID J:125517]

Schertzer JD; van der Poel C; Shavlakadze T; Grounds MD; Lynch GS. 2008. Muscle-specific overexpression of IGF-I improves E-C coupling in skeletal muscle fibers from dystrophic mdx mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 294(1):C161-8. [PubMed: 17989207]  [MGI Ref ID J:130508]

Schofield JN; Gorecki DC; Blake DJ; Davies K; Edwards YH. 1995. Dystroglycan mRNA expression during normal and mdx mouse embryogenesis: a comparison with utrophin and the apo-dystrophins. Dev Dyn 204(2):178-85. [PubMed: 8589441]  [MGI Ref ID J:29265]

Sedehizade F; Klocke R; Jockusch H. 1997. Expression of nerve-regulated genes in muscles of mouse mutants affected by spinal muscular atrophies and muscular dystrophies. Muscle Nerve 20(2):186-94. [PubMed: 9040657]  [MGI Ref ID J:53205]

Selbert S; Fischer P; Menke A; Jockusch H; Pongratz D; Noegel AA. 1996. Annexin VII relocalization as a result of dystrophin deficiency. Exp Cell Res 222(1):199-208. [PubMed: 8549664]  [MGI Ref ID J:30883]

Selsby JT; Morine KJ; Pendrak K; Barton ER; Sweeney HL. 2012. Rescue of dystrophic skeletal muscle by PGC-1alpha involves a fast to slow fiber type shift in the mdx mouse. PLoS One 7(1):e30063. [PubMed: 22253880]  [MGI Ref ID J:184310]

Shavlakadze T; Boswell JM; Burt DW; Asante EA; Tomas FM; Davies MJ; White JD; Grounds MD; Goddard C. 2006. Rskalpha-actin/hIGF-1 transgenic mice with increased IGF-I in skeletal muscle and blood: impact on regeneration, denervation and muscular dystrophy. Growth Horm IGF Res 16(3):157-73. [PubMed: 16716629]  [MGI Ref ID J:128230]

Shavlakadze T; Chai J; Maley K; Cozens G; Grounds G; Winn N; Rosenthal N; Grounds MD. 2010. A growth stimulus is needed for IGF-1 to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy in vivo. J Cell Sci 123(Pt 6):960-71. [PubMed: 20179101]  [MGI Ref ID J:158766]

Shi H; Boadu E; Mercan F; Le AM; Flach RJ; Zhang L; Tyner KJ; Olwin BB; Bennett AM. 2010. MAP kinase phosphatase-1 deficiency impairs skeletal muscle regeneration and exacerbates muscular dystrophy. FASEB J 24(8):2985-97. [PubMed: 20371627]  [MGI Ref ID J:162340]

Shi H; Verma M; Zhang L; Dong C; Flavell RA; Bennett AM. 2013. Improved regenerative myogenesis and muscular dystrophy in mice lacking Mkp5. J Clin Invest 123(5):2064-77. [PubMed: 23543058]  [MGI Ref ID J:201351]

Shiao T; Fond A; Deng B; Wehling-Henricks M; Adams ME; Froehner SC; Tidball JG. 2004. Defects in neuromuscular junction structure in dystrophic muscle are corrected by expression of a NOS transgene in dystrophin-deficient muscles, but not in muscles lacking {alpha}- and {beta}1-syntrophins. Hum Mol Genet 13(17):1873-1884. [PubMed: 15238508]  [MGI Ref ID J:92094]

Shibuya S; Wakayama Y; Inoue M; Oniki H; Kominami E. 2002. Changes in the distribution and density of caveolin 3 molecules at the plasma membrane of mdx mouse skeletal muscles: a fracture-label electron microscopic study. Neurosci Lett 325(3):171-4. [PubMed: 12044648]  [MGI Ref ID J:108032]

Shin JH; Hakim CH; Zhang K; Duan D. 2011. Genotyping mdx, mdx3cv, and mdx4cv mice by primer competition polymerase chain reaction. Muscle Nerve 43(2):283-6. [PubMed: 21254096]  [MGI Ref ID J:169288]

Shrager JB; Naji A; Kelly AM; Stedman HH. 1992. A PCR-based assay for the wild-type dystrophin gene transferred into the mdx mouse. Muscle Nerve 15(10):1133-7. [PubMed: 1357549]  [MGI Ref ID J:22170]

Sicinski P; Geng Y; Ryder-Cook AS; Barnard EA; Darlison MG; Barnard PJ. 1989. The molecular basis of muscular dystrophy in the mdx mouse: a point mutation. Science 244(4912):1578-80. [PubMed: 2662404]  [MGI Ref ID J:9866]

Sillitoe RV; Benson MA; Blake DJ; Hawkes R. 2003. Abnormal dysbindin expression in cerebellar mossy fiber synapses in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Neurosci 23(16):6576-85. [PubMed: 12878699]  [MGI Ref ID J:84703]

Simoes GF; de Oliveira AL. 2012. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor improves MDX mouse response to peripheral nerve injury. PLoS One 7(8):e42803. [PubMed: 22912741]  [MGI Ref ID J:189980]

Sinha M; Jang YC; Oh J; Khong D; Wu EY; Manohar R; Miller C; Regalado SG; Loffredo FS; Pancoast JR; Hirshman MF; Lebowitz J; Shadrach JL; Cerletti M; Kim MJ; Serwold T; Goodyear LJ; Rosner B; Lee RT; Wagers AJ. 2014. Restoring systemic GDF11 levels reverses age-related dysfunction in mouse skeletal muscle. Science 344(6184):649-52. [PubMed: 24797481]  [MGI Ref ID J:211283]

Skrabek RQ; Anderson JE. 2001. Metabolic shifts and myocyte hypertrophy in deflazacort treatment of mdx mouse cardiomyopathy. Muscle Nerve 24(2):192-202. [PubMed: 11180202]  [MGI Ref ID J:116202]

Smith J; Fowkes G; Schofield PN. 1995. Programmed cell death in dystrophic (mdx) muscle is inhibited by IGF-II. Cell Death Differ 2(4):243-251. [PubMed: 17180029]  [MGI Ref ID J:30276]

Smith J; Goldsmith C; Ward A; LeDieu R. 2000. IGF-II ameliorates the dystrophic phenotype and coordinately down-regulates programmed cell death. Cell Death Differ 7(11):1109-18. [PubMed: 11139285]  [MGI Ref ID J:114190]

Smith J; Schofield PN. 1994. The effects of fibroblast growth factors in long-term primary culture of dystrophic (mdx) mouse muscle myoblasts. Exp Cell Res 210(1):86-93. [PubMed: 8270001]  [MGI Ref ID J:16311]

Smythe GM; Fan Y; Grounds MD. 2000. Enhanced migration and fusion of donor myoblasts in dystrophic and normal host muscle. Muscle Nerve 23(4):560-74. [PubMed: 10716768]  [MGI Ref ID J:116193]

Sonnemann KJ; Heun-Johnson H; Turner AJ; Baltgalvis KA; Lowe DA; Ervasti JM. 2009. Functional substitution by TAT-utrophin in dystrophin-deficient mice. PLoS Med 6(5):e1000083. [PubMed: 19478831]  [MGI Ref ID J:207592]

Souccar C; Goncalo Mdo C; Buck Hde S; Lima-Landman MT; Lapa AJ. 2005. Mild dystrophic damage in the androgen-sensitive levator ani muscle of the mdx mouse. Neuromuscul Disord 15(1):48-56. [PubMed: 15639121]  [MGI Ref ID J:101885]

Spector I; Zilberstein Y; Lavy A; Genin O; Barzilai-Tutsch H; Bodanovsky A; Halevy O; Pines M. 2013. The involvement of collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 in muscular dystrophies. Am J Pathol 182(3):905-16. [PubMed: 23274062]  [MGI Ref ID J:193271]

Spencer MJ; Marino MW; Winckler WM. 2000. Altered pathological progression of diaphragm and quadriceps muscle in TNF-deficient, dystrophin-deficient mice. Neuromuscul Disord 10(8):612-9. [PubMed: 11053690]  [MGI Ref ID J:103113]

Spencer MJ; Mellgren RL. 2002. Overexpression of a calpastatin transgene in mdx muscle reduces dystrophic pathology. Hum Mol Genet 11(21):2645-55. [PubMed: 12354790]  [MGI Ref ID J:118408]

Spencer MJ; Tidball JG. 1996. Calpain translocation during muscle fiber necrosis and regeneration in dystrophin-deficient mice. Exp Cell Res 226(2):264-72. [PubMed: 8806430]  [MGI Ref ID J:34594]

Spurney CF; Knoblach S; Pistilli EE; Nagaraju K; Martin GR; Hoffman EP. 2008. Dystrophin-deficient cardiomyopathy in mouse: expression of Nox4 and Lox are associated with fibrosis and altered functional parameters in the heart. Neuromuscul Disord 18(5):371-81. [PubMed: 18440230]  [MGI Ref ID J:139789]

Squire S; Raymackers JM; Vandebrouck C; Potter A; Tinsley J; Fisher R; Gillis JM; Davies KE. 2002. Prevention of pathology in mdx mice by expression of utrophin: analysis using an inducible transgenic expression system. Hum Mol Genet 11(26):3333-44. [PubMed: 12471059]  [MGI Ref ID J:80809]

Stedman HH; Sweeney HL; Shrager JB; Maguire HC; Panettieri RA; Petrof B; Narusawa M; Leferovich JM; Sladky JT; Kelly AM. 1991. The mdx mouse diaphragm reproduces the degenerative changes of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Nature 352(6335):536-9. [PubMed: 1865908]  [MGI Ref ID J:152891]

Stevens ED; Faulkner JA. 2000. The capacity of mdx mouse diaphragm muscle to do oscillatory work. J Physiol 522 Pt 3:457-66. [PubMed: 10713969]  [MGI Ref ID J:106297]

Stewart R; Flechner L; Montminy M; Berdeaux R. 2011. CREB is activated by muscle injury and promotes muscle regeneration. PLoS One 6(9):e24714. [PubMed: 21931825]  [MGI Ref ID J:177923]

Stuckey DJ; Carr CA; Camelliti P; Tyler DJ; Davies KE; Clarke K. 2012. In vivo MRI characterization of progressive cardiac dysfunction in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. PLoS One 7(1):e28569. [PubMed: 22235247]  [MGI Ref ID J:184154]

Stupka N; Michell BJ; Kemp BE; Lynch GS. 2006. Differential calcineurin signalling activity and regeneration efficacy in diaphragm and limb muscles of dystrophic mdx mice. Neuromuscul Disord 16(5):337-46. [PubMed: 16621557]  [MGI Ref ID J:112803]

Stupka N; Plant DR; Schertzer JD; Emerson TM; Bassel-Duby R; Olson EN; Lynch GS. 2006. Activated calcineurin ameliorates contraction-induced injury to skeletal muscles of mdx dystrophic mice. J Physiol 575(Pt 2):645-56. [PubMed: 16793906]  [MGI Ref ID J:133049]

Stupka N; Schertzer JD; Bassel-Duby R; Olson EN; Lynch GS. 2008. Stimulation of calcineurin A{alpha} activity attenuates muscle pathophysiology in mdx dystrophic mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294(3):R983-92. [PubMed: 18199592]  [MGI Ref ID J:132018]

Suelves M; Vidal B; Serrano AL; Tjwa M; Roma J; Lopez-Alemany R; Luttun A; de Lagran MM; Diaz-Ramos A; Jardi M; Roig M; Dierssen M; Dewerchin M; Carmeliet P; Munoz-Canoves P. 2007. uPA deficiency exacerbates muscular dystrophy in MDX mice. J Cell Biol 178(6):1039-51. [PubMed: 17785520]  [MGI Ref ID J:134802]

Sugimoto S; Takenaka H; Yamashita S; Matsukura S; Hamada M. 1990. Kinetic properties and isozyme composition of myosin in the mdx mutant mouse. J Neurol Sci 97(2-3):207-19. [PubMed: 2144875]  [MGI Ref ID J:152750]

Suh JG; Yamazaki A; Tomita T. 1994. Breeding of the gad-mdx mouse: influence of genetically induced denervation on dystrophic muscle fibers. Lab Anim Sci 44(1):42-6. [PubMed: 8007658]  [MGI Ref ID J:28545]

Takagi A; Kojima S; Ida M; Araki M. 1992. Increased leakage of calcium ion from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the mdx mouse. J Neurol Sci 110(1-2):160-4. [PubMed: 1506855]  [MGI Ref ID J:1413]

Tamaki T; Sekine T; Akatsuka A; Uchiyama S; Nakano S. 1993. Three-dimensional cytoarchitecture of complex branched fibers in soleus muscle from mdx mutant mice. Anat Rec 237(3):338-44. [PubMed: 8291687]  [MGI Ref ID J:15295]

Tamma R; Annese T; Capogrosso RF; Cozzoli A; Benagiano V; Sblendorio V; Ruggieri S; Crivellato E; Specchia G; Ribatti D; De Luca A; Nico B. 2013. Effects of prednisolone on the dystrophin-associated proteins in the blood-brain barrier and skeletal muscle of dystrophic mdx mice. Lab Invest 93(5):592-610. [PubMed: 23528847]  [MGI Ref ID J:196197]

Tanabe Y; Esaki K; Nomura T. 1986. Skeletal muscle pathology in X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 69(1-2):91-5. [PubMed: 3962599]  [MGI Ref ID J:8256]

Teichmann MD; Wegner FV; Fink RH; Chamberlain JS; Launikonis BS; Martinac B; Friedrich O. 2008. Inhibitory control over Ca(2+) sparks via mechanosensitive channels is disrupted in dystrophin deficient muscle but restored by mini-dystrophin expression. PLoS ONE 3(11):e3644. [PubMed: 18982068]  [MGI Ref ID J:143913]

Terada M; Kawano F; Ohira T; Nakai N; Nishimoto N; Ohira Y. 2012. Effects of mechanical over-loading on the properties of soleus muscle fibers, with or without damage, in wild type and mdx mice. PLoS One 7(4):e34557. [PubMed: 22523551]  [MGI Ref ID J:187212]

Thomas GD; Ye J; De Nardi C; Monopoli A; Ongini E; Victor RG. 2012. Treatment with a nitric oxide-donating NSAID alleviates functional muscle ischemia in the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PLoS One 7(11):e49350. [PubMed: 23139842]  [MGI Ref ID J:195358]

Tidball JG; Albrecht DE; Lokensgard BE; Spencer MJ. 1995. Apoptosis precedes necrosis of dystrophin-deficient muscle. J Cell Sci 108(Pt 6):2197-204. [PubMed: 7673339]  [MGI Ref ID J:26255]

Tidball JG; Wehling-Henricks M. 2004. Expression of a NOS transgene in dystrophin-deficient muscle reduces muscle membrane damage without increasing the expression of membrane-associated cytoskeletal proteins. Mol Genet Metab 82(4):312-20. [PubMed: 15308129]  [MGI Ref ID J:94166]

Tinsley J; Deconinck N; Fisher R; Kahn D; Phelps S; Gillis JM; Davies K. 1998. Expression of full-length utrophin prevents muscular dystrophy in mdx mice. Nat Med 4(12):1441-4. [PubMed: 9846586]  [MGI Ref ID J:51364]

Tinsley JM; Potter AC; Phelps SR; Fisher R; Trickett JI; Davies KE. 1996. Amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype of mdx mice using a truncated utrophin transgene [see comments] Nature 384(6607):349-53. [PubMed: 8934518]  [MGI Ref ID J:36822]

Tkatchenko AV; Le Cam G; Leger JJ; Dechesne CA. 2000. Large-scale analysis of differential gene expression in the hindlimb muscles and diaphragm of mdx mouse. Biochim Biophys Acta 1500(1):17-30. [PubMed: 10564714]  [MGI Ref ID J:58586]

Tohma H; Hepworth AR; Shavlakadze T; Grounds MD; Arthur PG. 2011. Quantification of ceroid and lipofuscin in skeletal muscle. J Histochem Cytochem 59(8):769-79. [PubMed: 21804079]  [MGI Ref ID J:181062]

Torrente Y; D'Angelo MG; Li Z; Del Bo R; Corti S; Mericskay M; DeLiso A; Fassati A; Paulin D; Comi GP; Scarlato G; Bresolin N. 2000. Transplacental injection of somite-derived cells in mdx mouse embryos for the correction of dystrophin deficiency Hum Mol Genet 9(12):1843-52. [PubMed: 10915773]  [MGI Ref ID J:63753]

Townsend D; Yasuda S; McNally E; Metzger JM. 2011. Distinct pathophysiological mechanisms of cardiomyopathy in hearts lacking dystrophin or the sarcoglycan complex. FASEB J 25(9):3106-14. [PubMed: 21665956]  [MGI Ref ID J:175721]

Tracey I; Dunn JF; Radda GK. 1996. Brain metabolism is abnormal in the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Brain 119(Pt 3):1039-44. [PubMed: 8673481]  [MGI Ref ID J:34730]

Trensz F; Haroun S; Cloutier A; Richter MV; Grenier G. 2010. A muscle resident cell population promotes fibrosis in hindlimb skeletal muscles of mdx mice through the Wnt canonical pathway. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 299(5):C939-47. [PubMed: 20810909]  [MGI Ref ID J:165822]

Turk R; Sterrenburg E; de Meijer EJ; van Ommen GJ; den Dunnen JT; 't Hoen PA. 2005. Muscle regeneration in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice studied by gene expression profiling. BMC Genomics 6:98. [PubMed: 16011810]  [MGI Ref ID J:123873]

Turk R; Sterrenburg E; van der Wees CG; de Meijer EJ; de Menezes RX; Groh S; Campbell KP; Noguchi S; van Ommen GJ; den Dunnen JT; 't Hoen PA. 2006. Common pathological mechanisms in mouse models for muscular dystrophies. FASEB J 20(1):127-9. [PubMed: 16306063]  [MGI Ref ID J:104560]

Turner PR; Fong PY; Denetclaw WF; Steinhardt RA. 1991. Increased calcium influx in dystrophic muscle. J Cell Biol 115(6):1701-12. [PubMed: 1661733]  [MGI Ref ID J:1876]

Turner PR; Schultz R; Ganguly B; Steinhardt RA. 1993. Proteolysis results in altered leak channel kinetics and elevated free calcium in mdx muscle. J Membr Biol 133(3):243-51. [PubMed: 8392585]  [MGI Ref ID J:21447]

Uchino M; Yoshioka K; Miike T; Tokunaga M; Uyama E; Teramoto H; Naoe H; Ando M. 1994. Dystrophin and dystrophin-related protein in the brains of normal and mdx mice. Muscle Nerve 17(5):533-8. [PubMed: 8159184]  [MGI Ref ID J:19067]

Ullrich ND; Fanchaouy M; Gusev K; Shirokova N; Niggli E. 2009. Hypersensitivity of excitation-contraction coupling in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297(6):H1992-2003. [PubMed: 19783774]  [MGI Ref ID J:158238]

Vaghy PL; Fang J; Wu W; Vaghy LP. 1998. Increased caveolin-3 levels in mdx mouse muscles. FEBS Lett 431(1):125-7. [PubMed: 9684879]  [MGI Ref ID J:48804]

Vaillend C; Billard JM; Claudepierre T; Rendon A; Dutar P; Ungerer A. 1998. Spatial discrimination learning and CA1 hippocampal synaptic plasticity in mdx and mdx3cv mice lacking dystrophin gene products. Neuroscience 86(1):53-66. [PubMed: 9692743]  [MGI Ref ID J:48768]

Vaillend C; Billard JM; Laroche S. 2004. Impaired long-term spatial and recognition memory and enhanced CA1 hippocampal LTP in the dystrophin-deficient Dmd(mdx) mouse. Neurobiol Dis 17(1):10-20. [PubMed: 15350961]  [MGI Ref ID J:92466]

Vaillend C; Rendon A; Misslin R; Ungerer A. 1995. Influence of dystrophin-gene mutation on mdx mouse behavior. I. Retention deficits at long delays in spontaneous alternation and bar-pressing tasks. Behav Genet 25(6):569-79. [PubMed: 8540895]  [MGI Ref ID J:29805]

Vaillend C; Ungerer A. 1999. Behavioral characterization of mdx3cv mice deficient in C-terminal dystrophins. Neuromuscul Disord 9(5):296-304. [PubMed: 10407849]  [MGI Ref ID J:56477]

Valladares D; Almarza G; Contreras A; Pavez M; Buvinic S; Jaimovich E; Casas M. 2013. Electrical stimuli are anti-apoptotic in skeletal muscle via extracellular ATP. Alteration of this signal in Mdx mice is a likely cause of dystrophy. PLoS One 8(11):e75340. [PubMed: 24282497]  [MGI Ref ID J:209771]

Vannucchi MG; Corsani L; Faussone-Pellegrini MS. 2003. Synaptic vesicle morphology and recycling are altered in myenteric neurons of mice lacking dystrophin (mdx mice). J Cell Physiol 197(2):232-42. [PubMed: 14502563]  [MGI Ref ID J:85623]

Vannucchi MG; Garella R; Cipriani G; Baccari MC. 2011. Relaxin counteracts the altered gastric motility of dystrophic (mdx) mice: functional and immunohistochemical evidence for the involvement of nitric oxide. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 300(2):E380-91. [PubMed: 21081707]  [MGI Ref ID J:172322]

Vasquez I; Tan N; Boonyasampant M; Koppitch KA; Lansman JB. 2012. Partial opening and subconductance gating of mechanosensitive ion channels in dystrophic skeletal muscle. J Physiol 590(Pt 23):6167-85. [PubMed: 22966155]  [MGI Ref ID J:203025]

Veal EA; Jackson MJ. 1995. Expression of c-fos and c-myc in satellite cell cultures from dystrophic mdx and control mouse muscle. Biochem Soc Trans 23(3):456S. [PubMed: 8566348]  [MGI Ref ID J:29286]

Veal EA; Jackson MJ. 1995. Expression of the proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-myc in mdx dystrophic mouse muscle. Biochem Soc Trans 23(1):131S. [PubMed: 7758695]  [MGI Ref ID J:23308]

Vercherat C; Chung TK; Yalcin S; Gulbagci N; Gopinadhan S; Ghaffari S; Taneja R. 2009. Stra13 regulates oxidative stress mediated skeletal muscle degeneration. Hum Mol Genet 18(22):4304-16. [PubMed: 19679564]  [MGI Ref ID J:153720]

Vetrone SA; Montecino-Rodriguez E; Kudryashova E; Kramerova I; Hoffman EP; Liu SD; Miceli MC; Spencer MJ. 2009. Osteopontin promotes fibrosis in dystrophic mouse muscle by modulating immune cell subsets and intramuscular TGF-beta. J Clin Invest 119(6):1583-94. [PubMed: 19451692]  [MGI Ref ID J:150572]

Vidal B; Serrano AL; Tjwa M; Suelves M; Ardite E; De Mori R; Baeza-Raja B; Martinez de Lagran M; Lafuste P; Ruiz-Bonilla V; Jardi M; Gherardi R; Christov C; Dierssen M; Carmeliet P; Degen JL; Dewerchin M; Munoz-Canoves P. 2008. Fibrinogen drives dystrophic muscle fibrosis via a TGF{beta}/alternative macrophage activation pathway. Genes Dev 22(13):1747-52. [PubMed: 18593877]  [MGI Ref ID J:137450]

Villalta SA; Deng B; Rinaldi C; Wehling-Henricks M; Tidball JG. 2011. IFN-gamma promotes muscle damage in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy by suppressing M2 macrophage activation and inhibiting muscle cell proliferation. J Immunol 187(10):5419-28. [PubMed: 22013114]  [MGI Ref ID J:179601]

Villalta SA; Nguyen HX; Deng B; Gotoh T; Tidball JG. 2009. Shifts in macrophage phenotypes and macrophage competition for arginine metabolism affect the severity of muscle pathology in muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet 18(3):482-96. [PubMed: 18996917]  [MGI Ref ID J:143545]

Vilquin JT; Brussee V; Asselin I; Kinoshita I; Gingras M; Tremblay JP. 1998. Evidence of mdx mouse skeletal muscle fragility in vivo by eccentric running exercise. Muscle Nerve 21(5):567-76. [PubMed: 9572235]  [MGI Ref ID J:117426]

Viola HM; Adams AM; Davies SM; Fletcher S; Filipovska A; Hool LC. 2014. Impaired functional communication between the L-type calcium channel and mitochondria contributes to metabolic inhibition in the mdx heart. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(28):E2905-14. [PubMed: 24969422]  [MGI Ref ID J:212163]

Viola HM; Davies SM; Filipovska A; Hool LC. 2013. L-type Ca(2+) channel contributes to alterations in mitochondrial calcium handling in the mdx ventricular myocyte. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 304(6):H767-75. [PubMed: 23335798]  [MGI Ref ID J:196422]

Wagner KR; Liu X; Chang X; Allen RE. 2005. Muscle regeneration in the prolonged absence of myostatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(7):2519-24. [PubMed: 15699335]  [MGI Ref ID J:96635]

Wagner KR; McPherron AC; Winik N; Lee SJ. 2002. Loss of myostatin attenuates severity of muscular dystrophy in mdx mice. Ann Neurol 52(6):832-6. [PubMed: 12447939]  [MGI Ref ID J:97521]

Wakefield PM; Tinsley JM; Wood MJ; Gilbert R; Karpati G; Davies KE. 2000. Prevention of the dystrophic phenotype in dystrophin/utrophin-deficient muscle following adenovirus-mediated transfer of a utrophin minigene. Gene Ther 7(3):201-4. [PubMed: 10694796]  [MGI Ref ID J:61318]

Wakeford S; Watt DJ; Partridge TA. 1991. X-irradiation improves mdx mouse muscle as a model of myofiber loss in DMD. Muscle Nerve 14(1):42-50. [PubMed: 1992296]  [MGI Ref ID J:116018]

Wang X; Weisleder N; Collet C; Zhou J; Chu Y; Hirata Y; Zhao X; Pan Z; Brotto M; Cheng H; Ma J. 2005. Uncontrolled calcium sparks act as a dystrophic signal for mammalian skeletal muscle. Nat Cell Biol 7(5):525-30. [PubMed: 15834406]  [MGI Ref ID J:105418]

Wardrop KE; Dominov JA. 2011. Proinflammatory signals and the loss of lymphatic vessel hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) in the early pathogenesis of laminin alpha2-deficient skeletal muscle. J Histochem Cytochem 59(2):167-79. [PubMed: 20876525]  [MGI Ref ID J:170192]

Wasala NB; Bostick B; Yue Y; Duan D. 2013. Exclusive skeletal muscle correction does not modulate dystrophic heart disease in the aged mdx model of Duchenne cardiomyopathy. Hum Mol Genet 22(13):2634-41. [PubMed: 23459935]  [MGI Ref ID J:198236]

Watt DJ; Karasinski J; England MA. 1993. Migration of lacZ positive cells from the tibialis anterior to the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the X-linked muscular dystrophic (mdx) mouse. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 14(1):121-32. [PubMed: 8478422]  [MGI Ref ID J:12646]

Wehling M; Spencer MJ; Tidball JG. 2001. A nitric oxide synthase transgene ameliorates muscular dystrophy in mdx mice. J Cell Biol 155(1):123-31. [PubMed: 11581289]  [MGI Ref ID J:71898]

Wehling-Henricks M; Jordan MC; Gotoh T; Grody WW; Roos KP; Tidball JG. 2010. Arginine metabolism by macrophages promotes cardiac and muscle fibrosis in mdx muscular dystrophy. PLoS One 5(5):e10763. [PubMed: 20505827]  [MGI Ref ID J:160818]

Wehling-Henricks M; Jordan MC; Roos KP; Deng B; Tidball JG. 2005. Cardiomyopathy in dystrophin-deficient hearts is prevented by expression of a neuronal nitric oxide synthase transgene in the myocardium. Hum Mol Genet 14(14):1921-33. [PubMed: 15917272]  [MGI Ref ID J:182128]

Wehling-Henricks M; Oltmann M; Rinaldi C; Myung KH; Tidball JG. 2009. Loss of positive allosteric interactions between neuronal nitric oxide synthase and phosphofructokinase contributes to defects in glycolysis and increased fatigability in muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet 18(18):3439-51. [PubMed: 19542095]  [MGI Ref ID J:151716]

Wehling-Henricks M; Sokolow S; Lee JJ; Myung KH; Villalta SA; Tidball JG. 2008. Major basic protein-1 promotes fibrosis of dystrophic muscle and attenuates the cellular immune response in muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet 17(15):2280-92. [PubMed: 18430716]  [MGI Ref ID J:137633]

Wehling-Henricks M; Tidball JG. 2011. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase-rescue of dystrophin/utrophin double knockout mice does not require nNOS localization to the cell membrane. PLoS One 6(10):e25071. [PubMed: 22003386]  [MGI Ref ID J:179610]

Weisleder N; Takizawa N; Lin P; Wang X; Cao C; Zhang Y; Tan T; Ferrante C; Zhu H; Chen PJ; Yan R; Sterling M; Zhao X; Hwang M; Takeshima M; Cai C; Cheng H; Takeshima H; Xiao RP; Ma J. 2012. Recombinant MG53 protein modulates therapeutic cell membrane repair in treatment of muscular dystrophy. Sci Transl Med 4(139):139ra85. [PubMed: 22723464]  [MGI Ref ID J:186705]

Wells DJ; Wells KE; Asante EA; Turner G; Sunada Y; Campbell KP; Walsh FS; Dickson G. 1995. Expression of human full-length and minidystrophin in transgenic mdx mice: implications for gene therapy of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet 4(8):1245-50. [PubMed: 7581360]  [MGI Ref ID J:27472]

Wells DJ; Wells KE; Walsh FS; Davies KE; Goldspink G; Love DR; Chan-Thomas P; Dunckley MG; Piper T; Dickson G. 1992. Human dystrophin expression corrects the myopathic phenotype in transgenic mdx mice. Hum Mol Genet 1(1):35-40. [PubMed: 1301134]  [MGI Ref ID J:2092]

Wheeler TM; Leger AJ; Pandey SK; MacLeod AR; Nakamori M; Cheng SH; Wentworth BM; Bennett CF; Thornton CA. 2012. Targeting nuclear RNA for in vivo correction of myotonic dystrophy. Nature 488(7409):111-5. [PubMed: 22859208]  [MGI Ref ID J:186768]

Whitehead NP; Yeung EW; Froehner SC; Allen DG. 2010. Skeletal muscle NADPH oxidase is increased and triggers stretch-induced damage in the mdx mouse. PLoS One 5(12):e15354. [PubMed: 21187957]  [MGI Ref ID J:168678]

Wieneke S; Heimann P; Leibovitz S; Nudel U; Jockusch H. 2003. Acute pathophysiological effects of muscle-expressed Dp71 transgene on normal and dystrophic mouse muscle. J Appl Physiol 95(5):1861-6. [PubMed: 14555666]  [MGI Ref ID J:103011]

Wilding JR; Schneider JE; Sang AE; Davies KE; Neubauer S; Clarke K. 2005. Dystrophin- and MLP-deficient mouse hearts: marked differences in morphology and function, but similar accumulation of cytoskeletal proteins. FASEB J 19(1):79-81. [PubMed: 15494447]  [MGI Ref ID J:105036]

Williams DA; Head SI; Lynch GS; Stephenson DG. 1993. Contractile properties of skinned muscle fibres from young and adult normal and dystrophic (mdx) mice. J Physiol 460:51-67. [PubMed: 8487206]  [MGI Ref ID J:17900]

Williams IA; Allen DG. 2007. Intracellular calcium handling in ventricular myocytes from mdx mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 292(2):H846-55. [PubMed: 17012353]  [MGI Ref ID J:120592]

Williams IA; Allen DG. 2007. The role of reactive oxygen species in the hearts of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 293(3):H1969-77. [PubMed: 17573457]  [MGI Ref ID J:126149]

Williams MW; Bloch RJ. 1999. Extensive but coordinated reorganization of the membrane skeleton in myofibers of dystrophic (mdx) mice. J Cell Biol 144(6):1259-70. [PubMed: 10087268]  [MGI Ref ID J:54110]

Wilton SD; Dye DE; Laing NG. 1997. Dystrophin gene transcripts skipping the mdx mutation. Muscle Nerve 20(6):728-34. [PubMed: 9149080]  [MGI Ref ID J:40541]

Wilton SD; Lloyd F; Carville K; Fletcher S; Honeyman K; Agrawal S; Kole R. 1999. Specific removal of the nonsense mutation from the mdx dystrophin mRNA using antisense oligonucleotides. Neuromuscul Disord 9(5):330-8. [PubMed: 10407856]  [MGI Ref ID J:57356]

Wineinger MA; Walsh SA; Abresch RT. 1998. The effect of age and temperature on mdx muscle fatigue. Muscle Nerve 21(8):1075-7. [PubMed: 9655128]  [MGI Ref ID J:116332]

Wong A; Garrett KL; Anderson JE. 1999. Myoid cell density in the thymus is reduced during mdx dystrophy and after muscle crush. Biochem Cell Biol 77(1):33-40. [PubMed: 10426284]  [MGI Ref ID J:55875]

Woo M; Tanabe Y; Ishii H; Nonaka I; Yokoyama M; Esaki K. 1987. Muscle fiber growth and necrosis in dystrophic muscles: a comparative study between dy and mdx mice. J Neurol Sci 82(1-3):111-22. [PubMed: 3440862]  [MGI Ref ID J:152525]

Woods CE; Novo D; DiFranco M; Vergara JL. 2004. The action potential-evoked sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release is impaired in mdx mouse muscle fibres. J Physiol 557(Pt 1):59-75. [PubMed: 15004213]  [MGI Ref ID J:105267]

Woolf PJ; Lu S; Cornford-Nairn R; Watson M; Xiao XH; Holroyd SM; Brown L; Hoey AJ. 2006. Alterations in dihydropyridine receptors in dystrophin-deficient cardiac muscle. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 290(6):H2439-45. [PubMed: 16415078]  [MGI Ref ID J:111846]

Wu B; Benrashid E; Lu P; Cloer C; Zillmer A; Shaban M; Lu QL. 2011. Targeted skipping of human dystrophin exons in transgenic mouse model systemically for antisense drug development. PLoS One 6(5):e19906. [PubMed: 21611204]  [MGI Ref ID J:172587]

Wu B; Moulton HM; Iversen PL; Jiang J; Li J; Li J; Spurney CF; Sali A; Guerron AD; Nagaraju K; Doran T; Lu P; Xiao X; Lu QL. 2008. Effective rescue of dystrophin improves cardiac function in dystrophin-deficient mice by a modified morpholino oligomer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(39):14814-9. [PubMed: 18806224]  [MGI Ref ID J:142846]

Xiong D; Lee GH; Badorff C; Dorner A; Lee S; Wolf P; Knowlton KU. 2002. Dystrophin deficiency markedly increases enterovirus-induced cardiomyopathy: a genetic predisposition to viral heart disease. Nat Med 8(8):872-7. [PubMed: 12118246]  [MGI Ref ID J:78276]

Xu R; Camboni M; Martin PT. 2007. Postnatal overexpression of the CT GalNAc transferase inhibits muscular dystrophy in mdx mice without altering muscle growth or neuromuscular development: evidence for a utrophin-independent mechanism. Neuromuscul Disord 17(3):209-20. [PubMed: 17300937]  [MGI Ref ID J:124487]

Xu R; Chandrasekharan K; Yoon JH; Camboni M; Martin PT. 2007. Overexpression of the cytotoxic T cell (CT) carbohydrate inhibits muscular dystrophy in the dyW mouse model of congenital muscular dystrophy 1A. Am J Pathol 171(1):181-99. [PubMed: 17591965]  [MGI Ref ID J:122854]

Xu R; DeVries S; Camboni M; Martin PT. 2009. Overexpression of Galgt2 reduces dystrophic pathology in the skeletal muscles of alpha sarcoglycan-deficient mice. Am J Pathol 175(1):235-47. [PubMed: 19498002]  [MGI Ref ID J:150058]

Xu R; Salpeter MM. 1997. Acetylcholine receptors in innervated muscles of dystrophic mdx mice degrade as after denervation. J Neurosci 17(21):8194-200. [PubMed: 9334395]  [MGI Ref ID J:43694]

Yamane A; Akutsu S; Diekwisch TG; Matsuda R. 2005. Satellite cells and utrophin are not directly correlated with the degree of skeletal muscle damage in mdx mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 289(1):C42-8. [PubMed: 15703201]  [MGI Ref ID J:101256]

Yang B; Ibraghimov-Beskrovnaya O; Moomaw CR; Slaughter CA; Campbell KP. 1994. Heterogeneity of the 59-kDa dystrophin-associated protein revealed by cDNA cloning and expression. J Biol Chem 269(8):6040-4. [PubMed: 8119949]  [MGI Ref ID J:16941]

Yang L; Niu H; Gao X; Wang Q; Han G; Cao L; Cai C; Weiler J; Yin H. 2013. Effective exon skipping and dystrophin restoration by 2'-o-methoxyethyl antisense oligonucleotide in dystrophin-deficient mice. PLoS One 8(4):e61584. [PubMed: 23658612]  [MGI Ref ID J:200540]

Yeung D; Kharidia R; Brown SC; Gorecki DC. 2004. Enhanced expression of the P2X4 receptor in Duchenne muscular dystrophy correlates with macrophage invasion. Neurobiol Dis 15(2):212-20. [PubMed: 15006691]  [MGI Ref ID J:121035]

Yokota T; Lu QL; Morgan JE; Davies KE; Fisher R; Takeda S; Partridge TA. 2006. Expansion of revertant fibers in dystrophic mdx muscles reflects activity of muscle precursor cells and serves as an index of muscle regeneration. J Cell Sci 119(Pt 13):2679-87. [PubMed: 16757519]  [MGI Ref ID J:110347]

Yoshida M; Matsuzaki T; Date M; Wada K. 1997. Skeletal muscle fiber degeneration in mdx mice induced by electrical stimulation. Muscle Nerve 20(11):1422-32. [PubMed: 9342159]  [MGI Ref ID J:116432]

Yoshida M; Yonetani A; Shirasaki T; Wada K. 2006. Dietary NaCl supplementation prevents muscle necrosis in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 290(2):R449-55. [PubMed: 16179484]  [MGI Ref ID J:115746]

Yoshihara Y; Onodera H; Iinuma K; itoyama Y. 2003. Abnormal kainic acid receptor density and reduced seizure susceptibility in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Neuroscience 117(2):391-5. [PubMed: 12614679]  [MGI Ref ID J:110894]

Yue Y; Skimming JW; Liu M; Strawn T; Duan D. 2004. Full-length dystrophin expression in half of the heart cells ameliorates beta-isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy in mdx mice. Hum Mol Genet 13(15):1669-75. [PubMed: 15190010]  [MGI Ref ID J:118895]

Zacharias JM; Anderson JE. 1991. Muscle regeneration after imposed injury is better in younger than older mdx dystrophic mice. J Neurol Sci 104(2):190-6. [PubMed: 1940973]  [MGI Ref ID J:28686]

Zanou N; Iwata Y; Schakman O; Lebacq J; Wakabayashi S; Gailly P. 2009. Essential role of TRPV2 ion channel in the sensitivity of dystrophic muscle to eccentric contractions. FEBS Lett 583(22):3600-4. [PubMed: 19840792]  [MGI Ref ID J:154680]

Zeman RJ; Peng H; Danon MJ; Etlinger JD. 2000. Clenbuterol reduces degeneration of exercised or aged dystrophic (mdx) muscle. Muscle Nerve 23(4):521-8. [PubMed: 10716762]  [MGI Ref ID J:116194]

Zhang M; Liu J; Cheng A; Deyoung SM; Saltiel AR. 2007. Identification of CAP as a costameric protein that interacts with filamin C. Mol Biol Cell 18(12):4731-40. [PubMed: 17898075]  [MGI Ref ID J:145220]

Zhang W; ten Hove M; Schneider JE; Stuckey DJ; Sebag-Montefiore L; Bia BL; Radda GK; Davies KE; Neubauer S; Clarke K. 2008. Abnormal cardiac morphology, function and energy metabolism in the dystrophic mdx mouse: an MRI and MRS study. J Mol Cell Cardiol 45(6):754-60. [PubMed: 18929569]  [MGI Ref ID J:143578]

Zhang Y; Yue Y; Li L; Hakim CH; Zhang K; Thomas GD; Duan D. 2013. Dual AAV therapy ameliorates exercise-induced muscle injury and functional ischemia in murine models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet 22(18):3720-9. [PubMed: 23681067]  [MGI Ref ID J:199584]

Zhao J; Yoshioka K; Miike T; Miyatake M. 1993. Developmental studies of dystrophin-positive fibers in mdx, and DRP localization. J Neurol Sci 114(1):104-8. [PubMed: 8433092]  [MGI Ref ID J:3667]

Zhao X; Moloughney JG; Zhang S; Komazaki S; Weisleder N. 2012. Orai1 mediates exacerbated Ca(2+) entry in dystrophic skeletal muscle. PLoS One 7(11):e49862. [PubMed: 23185465]  [MGI Ref ID J:195456]

Zhou L; Porter JD; Cheng G; Gong B; Hatala DA; Merriam AP; Zhou X; Rafael JA; Kaminski HJ. 2006. Temporal and spatial mRNA expression patterns of TGF-beta1, 2, 3 and TbetaRI, II, III in skeletal muscles of mdx mice. Neuromuscul Disord 16(1):32-8. [PubMed: 16373085]  [MGI Ref ID J:112758]

Zhou L; Rafael-Fortney JA; Huang P; Zhao XS; Cheng G; Zhou X; Kaminski HJ; Liu L; Ransohoff RM. 2008. Haploinsufficiency of utrophin gene worsens skeletal muscle inflammation and fibrosis in mdx mice. J Neurol Sci 264(1-2):106-11. [PubMed: 17889902]  [MGI Ref ID J:140282]

Zhuang W; Eby JC; Cheong M; Mohapatra PK; Bredt DS; Disatnik MH; Rando TA. 2001. The susceptibility of muscle cells to oxidative stress is independent of nitric oxide synthase expression. Muscle Nerve 24(4):502-11. [PubMed: 11268022]  [MGI Ref ID J:116198]

van Deutekom JC; Cao B; Pruchnic R; Wickham TJ; Kovesdi I; Huard J. 1999. Extended tropism of an adenoviral vector does not circumvent the maturation-dependent transducibility of mouse skeletal muscle. J Gene Med 1(6):393-9. [PubMed: 10753064]  [MGI Ref ID J:62398]

van Putten M; Hulsker M; Nadarajah VD; van Heiningen SH; van Huizen E; van Iterson M; Admiraal P; Messemaker T; den Dunnen JT; 't Hoen PA; Aartsma-Rus A. 2012. The effects of low levels of dystrophin on mouse muscle function and pathology. PLoS One 7(2):e31937. [PubMed: 22359642]  [MGI Ref ID J:185221]

van Putten M; Hulsker M; Young C; Nadarajah VD; Heemskerk H; van der Weerd L; 't Hoen PA; van Ommen GJ; Aartsma-Rus AM. 2013. Low dystrophin levels increase survival and improve muscle pathology and function in dystrophin/utrophin double-knockout mice. FASEB J 27(6):2484-95. [PubMed: 23460734]  [MGI Ref ID J:199957]

von Maltzahn J; Renaud JM; Parise G; Rudnicki MA. 2012. Wnt7a treatment ameliorates muscular dystrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(50):20614-9. [PubMed: 23185011]  [MGI Ref ID J:193128]

Prkdcscid related

Agerstam H; Jaras M; Andersson A; Johnels P; Hansen N; Lassen C; Rissler M; Gisselsson D; Olofsson T; Richter J; Fan X; Ehinger M; Fioretos T. 2010. Modeling the human 8p11-myeloproliferative syndrome in immunodeficient mice. Blood 116(12):2103-11. [PubMed: 20554971]  [MGI Ref ID J:164507]

Agliano A; Martin-Padura I; Mancuso P; Marighetti P; Rabascio C; Pruneri G; Shultz LD; Bertolini F. 2008. Human acute leukemia cells injected in NOD/LtSz-scid/IL-2Rgamma null mice generate a faster and more efficient disease compared to other NOD/scid-related strains. Int J Cancer 123(9):2222-7. [PubMed: 18688847]  [MGI Ref ID J:142410]

Ahsmann EJ; van Tol MJ; Oudeman-Gruber J; Lokhorst H; Uytdehaag FG; Schuurman HJ; Bloem AC. 1995. The SCID mouse as a model for multiple myeloma. Br J Haematol 89(2):319-27. [PubMed: 7873382]  [MGI Ref ID J:22989]

Akiba H; Takeda K; Kojima Y; Usui Y; Harada N; Yamazaki T; Ma J; Tezuka K; Yagita H; Okumura K. 2005. The role of ICOS in the CXCR5+ follicular B helper T cell maintenance in vivo. J Immunol 175(4):2340-8. [PubMed: 16081804]  [MGI Ref ID J:107507]

Al-Qaoud KM; Fleischer B; Hoerauf A. 1998. The Xid defect imparts susceptibility to experimental murine filariosis--association with a lack of antibody and IL-10 production by B cells in response to phosphorylcholine. Int Immunol 10(1):17-25. [PubMed: 9488152]  [MGI Ref ID J:110480]

Alba A; Puertas MC; Carrillo J; Planas R; Ampudia R; Pastor X; Bosch F; Pujol-Borrell R; Verdaguer J; Vives-Pi M. 2004. IFNbeta accelerates autoimmune type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice and breaks the tolerance to beta cells in nondiabetes-prone mice. J Immunol 173(11):6667-75. [PubMed: 15557158]  [MGI Ref ID J:94366]

Alfaro MP; Pagni M; Vincent A; Atkinson J; Hill MF; Cates J; Davidson JM; Rottman J; Lee E; Young PP. 2008. The Wnt modulator sFRP2 enhances mesenchymal stem cell engraftment, granulation tissue formation and myocardial repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(47):18366-71. [PubMed: 19017790]  [MGI Ref ID J:142215]

Ali N; Flutter B; Sanchez Rodriguez R; Sharif-Paghaleh E; Barber LD; Lombardi G; Nestle FO. 2012. Xenogeneic graft-versus-host-disease in NOD-scid IL-2Rgammanull mice display a T-effector memory phenotype. PLoS One 7(8):e44219. [PubMed: 22937164]  [MGI Ref ID J:191672]

Alugupalli KR; Gerstein RM; Chen J; Szomolanyi-Tsuda E; Woodland RT; Leong JM. 2003. The resolution of relapsing fever borreliosis requires IgM and is concurrent with expansion of B1b lymphocytes. J Immunol 170(7):3819-27. [PubMed: 12646649]  [MGI Ref ID J:125443]

Ambrosino E; Spadaro M; Iezzi M; Curcio C; Forni G; Musiani P; Wei WZ; Cavallo F. 2006. Immunosurveillance of Erbb2 carcinogenesis in transgenic mice is concealed by a dominant regulatory T-cell self-tolerance. Cancer Res 66(15):7734-40. [PubMed: 16885376]  [MGI Ref ID J:112102]

Amezcua Vesely MC; Schwartz M; Bermejo DA; Montes CL; Cautivo KM; Kalergis AM; Rawlings DJ; Acosta-Rodriguez EV; Gruppi A. 2012. FcgammaRIIb and BAFF differentially regulate peritoneal B1 cell survival. J Immunol 188(10):4792-800. [PubMed: 22516957]  [MGI Ref ID J:188666]

Amrani A; Verdaguer J; Anderson B; Utsugi T; Bou S; Santamaria P. 1999. Perforin-independent beta-cell destruction by diabetogenic CD8(+) T lymphocytes in transgenic nonobese diabetic mice. J Clin Invest 103(8):1201-9. [PubMed: 10207172]  [MGI Ref ID J:108737]

Anders K; Buschow C; Herrmann A; Milojkovic A; Loddenkemper C; Kammertoens T; Daniel P; Yu H; Charo J; Blankenstein T. 2011. Oncogene-Targeting T Cells Reject Large Tumors while Oncogene Inactivation Selects Escape Variants in Mouse Models of Cancer. Cancer Cell 20(6):755-67. [PubMed: 22172721]  [MGI Ref ID J:178597]

Anderson MG; Nair KS; Amonoo LA; Mehalow A; Trantow CM; Masli S; John SW. 2008. GpnmbR150X allele must be present in bone marrow derived cells to mediate DBA/2J glaucoma. BMC Genet 9:30. [PubMed: 18402690]  [MGI Ref ID J:134670]

Andoh M; Zhang G; Russell-Lodrigue KE; Shive HR; Weeks BR; Samuel JE. 2007. T Cells Are Essential for Bacterial Clearance, and Gamma Interferon, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, and B Cells Are Crucial for Disease Development in Coxiella burnetii Infection in Mice. Infect Immun 75(7):3245-55. [PubMed: 17438029]  [MGI Ref ID J:122426]

Andre MC; Erbacher A; Gille C; Schmauke V; Goecke B; Hohberger A; Mang P; Wilhelm A; Mueller I; Herr W; Lang P; Handgretinger R; Hartwig UF. 2010. Long-term human CD34(+) stem cell-engrafted nonobese diabetic/SCID/IL-2Rgamma(null) mice show impaired CD8(+) T cell maintenance and a functional arrest of immature NK cells. J Immunol 185(5):2710-20. [PubMed: 20668220]  [MGI Ref ID J:163262]

Araki R; Fujimori A; Hamatani K; Mita K; Saito T; Mori M; Fukumura R; Morimyo M; Muto M; Itoh M; Tatsumi K; Abe M. 1997. Nonsense mutation at Tyr-4046 in the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit of severe combined immune deficiency mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94(6):2438-43. [PubMed: 9122213]  [MGI Ref ID J:39329]

Archer NK; Harro JM; Shirtliff ME. 2013. Clearance of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is T cell dependent and mediated through interleukin-17A expression and neutrophil influx. Infect Immun 81(6):2070-5. [PubMed: 23529621]  [MGI Ref ID J:199531]

Arendt LM; McCready J; Keller PJ; Baker DD; Naber SP; Seewaldt V; Kuperwasser C. 2013. Obesity promotes breast cancer by CCL2-mediated macrophage recruitment and angiogenesis. Cancer Res 73(19):6080-93. [PubMed: 23959857]  [MGI Ref ID J:202607]

Ashkar AA; Di Santo JP; Croy BA. 2000. Interferon gamma contributes to initiation of uterine vascular modification, decidual integrity, and uterine natural killer cell maturation during normal murine pregnancy [see comments] J Exp Med 192(2):259-70. [PubMed: 10899912]  [MGI Ref ID J:63645]

Aspord C; Rome S; Thivolet C. 2004. Early events in islets and pancreatic lymph nodes in autoimmune diabetes. J Autoimmun 23(1):27-35. [PubMed: 15236750]  [MGI Ref ID J:91668]

Augstein P; Stephens LA; Allison J; Elefanty AG; Ekberg M; Kay TW; Harrison LC. 1998. Beta-cell apoptosis in an accelerated model of autoimmune diabetes. Mol Med 4(8):495-501. [PubMed: 9742505]  [MGI Ref ID J:133840]

Babu S; Porte P; Klei TR; Shultz LD; Rajan TV. 1998. Host NK cells are required for the growth of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi in mice. J Immunol 161(3):1428-32. [PubMed: 9686607]  [MGI Ref ID J:49819]

Baerenwaldt A; Lux A; Danzer H; Spriewald BM; Ullrich E; Heidkamp G; Dudziak D; Nimmerjahn F. 2011. Fcgamma receptor IIB (FcgammaRIIB) maintains humoral tolerance in the human immune system in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(46):18772-7. [PubMed: 22065769]  [MGI Ref ID J:180174]

Baker RL; Delong T; Barbour G; Bradley B; Nakayama M; Haskins K. 2013. Cutting edge: CD4 T cells reactive to an islet amyloid polypeptide peptide accumulate in the pancreas and contribute to disease pathogenesis in nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol 191(8):3990-4. [PubMed: 24043895]  [MGI Ref ID J:206266]

Balasa B; La Cava A; Van Gunst K; Mocnik L; Balakrishna D; Nguyen N; Tucker L; Sarvetnick N. 2000. A mechanism for IL-10-mediated diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse: ICAM-1 deficiency blocks accelerated diabetes J Immunol 165(12):7330-7. [PubMed: 11120869]  [MGI Ref ID J:66103]

Balavenkatraman KK; Aceto N; Britschgi A; Mueller U; Bence KK; Neel BG; Bentires-Alj M. 2011. Epithelial protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B contributes to the induction of mammary tumors by HER2/Neu but is not essential for tumor maintenance. Mol Cancer Res 9(10):1377-84. [PubMed: 21849469]  [MGI Ref ID J:205401]

Baleriola J; Suarez T; de la Rosa EJ. 2010. DNA-PK promotes the survival of young neurons in the embryonic mouse retina. Cell Death Differ 17(11):1697-706. [PubMed: 20448641]  [MGI Ref ID J:186357]

Ballas ZK; Buchta CM; Rosean TR; Heusel JW; Shey MR. 2013. Role of NK cell subsets in organ-specific murine melanoma metastasis. PLoS One 8(6):e65599. [PubMed: 23776508]  [MGI Ref ID J:204234]

Bandeira M; Santos CS; de Azevedo EC; Soares LM; Macedo JO; Marchi S; da Silva CL; Chagas-Junior AD; McBride AJ; McBride FW; Reis MG; Athanazio DA. 2011. Attenuated Nephritis in Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Knockout C57BL/6 Mice and Pulmonary Hemorrhage in CB17 SCID and Recombination Activating Gene 1 Knockout C57BL/6 Mice Infected with Leptospira interrogans. Infect Immun 79(7):2936-40. [PubMed: 21576342]  [MGI Ref ID J:173478]

Bandi S; Joseph B; Berishvili E; Singhania R; Wu YM; Cheng K; Gupta S. 2011. Perturbations in ataxia telangiectasia mutant signaling pathways after drug-induced acute liver failure and their reversal during rescue of animals by cell therapy. Am J Pathol 178(1):161-74. [PubMed: 21224054]  [MGI Ref ID J:168235]

Banerjee P; Tripp A; Lairmore MD; Crawford L; Sieburg M; Ramos JC; Harrington W Jr; Beilke MA; Feuer G. 2010. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma development in HTLV-1-infected humanized SCID mice. Blood 115(13):2640-8. [PubMed: 20124219]  [MGI Ref ID J:162610]

Banga SS; Hall KT; Sandhu AK; Weaver DT; Athwal RS. 1994. Complementation of V(D)J recombination defect and X-ray sensitivity of scid mouse cells by human chromosome 8. Mutat Res 315(3):239-47. [PubMed: 7526201]  [MGI Ref ID J:21219]

Banuelos SJ; Shultz LD; Greiner DL; Burzenski LM; Gott B; Lyons BL; Rossini AA; Appel MC. 2004. Rejection of human islets and human HLA-A2.1 transgenic mouse islets by alloreactive human lymphocytes in immunodeficient NOD-scid and NOD-Rag1(null)Prf1(null) mice. Clin Immunol 112(3):273-83. [PubMed: 15308121]  [MGI Ref ID J:91764]

Bao L; Haas M; Pippin J; Wang Y; Miwa T; Chang A; Minto AW; Petkova M; Qiao G; Song WC; Alpers CE; Zhang J; Shankland SJ; Quigg RJ. 2009. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis induced in mice lacking decay-accelerating factor in T cells. J Clin Invest 119(5):1264-74. [PubMed: 19349693]  [MGI Ref ID J:149592]

Barber RC; Miccoli L; van Buul PP; Burr KL; van Duyn-Goedhart A; Angulo JF; Dubrova YE. 2004. Germline mutation rates at tandem repeat loci in DNA-repair deficient mice. Mutat Res 554(1-2):287-95. [PubMed: 15450426]  [MGI Ref ID J:93788]

Bardeesy N; Kim M; Xu J; Kim RS; Shen Q; Bosenberg MW; Wong WH; Chin L. 2005. Role of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in RAS-driven melanoma. Mol Cell Biol 25(10):4176-88. [PubMed: 15870287]  [MGI Ref ID J:99136]

Barrette B; Hebert MA; Filali M; Lafortune K; Vallieres N; Gowing G; Julien JP; Lacroix S. 2008. Requirement of myeloid cells for axon regeneration. J Neurosci 28(38):9363-76. [PubMed: 18799670]  [MGI Ref ID J:142759]

Barroso-delJesus A; Lucena-Aguilar G; Sanchez L; Ligero G; Gutierrez-Aranda I; Menendez P. 2011. The Nodal inhibitor Lefty is negatively modulated by the microRNA miR-302 in human embryonic stem cells. FASEB J 25(5):1497-508. [PubMed: 21266536]  [MGI Ref ID J:172780]

Barthold SW; Hodzic E; Tunev S; Feng S. 2006. Antibody-mediated disease remission in the mouse model of lyme borreliosis. Infect Immun 74(8):4817-25. [PubMed: 16861670]  [MGI Ref ID J:112329]

Battaglia M; Stabilini A; Draghici E; Migliavacca B; Gregori S; Bonifacio E; Roncarolo MG. 2006. Induction of Tolerance in Type 1 Diabetes via Both CD4+CD25+ T Regulatory Cells and T Regulatory Type 1 Cells. Diabetes 55(6):1571-80. [PubMed: 16731819]  [MGI Ref ID J:111884]

Beamer WG; Shultz KL; Tennent BJ; Shultz LD. 1993. Granulosa cell tumorigenesis in genetically hypogonadal-immunodeficient mice grafted with ovaries from tumor-susceptible donors. Cancer Res 53(16):3741-6. [PubMed: 8339285]  [MGI Ref ID J:14443]

Belkaid Y; Mendez S; Lira R; Kadambi N; Milon G; Sacks D. 2000. A natural model of Leishmania major infection reveals a prolonged 'silent' phase of parasite amplification in the skin before the onset of lesion formation and immunity. J Immunol 165(2):969-77. [PubMed: 10878373]  [MGI Ref ID J:120233]

Bellani MA; Romanienko PJ; Cairatti DA; Camerini-Otero RD. 2005. SPO11 is required for sex-body formation, and Spo11 heterozygosity rescues the prophase arrest of Atm-/- spermatocytes. J Cell Sci 118(Pt 15):3233-45. [PubMed: 15998665]  [MGI Ref ID J:100203]

Bello-Irizarry SN; Wang J; Johnston CJ; Gigliotti F; Wright TW. 2014. MyD88 signaling regulates both host defense and immunopathogenesis during pneumocystis infection. J Immunol 192(1):282-92. [PubMed: 24293628]  [MGI Ref ID J:207087]

Benavente CA; McEvoy JD; Finkelstein D; Wei L; Kang G; Wang YD; Neale G; Ragsdale S; Valentine V; Bahrami A; Temirov J; Pounds S; Zhang J; Dyer MA. 2013. Cross-species genomic and epigenomic landscape of retinoblastoma. Oncotarget 4(6):844-59. [PubMed: 23765217]  [MGI Ref ID J:207640]

Benner EJ; Banerjee R; Reynolds AD; Sherman S; Pisarev VM; Tsiperson V; Nemachek C; Ciborowski P; Przedborski S; Mosley RL; Gendelman HE. 2008. Nitrated alpha-Synuclein Immunity Accelerates Degeneration of Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons. PLoS ONE 3(1):e1376. [PubMed: 18167537]  [MGI Ref ID J:131300]

Bertin A. 1992. Comparison of susceptibility of inbred and outbred infant mice to Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin STa. Infect Immun 60(8):3117-21. [PubMed: 1639480]  [MGI Ref ID J:2117]

Bettini M; Castellaw AH; Lennon GP; Burton AR; Vignali DA. 2012. Prevention of autoimmune diabetes by ectopic pancreatic beta-cell expression of interleukin-35. Diabetes 61(6):1519-26. [PubMed: 22427377]  [MGI Ref ID J:196852]

Biedermann KA; Sun JR; Giaccia AJ; Tosto LM; Brown JM. 1991. scid mutation in mice confers hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and a deficiency in DNA double-strand break repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88(4):1394-7. [PubMed: 1996340]  [MGI Ref ID J:89590]

Billerbeck E; Horwitz JA; Labitt RN; Donovan BM; Vega K; Budell WC; Koo GC; Rice CM; Ploss A. 2013. Characterization of human antiviral adaptive immune responses during hepatotropic virus infection in HLA-transgenic human immune system mice. J Immunol 191(4):1753-64. [PubMed: 23833235]  [MGI Ref ID J:205706]

Binder GK; Griffin DE. 2001. Interferon-gamma-mediated site-specific clearance of alphavirus from CNS neurons. Science 293(5528):303-6. [PubMed: 11452126]  [MGI Ref ID J:125465]

Bitsaktsis C; Huntington J; Winslow G. 2004. Production of IFN-gamma by CD4 T cells is essential for resolving ehrlichia infection. J Immunol 172(11):6894-901. [PubMed: 15153508]  [MGI Ref ID J:90518]

Blanc L; Ciciotte SL; Gwynn B; Hildick-Smith GJ; Pierce EL; Soltis KA; Cooney JD; Paw BH; Peters LL. 2012. Critical function for the Ras-GTPase activating protein RASA3 in vertebrate erythropoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(30):12099-104. [PubMed: 22773809]  [MGI Ref ID J:186485]

Blunt T; Gell D; Fox M; Taccioli GE; Lehmann AR; Jackson SP; Jeggo PA. 1996. Identification of a nonsense mutation in the carboxyl-terminal region of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit in the scid mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(19):10285-90. [PubMed: 8816792]  [MGI Ref ID J:35393]

Bobbala D; Chen XL; Leblanc C; Mayhue M; Stankova J; Tanaka T; Chen YG; Ilangumaran S; Ramanathan S. 2012. Interleukin-15 plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes in the NOD mouse. Diabetologia 55(11):3010-20. [PubMed: 22890824]  [MGI Ref ID J:191833]

Boggiatto PM; Jie F; Ghosh M; Gibson-Corley KN; Ramer-Tait AE; Jones DE; Petersen CA. 2009. Altered dendritic cell phenotype in response to Leishmania amazonensis amastigote infection is mediated by MAP kinase, ERK. Am J Pathol 174(5):1818-26. [PubMed: 19349356]  [MGI Ref ID J:147971]

Bogue MA; Zhu C; Aguilar-Cordova E; Donehower LA; Roth DB. 1996. p53 is required for both radiation-induced differentiation and rescue of V(D)J rearrangement in scid mouse thymocytes. Genes Dev 10(5):553-65. [PubMed: 8598286]  [MGI Ref ID J:31868]

Boitano AE; Wang J; Romeo R; Bouchez LC; Parker AE; Sutton SE; Walker JR; Flaveny CA; Perdew GH; Denison MS; Schultz PG; Cooke MP. 2010. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonists promote the expansion of human hematopoietic stem cells. Science 329(5997):1345-8. [PubMed: 20688981]  [MGI Ref ID J:167433]

Boldizsar F; Tarjanyi O; Nemeth P; Mikecz K; Glant TT. 2009. Th1/Th17 polarization and acquisition of an arthritogenic phenotype in arthritis-susceptible BALB/c, but not in MHC-matched, arthritis-resistant DBA/2 mice. Int Immunol 21(5):511-22. [PubMed: 19254958]  [MGI Ref ID J:148186]

Bolz DD; Sundsbak RS; Ma Y; Akira S; Kirschning CJ; Zachary JF; Weis JH; Weis JJ. 2004. MyD88 plays a unique role in host defense but not arthritis development in Lyme disease. J Immunol 173(3):2003-10. [PubMed: 15265935]  [MGI Ref ID J:92031]

Bolz DD; Sundsbak RS; Ma Y; Akira S; Weis JH; Schwan TG; Weis JJ. 2006. Dual role of MyD88 in rapid clearance of relapsing fever Borrelia spp. Infect Immun 74(12):6750-60. [PubMed: 17030581]  [MGI Ref ID J:116070]

Bonifazi P; Zelante T; D'Angelo C; De Luca A; Moretti S; Bozza S; Perruccio K; Iannitti RG; Giovannini G; Volpi C; Fallarino F; Puccetti P; Romani L. 2009. Balancing inflammation and tolerance in vivo through dendritic cells by the commensal Candida albicans. Mucosal Immunol 2(4):362-74. [PubMed: 19421183]  [MGI Ref ID J:193381]

Bosma GC; Custer RP; Bosma MJ. 1983. A severe combined immunodeficiency mutation in the mouse. Nature 301(5900):527-30. [PubMed: 6823332]  [MGI Ref ID J:6958]

Bosma GC; Oshinsky J; Kiefer K; Nakajima PB; Charan D; Congelton C; Radic M; Bosma MJ. 2006. Development of functional B cells in a line of SCID mice with transgenes coding for anti-double-stranded DNA antibody. J Immunol 176(2):889-98. [PubMed: 16393973]  [MGI Ref ID J:126632]

Bosma M; Schuler W; Bosma G. 1988. The scid mouse mutant. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 137:197-202. [PubMed: 3416632]  [MGI Ref ID J:9341]

Boyartchuk V; Rojas M; Yan BS; Jobe O; Hurt N; Dorfman DM; Higgins DE; Dietrich WF; Kramnik I. 2004. The host resistance locus sst1 controls innate immunity to Listeria monocytogenes infection in immunodeficient mice. J Immunol 173(8):5112-20. [PubMed: 15470055]  [MGI Ref ID J:93705]

Braumuller H; Wieder T; Brenner E; Assmann S; Hahn M; Alkhaled M; Schilbach K; Essmann F; Kneilling M; Griessinger C; Ranta F; Ullrich S; Mocikat R; Braungart K; Mehra T; Fehrenbacher B; Berdel J; Niessner H; Meier F; van den Broek M; Haring HU; Handgretinger R; Quintanilla-Martinez L; Fend F; Pesic M; Bauer J; Zender L; Schaller M; Schulze-Osthoff K; Rocken M. 2013. T-helper-1-cell cytokines drive cancer into senescence. Nature 494(7437):361-5. [PubMed: 23376950]  [MGI Ref ID J:194546]

Bregenholt S; Claesson MH. 1998. Increased intracellular Th1 cytokines in scid mice with inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Immunol 28(1):379-89. [PubMed: 9485217]  [MGI Ref ID J:45906]

Bregenholt S; Claesson MH. 1998. Splenic T helper cell type 1 cytokine profile and extramedullary haematopoiesis in severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Clin Exp Immunol 111(1):166-72. [PubMed: 9472677]  [MGI Ref ID J:45450]

Brehm MA; Racki WJ; Leif J; Burzenski L; Hosur V; Wetmore A; Gott B; Herlihy M; Ignotz R; Dunn R; Shultz LD; Greiner DL. 2012. Engraftment of human HSC in non-irradiated newborn NOD-scid IL2rgammanull mice is enhanced by transgenic expression of membrane-bound human SCF. Blood :. [PubMed: 22246028]  [MGI Ref ID J:180273]

Brem-Exner BG; Sattler C; Hutchinson JA; Koehl GE; Kronenberg K; Farkas S; Inoue S; Blank C; Knechtle SJ; Schlitt HJ; Fandrich F; Geissler EK. 2008. Macrophages driven to a novel state of activation have anti-inflammatory properties in mice. J Immunol 180(1):335-49. [PubMed: 18097035]  [MGI Ref ID J:130932]

Bridgett M; Cetkovic-Cvrlje M; O'Rourke R; Shi Y; Narayanswami S; Lambert J; Ramiya V; Baekkeskov S; Leiter EH. 1998. Differential protection in two transgenic lines of NOD/Lt mice hyperexpressing the autoantigen GAD65 in pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes 47(12):1848-56. [PubMed: 9836515]  [MGI Ref ID J:100251]

Browning JL; Allaire N; Ngam-Ek A; Notidis E; Hunt J; Perrin S; Fava RA. 2005. Lymphotoxin-beta receptor signaling is required for the homeostatic control of HEV differentiation and function. Immunity 23(5):539-50. [PubMed: 16286021]  [MGI Ref ID J:113284]

Bueno C; Lopes LF; Greaves M; Menendez P. 2007. Toward development of a novel NOD/SCID-based in vivo strategy to model multiple myeloma pathogenesis. Exp Hematol 35(10):1477-8. [PubMed: 17681665]  [MGI Ref ID J:126691]

Bugl S; Wirths S; Radsak MP; Schild H; Stein P; Andre MC; Muller MR; Malenke E; Wiesner T; Marklin M; Frick JS; Handgretinger R; Rammensee HG; Kanz L; Kopp HG. 2013. Steady-state neutrophil homeostasis is dependent on TLR4/TRIF signaling. Blood 121(5):723-33. [PubMed: 23223360]  [MGI Ref ID J:194620]

Bumgardner GL; Gao D; Li J; Baskin JH; Heininger M; Orosz CG. 2000. Rejection responses to allogeneic hepatocytes by reconstituted SCID mice, CD4, KO, and CD8 KO mice. Transplantation 70(12):1771-80. [PubMed: 11152110]  [MGI Ref ID J:66571]

Buning J; Schmitz M; Repenning B; Ludwig D; Schmidt MA; Strobel S; Zimmer KP. 2005. Interferon-gamma mediates antigen trafficking to MHC class II-positive late endosomes of enterocytes. Eur J Immunol 35(3):831-42. [PubMed: 15688349]  [MGI Ref ID J:96737]

Burdeinick-Kerr R; Wind J; Griffin DE. 2007. Synergistic roles of antibody and interferon in noncytolytic clearance of Sindbis virus from different regions of the central nervous system. J Virol 81(11):5628-36. [PubMed: 17376910]  [MGI Ref ID J:153321]

Burke SD; Barrette VF; Carter AL; Gravel J; Adams MA; Croy BA. 2011. Cardiovascular adaptations of pregnancy in T and B cell-deficient mice. Biol Reprod 85(3):605-14. [PubMed: 21613629]  [MGI Ref ID J:176701]

Burr KL; Smith AG; Dubrova YE. 2005. p53 deficiency does not affect mutation rate in the mouse germline. Oncogene 24(26):4315-8. [PubMed: 15806156]  [MGI Ref ID J:99550]

Butler JM; Nolan DJ; Vertes EL; Varnum-Finney B; Kobayashi H; Hooper AT; Seandel M; Shido K; White IA; Kobayashi M; Witte L; May C; Shawber C; Kimura Y; Kitajewski J; Rosenwaks Z; Bernstein ID; Rafii S. 2010. Endothelial cells are essential for the self-renewal and repopulation of Notch-dependent hematopoietic stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 6(3):251-64. [PubMed: 20207228]  [MGI Ref ID J:158983]

Calderon B; Suri A; Unanue ER. 2006. In CD4+ T-cell-induced diabetes, macrophages are the final effector cells that mediate islet beta-cell killing: studies from an acute model. Am J Pathol 169(6):2137-47. [PubMed: 17148676]  [MGI Ref ID J:116218]

Callen E; Jankovic M; Wong N; Zha S; Chen HT; Difilippantonio S; Di Virgilio M; Heidkamp G; Alt FW; Nussenzweig A; Nussenzweig M. 2009. Essential role for DNA-PKcs in DNA double-strand break repair and apoptosis in ATM-deficient lymphocytes. Mol Cell 34(3):285-97. [PubMed: 19450527]  [MGI Ref ID J:150435]

Carrero JA; Calderon B; Unanue ER. 2006. Lymphocytes are detrimental during the early innate immune response against Listeria monocytogenes. J Exp Med 203(4):933-40. [PubMed: 16549598]  [MGI Ref ID J:123753]

Carter CR; Whitcomb JP; Campbell JA; Mukbel RM; McDowell MA. 2009. Complement receptor 3 deficiency influences lesion progression during Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice. Infect Immun 77(12):5668-75. [PubMed: 19797068]  [MGI Ref ID J:155481]

Chakraborty P; Buaas FW; Sharma M; Snyder E; de Rooij DG; Braun RE. 2014. LIN28A marks the spermatogonial progenitor population and regulates its cyclic expansion. Stem Cells 32(4):860-73. [PubMed: 24715688]  [MGI Ref ID J:210438]

Chang Y; Bosma GC; Bosma MJ. 1995. Development of B cells in scid mice with immunoglobulin transgenes: implications for the control of V(D)J recombination. Immunity 2(6):607-16. [PubMed: 7796294]  [MGI Ref ID J:27341]

Chang Y; Bosma MJ. 1997. Effect of different Ig transgenes on B cell differentiation in scid mice. Int Immunol 9(3):373-80. [PubMed: 9088976]  [MGI Ref ID J:125479]

Chaparro RJ; Konigshofer Y; Beilhack GF; Shizuru JA; McDevitt HO; Chien YH. 2006. Nonobese diabetic mice express aspects of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(33):12475-80. [PubMed: 16895987]  [MGI Ref ID J:111775]

Chen AM; Zhou Y; Swenson K; Sachs DH; Sykes M; Yang YG. 2000. Porcine stem cell engraftment and seeding of murine thymus with class II+ cells in mice expressing porcine cytokines: toward tolerance induction across discordant xenogeneic barriers. Transplantation 69(12):2484-90. [PubMed: 10910267]  [MGI Ref ID J:93486]

Chen CH; Yeh YC; Wu GJ; Huang YH; Lai WF; Liu JY; Tzeng CR. 2010. Tracking the rejection and survival of mouse ovarian iso- and allografts in vivo with bioluminescent imaging. Reproduction 140(1):105-12. [PubMed: 20423932]  [MGI Ref ID J:175817]

Chen D; Pacal M; Wenzel P; Knoepfler PS; Leone G; Bremner R. 2009. Division and apoptosis of E2f-deficient retinal progenitors. Nature 462(7275):925-9. [PubMed: 20016601]  [MGI Ref ID J:155800]

Chen G; Han G; Wang J; Wang R; Xu R; Shen B; Qian J; Li Y. 2009. Natural killer cells modulate overt autoimmunity to homeostasis in nonobese diabetic mice after anti-CD3 F(ab')2 antibody treatment through secreting transforming growth factor-beta. Am J Pathol 175(3):1086-94. [PubMed: 19644014]  [MGI Ref ID J:152908]

Chen J; Chen YG; Reifsnyder PC; Schott WH; Lee CH; Osborne M; Scheuplein F; Haag F; Koch-Nolte F; Serreze DV; Leiter EH. 2006. Targeted disruption of CD38 accelerates autoimmune diabetes in NOD/Lt mice by enhancing autoimmunity in an ADP-ribosyltransferase 2-dependent fashion. J Immunol 176(8):4590-9. [PubMed: 16585549]  [MGI Ref ID J:108097]

Chen J; Gusdon AM; Piganelli J; Leiter EH; Mathews CE. 2011. mt-Nd2(a) Modifies resistance against autoimmune type 1 diabetes in NOD mice at the level of the pancreatic beta-cell. Diabetes 60(1):355-9. [PubMed: 20980458]  [MGI Ref ID J:170153]

Chen Q; Amaladoss A; Ye W; Liu M; Dummler S; Kong F; Wong LH; Loo HL; Loh E; Tan SQ; Tan TC; Chang KT; Dao M; Suresh S; Preiser PR; Chen J. 2014. Human natural killer cells control Plasmodium falciparum infection by eliminating infected red blood cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(4):1479-84. [PubMed: 24474774]  [MGI Ref ID J:206650]

Chen YT; Chen FY; Vijmasi T; Stephens DN; Gallup M; McNamara NA. 2013. Pax6 downregulation mediates abnormal lineage commitment of the ocular surface epithelium in aqueous-deficient dry eye disease. PLoS One 8(10):e77286. [PubMed: 24143217]  [MGI Ref ID J:209118]

Chi X; Zhi L; Gelderman MP; Vostal JG. 2012. Host platelets and, in part, neutrophils mediate lung accumulation of transfused UVB-irradiated human platelets in a mouse model of acute lung injury. PLoS One 7(9):e44829. [PubMed: 23028636]  [MGI Ref ID J:191794]

Chiang EY; Stroynowski I. 2004. A nonclassical MHC class I molecule restricts CTL-mediated rejection of a syngeneic melanoma tumor. J Immunol 173(7):4394-401. [PubMed: 15383569]  [MGI Ref ID J:93729]

Chiaraviglio L; Duong S; Brown DA; Birtles RJ; Kirby JE. 2010. An immunocompromised murine model of chronic Bartonella infection. Am J Pathol 176(6):2753-63. [PubMed: 20395436]  [MGI Ref ID J:161161]

Chiu IM; Heesters BA; Ghasemlou N; Von Hehn CA; Zhao F; Tran J; Wainger B; Strominger A; Muralidharan S; Horswill AR; Bubeck Wardenburg J; Hwang SW; Carroll MC; Woolf CJ. 2013. Bacteria activate sensory neurons that modulate pain and inflammation. Nature 501(7465):52-7. [PubMed: 23965627]  [MGI Ref ID J:205431]

Choi B; Chun E; Kim M; Kim SY; Kim ST; Yoon K; Lee KY; Kim SJ. 2011. Human T cell development in the liver of humanized NOD/SCID/IL-2Rgamma(null)(NSG) mice generated by intrahepatic injection of CD34(+) human (h) cord blood (CB) cells. Clin Immunol 139(3):321-35. [PubMed: 21429805]  [MGI Ref ID J:173961]

Chou FC; Shieh SJ; Sytwu HK. 2009. Attenuation of Th1 response through galectin-9 and T-cell Ig mucin 3 interaction inhibits autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Eur J Immunol 39(9):2403-11. [PubMed: 19670381]  [MGI Ref ID J:152168]

Chow LH. 1993. Studies of virus-induced myocardial injury in mice: value of the scid mutation on different genetic backgrounds and combined with other mutations. Lab Anim Sci 43(2):133-5. [PubMed: 8391609]  [MGI Ref ID J:12476]

Christianson SW; Greiner DL; Hesselton RA; Leif JH; Wagar EJ; Schweitzer IB; Rajan TV; Gott B; Roopenian DC; Shultz LD. 1997. Enhanced human CD4+ T cell engraftment in beta2-microglobulin-deficient NOD-scid mice. J Immunol 158(8):3578-86. [PubMed: 9103418]  [MGI Ref ID J:102141]

Christianson SW; Greiner DL; Schweitzer IB; Gott B; Beamer GL; Schweitzer PA; Hesselton RM; Shultz LD. 1996. Role of natural killer cells on engraftment of human lymphoid cells and on metastasis of human T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells in C57BL/6J-scid mice and in C57BL/6J-scid bg mice. Cell Immunol 171(2):186-99. [PubMed: 8806787]  [MGI Ref ID J:34814]

Cleveland SM; Smith S; Tripathi R; Mathias EM; Goodings C; Elliott N; Peng D; El-Rifai W; Yi D; Chen X; Li L; Mullighan C; Downing JR; Love P; Dave UP. 2013. Lmo2 induces hematopoietic stem cell-like features in T-cell progenitor cells prior to leukemia. Stem Cells 31(5):882-94. [PubMed: 23378057]  [MGI Ref ID J:196312]

Cook AJ; Oganesian L; Harumal P; Basten A; Brink R; Jolly CJ. 2003. Reduced switching in SCID B cells is associated with altered somatic mutation of recombined S regions. J Immunol 171(12):6556-64. [PubMed: 14662857]  [MGI Ref ID J:117994]

Coombes JL; Siddiqui KR; Arancibia-Carcamo CV; Hall J; Sun CM; Belkaid Y; Powrie F. 2007. A functionally specialized population of mucosal CD103+ DCs induces Foxp3+ regulatory T cells via a TGF-beta and retinoic acid-dependent mechanism. J Exp Med 204(8):1757-64. [PubMed: 17620361]  [MGI Ref ID J:203901]

Coppola V; Barrick CA; Southon EA; Celeste A; Wang K; Chen B; Haddad el-B; Yin J; Nussenzweig A; Subramaniam A; Tessarollo L. 2004. Ablation of TrkA function in the immune system causes B cell abnormalities. Development 131(20):5185-95. [PubMed: 15459109]  [MGI Ref ID J:93578]

Covassin L; Jangalwe S; Jouvet N; Laning J; Burzenski L; Shultz LD; Brehm MA. 2013. Human immune system development and survival of NOD-scid IL2rgamma (NSG) mice engrafted with human thymus and autologous hematopoietic stem cells. Clin Exp Immunol :. [PubMed: 23869841]  [MGI Ref ID J:200896]

Covassin L; Laning J; Abdi R; Langevin DL; Phillips NE; Shultz LD; Brehm MA. 2011. Human peripheral blood CD4 T cell-engrafted non-obese diabetic-scid IL2rgamma(null) H2-Ab1 (tm1Gru) Tg (human leucocyte antigen D-related 4) mice: a mouse model of human allogeneic graft-versus-host disease. Clin Exp Immunol 166(2):269-80. [PubMed: 21985373]  [MGI Ref ID J:177904]

Craven AJ; Nixon AJ; Ashby MG; Ormandy CJ; Blazek K; Wilkins RJ; Pearson AJ. 2006. Prolactin delays hair regrowth in mice. J Endocrinol 191(2):415-25. [PubMed: 17088411]  [MGI Ref ID J:114701]

Crowe MJ; Doetschman T; Greenhalgh DG. 2000. Delayed wound healing in immunodeficient TGF-beta1 knockout mice J Invest Dermatol 115(1):3-11. [PubMed: 10886500]  [MGI Ref ID J:63260]

Crowley SD; Song YS; Lin EE; Griffiths R; Kim HS; Ruiz P. 2010. Lymphocyte responses exacerbate angiotensin II-dependent hypertension. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 298(4):R1089-97. [PubMed: 20147609]  [MGI Ref ID J:158609]

Culmsee C; Bondada S; Mattson MP. 2001. Hippocampal neurons of mice deficient in DNA-dependent protein kinase exhibit increased vulnerability to DNA damage, oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 87(2):257-62. [PubMed: 11245929]  [MGI Ref ID J:109293]

Cupedo T; Lund FE; Ngo VN; Randall TD; Jansen W; Greuter MJ; de Waal-Malefyt R; Kraal G; Cyster JG; Mebius RE. 2004. Initiation of cellular organization in lymph nodes is regulated by non-B cell-derived signals and is not dependent on CXC chemokine ligand 13. J Immunol 173(8):4889-96. [PubMed: 15470030]  [MGI Ref ID J:93711]

Custer RP; Bosma GC; Bosma MJ. 1985. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in the mouse. Pathology, reconstitution, neoplasms. Am J Pathol 120(3):464-77. [PubMed: 2412448]  [MGI Ref ID J:30980]

Dann SM; Spehlmann ME; Hammond DC; Iimura M; Hase K; Choi LJ; Hanson E; Eckmann L. 2008. IL-6-dependent mucosal protection prevents establishment of a microbial niche for attaching/effacing lesion-forming enteric bacterial pathogens. J Immunol 180(10):6816-26. [PubMed: 18453602]  [MGI Ref ID J:134871]

Danska JS; Holland DP; Mariathasan S; Williams KM; Guidos CJ. 1996. Biochemical and genetic defects in the DNA-dependent protein kinase in murine scid lymphocytes. Mol Cell Biol 16(10):5507-17. [PubMed: 8816463]  [MGI Ref ID J:35350]

Darwiche R; Chong MM; Santamaria P; Thomas HE; Kay TW. 2003. Fas is detectable on beta cells in accelerated, but not spontaneous, diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol 170(12):6292-7. [PubMed: 12794162]  [MGI Ref ID J:108698]

Das R; Bassiri H; Guan P; Wiener S; Banerjee PP; Zhong MC; Veillette A; Orange JS; Nichols KE. 2013. The adaptor molecule SAP plays essential roles during invariant NKT cell cytotoxicity and lytic synapse formation. Blood 121(17):3386-95. [PubMed: 23430111]  [MGI Ref ID J:196692]

De Palma M; Venneri MA; Galli R; Sergi LS; Politi LS; Sampaolesi M; Naldini L. 2005. Tie2 identifies a hematopoietic lineage of proangiogenic monocytes required for tumor vessel formation and a mesenchymal population of pericyte progenitors. Cancer Cell 8(3):211-26. [PubMed: 16169466]  [MGI Ref ID J:102241]

Derecki NC; Cardani AN; Yang CH; Quinnies KM; Crihfield A; Lynch KR; Kipnis J. 2010. Regulation of learning and memory by meningeal immunity: a key role for IL-4. J Exp Med 207(5):1067-80. [PubMed: 20439540]  [MGI Ref ID J:160932]

DiLorenzo TP; Lieberman SM; Takaki T; Honda S; Chapman HD; Santamaria P; Serreze DV; Nathenson SG. 2002. During the early prediabetic period in NOD mice, the pathogenic CD8(+) T-cell population comprises multiple antigenic specificities. Clin Immunol 105(3):332-41. [PubMed: 12498815]  [MGI Ref ID J:94192]

Diamond RA; Ward SB; Owada-Makabe K; Wang H; Rothenberg EV. 1997. Different developmental arrest points in RAG-2 -/- and SCID thymocytes on two genetic backgrounds: developmental choices and cell death mechanisms before TCR gene rearrangement. J Immunol 158(9):4052-64. [PubMed: 9126963]  [MGI Ref ID J:39793]

Diaz-Manera J; Touvier T; Dellavalle A; Tonlorenzi R; Tedesco FS; Messina G; Meregalli M; Navarro C; Perani L; Bonfanti C; Illa I; Torrente Y; Cossu G. 2010. Partial dysferlin reconstitution by adult murine mesoangioblasts is sufficient for full functional recovery in a murine model of dysferlinopathy. Cell Death Dis 1:e61. [PubMed: 21364666]  [MGI Ref ID J:186461]

Dibra D; Cutrera JJ; Li S. 2012. Coordination between TLR9 signaling in macrophages and CD3 signaling in T cells induces robust expression of IL-30. J Immunol 188(8):3709-15. [PubMed: 22407920]  [MGI Ref ID J:184078]

Dodig TD; Mack KT; Cassarino DF; Clark SH. 2001. Development of the tight-skin phenotype in immune-deficient mice. Arthritis Rheum 44(3):723-7. [PubMed: 11263788]  [MGI Ref ID J:112962]

Doherty TM; Sher A. 1997. Defects in cell-mediated immunity affect chronic, but not innate, resistance of mice to Mycobacterium avium infection. J Immunol 158(10):4822-31. [PubMed: 9144497]  [MGI Ref ID J:40202]

Dohi T; Fujihashi K; Koga T; Etani Y; Yoshino N; Kawamura YI; McGhee JR. 2004. CD4+CD45RBHi interleukin-4 defective T cells elicit antral gastritis and duodenitis. Am J Pathol 165(4):1257-68. [PubMed: 15466391]  [MGI Ref ID J:93676]

Dohi T; Fujihashi K; Koga T; Shirai Y; Kawamura YI; Ejima C; Kato R; Saitoh K; McGhee JR. 2003. T helper type-2 cells induce ileal villus atrophy, goblet cell metaplasia, and wasting disease in T cell-deficient mice. Gastroenterology 124(3):672-82. [PubMed: 12612906]  [MGI Ref ID J:82106]

Dominique V; Francis L. 1995. Interactions of the scid or beige mutations with the viable motheaten mutation. Autoimmunity 22(4):199-207. [PubMed: 8781712]  [MGI Ref ID J:33985]

Dorshkind K; Keller GM; Phillips RA; Miller RG; Bosma GC; O'Toole M; Bosma MJ. 1984. Functional status of cells from lymphoid and myeloid tissues in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency disease. J Immunol 132(4):1804-8. [PubMed: 6607948]  [MGI Ref ID J:7343]

Dos Santos C; McDonald T; Ho YW; Liu H; Lin A; Forman SJ; Kuo YH; Bhatia R. 2013. The Src and c-Kit kinase inhibitor dasatinib enhances p53-mediated targeting of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells by chemotherapeutic agents. Blood 122(11):1900-13. [PubMed: 23896410]  [MGI Ref ID J:202360]

Dreyer AM; Matile H; Papastogiannidis P; Kamber J; Favuzza P; Voss TS; Wittlin S; Pluschke G. 2012. Passive immunoprotection of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mice designates the CyRPA as candidate malaria vaccine antigen. J Immunol 188(12):6225-37. [PubMed: 22593616]  [MGI Ref ID J:188965]

Dudek NL; Thomas HE; Mariana L; Sutherland RM; Allison J; Estella E; Angstetra E; Trapani JA; Santamaria P; Lew AM; Kay TW. 2006. Cytotoxic T-cells from T-cell receptor transgenic NOD8.3 mice destroy beta-cells via the perforin and Fas pathways. Diabetes 55(9):2412-8. [PubMed: 16936188]  [MGI Ref ID J:116592]

Dudley ME; Sundberg JP; Roopenian DC. 1996. Frequency and histological appearance of adenomas in multiple intestinal neoplasia mice are unaffected by severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mutation. Int J Cancer 65(2):249-53. [PubMed: 8567125]  [MGI Ref ID J:31690]

Dullin C; Missbach-Guentner J; Vogel WF; Grabbe E; Alves F. 2007. Semi-Automatic Classification of Skeletal Morphology in Genetically Altered Mice Using Flat-Panel Volume Computed Tomography. PLoS Genet 3(7):e118. [PubMed: 17658952]  [MGI Ref ID J:123719]

Eaton KA; Benson LH; Haeger J; Gray BM. 2006. Role of transcription factor T-bet expression by CD4+ cells in gastritis due to Helicobacter pylori in mice. Infect Immun 74(8):4673-84. [PubMed: 16861655]  [MGI Ref ID J:112403]

Eaton KA; Mefford M; Thevenot T. 2001. The role of T cell subsets and cytokines in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in mice. J Immunol 166(12):7456-61. [PubMed: 11390498]  [MGI Ref ID J:124425]

Ebrahem Q; Chaurasia SS; Vasanji A; Qi JH; Klenotic PA; Cutler A; Asosingh K; Erzurum S; Anand-Apte B. 2010. Cross-talk between vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinases in the induction of neovascularization in vivo. Am J Pathol 176(1):496-503. [PubMed: 19948826]  [MGI Ref ID J:156380]

Economopoulos V; Noad JC; Krishnamoorthy S; Rutt BK; Foster PJ. 2011. Comparing the MRI appearance of the lymph nodes and spleen in wild-type and immuno-deficient mouse strains. PLoS One 6(11):e27508. [PubMed: 22096586]  [MGI Ref ID J:180968]

Emoto M; Mittrucker HW; Schmits R; Mak TW; Kaufmann SH. 1999. Critical role of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 in liver accumulation of CD4+NKT cells. J Immunol 162(9):5094-8. [PubMed: 10227978]  [MGI Ref ID J:111009]

Engle SJ; Ormsby I; Pawlowski S; Boivin GP; Croft J; Balish E; Doetschman T. 2002. Elimination of Colon Cancer in Germ-free Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1-deficient Mice. Cancer Res 62(22):6362-6. [PubMed: 12438215]  [MGI Ref ID J:80209]

Ernst PB; Erickson LD; Loo WM; Scott KG; Wiznerowicz EB; Brown CC; Torres-Velez FJ; Alam MS; Black SG; McDuffie M; Feldman SH; Wallace JL; McKnight GW; Padol IT; Hunt RH; Tung KS. 2012. Spontaneous autoimmune gastritis and hypochlorhydria are manifest in the ileitis-prone SAMP1/YitFcs mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 302(1):G105-15. [PubMed: 21921286]  [MGI Ref ID J:183342]

Eyob H; Ekiz HA; Derose YS; Waltz SE; Williams MA; Welm AL. 2013. Inhibition of ron kinase blocks conversion of micrometastases to overt metastases by boosting antitumor immunity. Cancer Discov 3(7):751-60. [PubMed: 23612011]  [MGI Ref ID J:203569]

Fahlen L; Read S; Gorelik L; Hurst SD; Coffman RL; Flavell RA; Powrie F. 2005. T cells that cannot respond to TGF-{beta} escape control by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. J Exp Med 201(5):737-46. [PubMed: 15753207]  [MGI Ref ID J:96624]

Faleo G; Fotino C; Bocca N; Molano RD; Zahr-Akrawi E; Molina J; Villate S; Umland O; Skyler JS; Bayer AL; Ricordi C; Pileggi A. 2012. Prevention of autoimmune diabetes and induction of beta-cell proliferation in NOD mice by hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Diabetes 61(7):1769-78. [PubMed: 22566533]  [MGI Ref ID J:203601]

Fang R; Ismail N; Walker DH. 2012. Contribution of NK cells to the innate phase of host protection against an intracellular bacterium targeting systemic endothelium. Am J Pathol 181(1):185-95. [PubMed: 22617213]  [MGI Ref ID J:185539]

Farini A; Meregalli M; Belicchi M; Battistelli M; Parolini D; D'Antona G; Gavina M; Ottoboni L; Constantin G; Bottinelli R; Torrente Y. 2007. T and B lymphocyte depletion has a marked effect on the fibrosis of dystrophic skeletal muscles in the scid/mdx mouse. J Pathol 213(2):229-38. [PubMed: 17668421]  [MGI Ref ID J:125527]

Farini A; Sitzia C; Navarro C; D'Antona G; Belicchi M; Parolini D; Del Fraro G; Razini P; Bottinelli R; Meregalli M; Torrente Y. 2012. Absence of T and B lymphocytes modulates dystrophic features in dysferlin deficient animal model. Exp Cell Res 318(10):1160-74. [PubMed: 22465227]  [MGI Ref ID J:186460]

Fernandez NC; Lozier A; Flament C; Ricciardi-Castagnoli P; Bellet D; Suter M; Perricaudet M; Tursz T; Maraskovsky E; Zitvogel L. 1999. Dendritic cells directly trigger NK cell functions: cross-talk relevant in innate anti-tumor immune responses in vivo. Nat Med 5(4):405-11. [PubMed: 10202929]  [MGI Ref ID J:54135]

Fiorucci S; Mencarelli A; Palazzetti B; Sprague AG; Distrutti E; Morelli A; Novobrantseva TI; Cirino G; Koteliansky VE; de Fougerolles AR. 2002. Importance of innate immunity and collagen binding integrin alpha1beta1 in TNBS-induced colitis. Immunity 17(6):769-80. [PubMed: 12479823]  [MGI Ref ID J:113581]

Flanagan K; Modrusan Z; Cornelius J; Chavali A; Kasman I; Komuves L; Mo L; Diehl L. 2008. Intestinal Epithelial Cell Up-Regulation of LY6 Molecules during Colitis Results in Enhanced Chemokine Secretion. J Immunol 180(6):3874-81. [PubMed: 18322195]  [MGI Ref ID J:133031]

Flesken-Nikitin A; Hwang CI; Cheng CY; Michurina TV; Enikolopov G; Nikitin AY. 2013. Ovarian surface epithelium at the junction area contains a cancer-prone stem cell niche. Nature 495(7440):241-5. [PubMed: 23467088]  [MGI Ref ID J:194916]

Fogler WE; Volker K; Watanabe M; Wigginton JM; Roessler P; Brunda MJ; Ortaldo JR; Wiltrout RH. 1998. Recruitment of hepatic NK cells by IL-12 is dependent on IFN-gamma and VCAM-1 and is rapidly down-regulated by a mechanism involving T cells and expression of Fas. J Immunol 161(11):6014-21. [PubMed: 9834083]  [MGI Ref ID J:115033]

Foquet L; Hermsen CC; van Gemert GJ; Van Braeckel E; Weening KE; Sauerwein R; Meuleman P; Leroux-Roels G. 2014. Vaccine-induced monoclonal antibodies targeting circumsporozoite protein prevent Plasmodium falciparum infection. J Clin Invest 124(1):140-4. [PubMed: 24292709]  [MGI Ref ID J:207925]

Forbes JM; Soderlund J; Yap FY; Knip M; Andrikopoulos S; Ilonen J; Simell O; Veijola R; Sourris KC; Coughlan MT; Forsblom C; Slattery R; Grey ST; Wessman M; Yamamoto H; Bierhaus A; Cooper ME; Groop PH. 2011. Receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) provides a link between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia :. [PubMed: 21298413]  [MGI Ref ID J:169600]

Ford ML; Evavold BD. 2006. Modulation of MOG 37-50-specific CD8+ T cell activation and expansion by CD43. Cell Immunol 240(1):53-61. [PubMed: 16890924]  [MGI Ref ID J:112761]

Fortner KA; Lees RK; Macdonald HR; Budd RC. 2011. Fas (CD95/APO-1) limits the expansion of T lymphocytes in an environment of limited T-cell antigen receptor/MHC contacts. Int Immunol 23(2):75-88. [PubMed: 21266499]  [MGI Ref ID J:168554]

Fournier B; Murray B; Gutzwiller S; Marcaletti S; Marcellin D; Bergling S; Brachat S; Persohn E; Pierrel E; Bombard F; Hatakeyama S; Trendelenburg AU; Morvan F; Richardson B; Glass DJ; Lach-Trifilieff E; Feige JN. 2012. Blockade of the activin receptor IIb activates functional brown adipogenesis and thermogenesis by inducing mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Mol Cell Biol 32(14):2871-9. [PubMed: 22586266]  [MGI Ref ID J:186659]

Franco S; Murphy MM; Li G; Borjeson T; Boboila C; Alt FW. 2008. DNA-PKcs and Artemis function in the end-joining phase of immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination. J Exp Med 205(3):557-64. [PubMed: 18316419]  [MGI Ref ID J:133132]

Frese M; Lee E; Larena M; Lim PS; Rao S; Matthaei KI; Khromykh A; Ramshaw I; Lobigs M. 2014. Internal ribosome entry site-based attenuation of a flavivirus candidate vaccine and evaluation of the effect of Beta interferon coexpression on vaccine properties. J Virol 88(4):2056-70. [PubMed: 24307589]  [MGI Ref ID J:205265]

Friswell MK; Gika H; Stratford IJ; Theodoridis G; Telfer B; Wilson ID; McBain AJ. 2010. Site and strain-specific variation in gut microbiota profiles and metabolism in experimental mice. PLoS One 5(1):e8584. [PubMed: 20052418]  [MGI Ref ID J:157249]

Fukunaga-Kalabis M; Martinez G; Nguyen TK; Kim D; Santiago-Walker A; Roesch A; Herlyn M. 2010. Tenascin-C promotes melanoma progression by maintaining the ABCB5-positive side population. Oncogene 29(46):6115-24. [PubMed: 20729912]  [MGI Ref ID J:166563]

Fulop GM; Phillips RA. 1986. Full reconstitution of the immune deficiency in scid mice with normal stem cells requires low-dose irradiation of the recipients. J Immunol 136(12):4438-43. [PubMed: 3519770]  [MGI Ref ID J:8299]

Fyfe AI; Qiao JH; Lusis AJ. 1994. Immune-deficient mice develop typical atherosclerotic fatty streaks when fed an atherogenic diet. J Clin Invest 94(6):2516-20. [PubMed: 7989611]  [MGI Ref ID J:22138]

Gallo-Hendrikx E; Percy D; Copps J; McKeown B; Quinton M; McMillan I; Croy BA; Wildeman AG. 1999. Evaluation of three lines of immunodeficient mice for the study of spontaneous metastatic tumors. APMIS 107(2):245-56. [PubMed: 10225324]  [MGI Ref ID J:54114]

Ganley L; Babu S; Rajan TV. 2001. Course of Brugia malayi infection in C57BL/6J NOS2 +/+ and -/- mice. Exp Parasitol 98(1):35-43. [PubMed: 11426950]  [MGI Ref ID J:102684]

Garcia-Barros M; Thin TH; Maj J; Cordon-Cardo C; Haimovitz-Friedman A; Fuks Z; Kolesnick R. 2010. Impact of stromal sensitivity on radiation response of tumors implanted in SCID hosts revisited. Cancer Res 70(20):8179-86. [PubMed: 20924105]  [MGI Ref ID J:165564]

Garcia-Rivera MF; Colvin-Wanshura LE; Nelson MS; Nan Z; Khan SA; Rogers TB; Maitra I; Low WC; Gupta P. 2007. Characterization of an immunodeficient mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I suitable for preclinical testing of human stem cell and gene therapy. Brain Res Bull 74(6):429-38. [PubMed: 17920451]  [MGI Ref ID J:139626]

Gawronska-Kozak B; Bogacki M; Rim JS; Monroe WT; Manuel JA. 2006. Scarless skin repair in immunodeficient mice. Wound Repair Regen 14(3):265-76. [PubMed: 16808805]  [MGI Ref ID J:135709]

Gelman AE; LaRosa DF; Zhang J; Walsh PT; Choi Y; Sunyer JO; Turka LA. 2006. The adaptor molecule MyD88 activates PI-3 kinase signaling in CD4+ T cells and enables CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated costimulation. Immunity 25(5):783-93. [PubMed: 17055754]  [MGI Ref ID J:116106]

Gerling IC; Friedman H; Greiner DL; Shultz LD; Leiter EH. 1994. Multiple low-dose streptozocin-induced diabetes in NOD-scid/scid mice in the absence of functional lymphocytes. Diabetes 43(3):433-40. [PubMed: 8314017]  [MGI Ref ID J:16998]

Gesina E; Blondeau B; Milet A; Le Nin I; Duchene B; Czernichow P; Scharfmann R; Tronche F; Breant B. 2006. Glucocorticoid signalling affects pancreatic development through both direct and indirect effects. Diabetologia 49(12):2939-47. [PubMed: 17001468]  [MGI Ref ID J:147261]

Gittens JE; Barr KJ; Vanderhyden BC; Kidder GM. 2005. Interplay between paracrine signaling and gap junctional communication in ovarian follicles. J Cell Sci 118(Pt 1):113-22. [PubMed: 15585573]  [MGI Ref ID J:94692]

Gladdy RA; Nutter LM; Kunath T; Danska JS; Guidos CJ. 2006. p53-Independent apoptosis disrupts early organogenesis in embryos lacking both ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Prkdc. Mol Cancer Res 4(5):311-8. [PubMed: 16687486]  [MGI Ref ID J:108789]

Gladdy RA; Taylor MD; Williams CJ; Grandal I; Karaskova J; Squire JA; Rutka JT; Guidos CJ; Danska JS. 2003. The RAG-1/2 endonuclease causes genomic instability and controls CNS complications of lymphoblastic leukemia in p53/Prkdc-deficient mice. Cancer Cell 3(1):37-50. [PubMed: 12559174]  [MGI Ref ID J:81538]

Glimm H; Eisterer W; Lee K; Cashman J; Holyoake TL; Nicolini F; Shultz LD; von Kalle C; Eaves CJ. 2001. Previously undetected human hematopoietic cell populations with short-term repopulating activity selectively engraft NOD/SCID-beta2 microglobulin-null mice. J Clin Invest 107(2):199-206. [PubMed: 11160136]  [MGI Ref ID J:66974]

Goldstein AS; Huang J; Guo C; Garraway IP; Witte ON. 2010. Identification of a cell of origin for human prostate cancer. Science 329(5991):568-71. [PubMed: 20671189]  [MGI Ref ID J:162606]

Gorantla S; Makarov E; Finke-Dwyer J; Gebhart CL; Domm W; Dewhurst S; Gendelman HE; Poluektova LY. 2010. CD8+ cell depletion accelerates HIV-1 immunopathology in humanized mice. J Immunol 184(12):7082-91. [PubMed: 20495069]  [MGI Ref ID J:161304]

Graff RJ. 1970. Polymorphism of histocompatibility genes in the mouse. Transplant Proc 2(1):15-23. [PubMed: 4107291]  [MGI Ref ID J:5237]

Graser RT; DiLorenzo TP; Wang F; Christianson GJ; Chapman HD; Roopenian DC; Nathenson SG; Serreze DV. 2000. Identification of a CD8 T cell that can independently mediate autoimmune diabetes development in the complete absence of CD4 T cell helper functions. J Immunol 164(7):3913-8. [PubMed: 10725754]  [MGI Ref ID J:93553]

Gray CA; Lawrence RA. 2002. A role for antibody and Fc receptor in the clearance of Brugia malayi microfilariae. Eur J Immunol 32(4):1114-20. [PubMed: 11920579]  [MGI Ref ID J:115364]

Green-Mitchell SM; Tersey SA; Cole BK; Ma K; Kuhn NS; Cunningham TD; Maybee NA; Chakrabarti SK; McDuffie M; Taylor-Fishwick DA; Mirmira RG; Nadler JL; Morris MA. 2013. Deletion of 12/15-lipoxygenase alters macrophage and islet function in NOD-Alox15(null) mice, leading to protection against type 1 diabetes development. PLoS One 8(2):e56763. [PubMed: 23437231]  [MGI Ref ID J:197192]

Grenningloh R; Kang BY; Ho IC. 2005. Ets-1, a functional cofactor of T-bet, is essential for Th1 inflammatory responses. J Exp Med 201(4):615-26. [PubMed: 15728239]  [MGI Ref ID J:96627]

Guay HM; Andreyeva TA; Garcea RL; Welsh RM; Szomolanyi-Tsuda E. 2007. MyD88 is required for the formation of long-term humoral immunity to virus infection. J Immunol 178(8):5124-31. [PubMed: 17404295]  [MGI Ref ID J:145278]

Guay HM; Panarey L; Reed AJ; Caton AJ. 2004. Specificity-based negative selection of autoreactive B cells during memory formation. J Immunol 173(9):5485-94. [PubMed: 15494496]  [MGI Ref ID J:93744]

Guidos CJ; Williams CJ; Grandal I; Knowles G; Huang MT; Danska JS. 1996. V(D)J recombination activates a p53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint in scid lymphocyte precursors. Genes Dev 10(16):2038-54. [PubMed: 8769647]  [MGI Ref ID J:102044]

Gurley KE; Kemp CJ. 2001. Synthetic lethality between mutation in Atm and DNA-PK(cs) during murine embryogenesis. Curr Biol 11(3):191-4. [PubMed: 11231155]  [MGI Ref ID J:67533]

Gurley KE; Vo K; Kemp CJ. 1998. DNA double-strand breaks, p53, and apoptosis during lymphomagenesis in scid/scid mice. Cancer Res 58(14):3111-5. [PubMed: 9679979]  [MGI Ref ID J:49372]

Haks MC; Belkowski SM; Ciofani M; Rhodes M; Lefebvre JM; Trop S; Hugo P; Zuniga-Pflucker JC; Wiest DL. 2003. Low activation threshold as a mechanism for ligand-independent signaling in pre-T cells. J Immunol 170(6):2853-61. [PubMed: 12626535]  [MGI Ref ID J:126301]

Haks MC; Krimpenfort P; van den Brakel JH; Kruisbeek AM. 1999. Pre-TCR signaling and inactivation of p53 induces crucial cell survival pathways in pre-T cells. Immunity 11(1):91-101. [PubMed: 10435582]  [MGI Ref ID J:110456]

Halim TY; Maclaren A; Romanish MT; Gold MJ; McNagny KM; Takei F. 2012. Retinoic-Acid-receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor alpha is required for natural helper cell development and allergic inflammation. Immunity 37(3):463-74. [PubMed: 22981535]  [MGI Ref ID J:187662]

Halin C; Tobler NE; Vigl B; Brown LF; Detmar M. 2007. VEGF-A produced by chronically inflamed tissue induces lymphangiogenesis in draining lymph nodes. Blood 110(9):3158-67. [PubMed: 17625067]  [MGI Ref ID J:148904]

Haller BL; Barkon ML; Vogler GP; Virgin HW 4th. 1995. Genetic mapping of reovirus virulence and organ tropism in severe combined immunodeficient mice: organ-specific virulence genes. J Virol 69(1):357-64. [PubMed: 7983730]  [MGI Ref ID J:21933]

Han D; Walsh MC; Cejas PJ; Dang NN; Kim YF; Kim J; Charrier-Hisamuddin L; Chau L; Zhang Q; Bittinger K; Bushman FD; Turka LA; Shen H; Reizis B; Defranco AL; Wu GD; Choi Y. 2013. Dendritic cell expression of the signaling molecule TRAF6 is critical for gut microbiota-dependent immune tolerance. Immunity 38(6):1211-22. [PubMed: 23791643]  [MGI Ref ID J:207581]

Hande P; Slijepcevic P; Silver A; Bouffler S; van Buul P; Bryant P ; Lansdorp P. 1999. Elongated telomeres in scid mice. Genomics 56(2):221-3. [PubMed: 10051409]  [MGI Ref ID J:53579]

Hanks BA; Holtzhausen A; Evans KS; Jamieson R; Gimpel P; Campbell OM; Hector-Greene M; Sun L; Tewari A; George A; Starr M; Nixon A; Augustine C; Beasley G; Tyler DS; Osada T; Morse MA; Ling L; Lyerly HK; Blobe GC. 2013. Type III TGF-beta receptor downregulation generates an immunotolerant tumor microenvironment. J Clin Invest 123(9):3925-40. [PubMed: 23925295]  [MGI Ref ID J:201617]

Harkness RE; Guimond MJ; McBey BA; Klein MH; Percy DH; Croy BA. 1993. Branhamella catarrhalis pathogenesis in SCID and SCID/beige mice. Brief report. APMIS 101(10):805-10. [PubMed: 8267959]  [MGI Ref ID J:16050]

Harris WJ; Huang X; Lynch JT; Spencer GJ; Hitchin JR; Li Y; Ciceri F; Blaser JG; Greystoke BF; Jordan AM; Miller CJ; Ogilvie DJ; Somervaille TC. 2012. The histone demethylase KDM1A sustains the oncogenic potential of MLL-AF9 leukemia stem cells. Cancer Cell 21(4):473-87. [PubMed: 22464800]  [MGI Ref ID J:189339]

Hasegawa M; Kawai K; Mitsui T; Taniguchi K; Monnai M; Wakui M; Ito M; Suematsu M; Peltz G; Nakamura M; Suemizu H. 2011. The reconstituted 'humanized liver' in TK-NOG mice is mature and functional. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 405(3):405-10. [PubMed: 21238430]  [MGI Ref ID J:170638]

Hastey CJ; Elsner RA; Barthold SW; Baumgarth N. 2012. Delays and diversions mark the development of B cell responses to Borrelia burgdorferi infection. J Immunol 188(11):5612-22. [PubMed: 22547698]  [MGI Ref ID J:188726]

Hayashi Y; Haneji N; Hamano H; Yanagi K. 1994. Transfer of Sjogren's syndrome-like autoimmune lesions into SCID mice and prevention of lesions by anti-CD4 and anti-T cell receptor antibody treatment. Eur J Immunol 24(11):2826-31. [PubMed: 7957574]  [MGI Ref ID J:21965]

Hayward AR; Chmura K; Cosyns M. 2000. Interferon-gamma is required for innate immunity to Cryptosporidium parvum in mice. J Infect Dis 182(3):1001-4. [PubMed: 10950807]  [MGI Ref ID J:125986]

He J; Haskins K. 2008. Pathogenicity of T helper 2 T-cell clones from T-cell receptor transgenic non-obese diabetic mice is determined by tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Immunology 123(1):108-17. [PubMed: 17983440]  [MGI Ref ID J:134900]

He Q; Morillon YM 2nd; Spidale NA; Kroger CJ; Liu B; Sartor RB; Wang B; Tisch R. 2013. Thymic development of autoreactive T cells in NOD mice is regulated in an age-dependent manner. J Immunol 191(12):5858-66. [PubMed: 24198282]  [MGI Ref ID J:207147]

Heaney NB; Pellicano F; Zhang B; Crawford L; Chu S; Kazmi SM; Allan EK; Jorgensen HG; Irvine AE; Bhatia R; Holyoake TL. 2010. Bortezomib induces apoptosis in primitive chronic myeloid leukemia cells including LTC-IC and NOD/SCID repopulating cells. Blood 115(11):2241-50. [PubMed: 20068223]  [MGI Ref ID J:162612]

Heine D; Passmore HC; Patel V; Shultz LD; Ward-Bailey P; Cook SA; Davisson MT. 1996. Effect of the mouse scid mutation on meiotic recombination. Mamm Genome 7(7):497-500. [PubMed: 8672126]  [MGI Ref ID J:34473]

Hernandez-Novoa B; Bishop L; Logun C; Munson PJ; Elnekave E; Rangel ZG; Barb J; Danner RL; Kovacs JA. 2008. Immune responses to Pneumocystis murina are robust in healthy mice but largely absent in CD40 ligand-deficient mice. J Leukoc Biol 84(2):420-30. [PubMed: 18467653]  [MGI Ref ID J:138448]

Hertz CJ; Filutowicz H; Mansfield JM. 1998. Resistance to the African trypanosomes is IFN-gamma dependent. J Immunol 161(12):6775-83. [PubMed: 9862708]  [MGI Ref ID J:115095]

Hesselton RM; Greiner DL; Mordes JP; Rajan TV; Sullivan JL; Shultz LD. 1995. High levels of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell engraftment and enhanced susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice. J Infect Dis 172(4):974-82. [PubMed: 7561218]  [MGI Ref ID J:109911]

Hettmer S; Liu J; Miller CM; Lindsay MC; Sparks CA; Guertin DA; Bronson RT; Langenau DM; Wagers AJ. 2011. Sarcomas induced in discrete subsets of prospectively isolated skeletal muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(50):20002-7. [PubMed: 22135462]  [MGI Ref ID J:180528]

Hilbert DM; Anderson AO; Holmes KL; Rudikoff S. 1994. Long-term lymphoid reconstitution of SCID mice suggests self-renewing B and T cell populations in peripheral and mucosal tissues. Transplantation 58(4):466-75. [PubMed: 8073516]  [MGI Ref ID J:19983]

Hioki K; Kuramochi T; Endoh S; Terada E; Ueyama Y; Ito M. 2001. Lack of B cell leakiness in BALB/cA-nu, scid double mutant mice. Exp Anim 50(1):67-72. [PubMed: 11326425]  [MGI Ref ID J:68089]

Hirai H; Verma M; Watanabe S; Tastad C; Asakura Y; Asakura A. 2010. MyoD regulates apoptosis of myoblasts through microRNA-mediated down-regulation of Pax3. J Cell Biol 191(2):347-65. [PubMed: 20956382]  [MGI Ref ID J:165481]

Hiramatsu H; Nishikomori R; Heike T; Ito M; Kobayashi K; Katamura K; Nakahata T. 2003. Complete reconstitution of human lymphocytes from cord blood CD34+ cells using the NOD/SCID/gammacnull mice model. Blood 102(3):873-80. [PubMed: 12689924]  [MGI Ref ID J:163372]

Hofling AA; Vogler C; Creer MH; Sands MS. 2003. Engraftment of human CD34+ cells leads to widespread distribution of donor-derived cells and correction of tissue pathology in a novel murine xenotransplantation model of lysosomal storage disease. Blood 101(5):2054-63. [PubMed: 12406886]  [MGI Ref ID J:109848]

Hoggatt J; Singh P; Sampath J; Pelus LM. 2009. Prostaglandin E2 enhances hematopoietic stem cell homing, survival, and proliferation. Blood 113(22):5444-55. [PubMed: 19324903]  [MGI Ref ID J:148898]

Holland JD; Gyorffy B; Vogel R; Eckert K; Valenti G; Fang L; Lohneis P; Elezkurtaj S; Ziebold U; Birchmeier W. 2013. Combined Wnt/beta-catenin, Met, and CXCL12/CXCR4 signals characterize basal breast cancer and predict disease outcome. Cell Rep 5(5):1214-27. [PubMed: 24290754]  [MGI Ref ID J:206839]

Holm TM; Jackson-Grusby L; Brambrink T; Yamada Y; Rideout WM 3rd; Jaenisch R. 2005. Global loss of imprinting leads to widespread tumorigenesis in adult mice. Cancer Cell 8(4):275-85. [PubMed: 16226703]  [MGI Ref ID J:104860]

Holodick NE; Vizconde T; Rothstein TL. 2014. B-1a cell diversity: nontemplated addition in B-1a cell Ig is determined by progenitor population and developmental location. J Immunol 192(5):2432-41. [PubMed: 24477911]  [MGI Ref ID J:209818]

Holopainen T; Saharinen P; D'Amico G; Lampinen A; Eklund L; Sormunen R; Anisimov A; Zarkada G; Lohela M; Helotera H; Tammela T; Benjamin LE; Yla-Herttuala S; Leow CC; Koh GY; Alitalo K. 2012. Effects of angiopoietin-2-blocking antibody on endothelial cell-cell junctions and lung metastasis. J Natl Cancer Inst 104(6):461-75. [PubMed: 22343031]  [MGI Ref ID J:184937]

Holt N; Wang J; Kim K; Friedman G; Wang X; Taupin V; Crooks GM; Kohn DB; Gregory PD; Holmes MC; Cannon PM. 2010. Human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells modified by zinc-finger nucleases targeted to CCR5 control HIV-1 in vivo. Nat Biotechnol 28(8):839-47. [PubMed: 20601939]  [MGI Ref ID J:162607]

Hontecillas R; Bassaganya-Riera J. 2007. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma is required for regulatory CD4+ T cell-mediated protection against colitis. J Immunol 178(5):2940-9. [PubMed: 17312139]  [MGI Ref ID J:144105]

Horai R; Nakajima A; Habiro K; Kotani M; Nakae S; Matsuki T; Nambu A; Saijo S; Kotaki H; Sudo K; Okahara A; Tanioka H; Ikuse T; Ishii N; Schwartzberg PL; Abe R; Iwakura Y. 2004. TNF-alpha is crucial for the development of autoimmune arthritis in IL-1 receptor antagonist-deficient mice. J Clin Invest 114(11):1603-11. [PubMed: 15578092]  [MGI Ref ID J:94429]

Hoshino T; Winkler-Pickett RT; Mason AT; Ortaldo JR; Young HA. 1999. IL-13 production by NK cells: IL-13-producing NK and T cells are present in vivo in the absence of IFN-gamma. J Immunol 162(1):51-9. [PubMed: 9886369]  [MGI Ref ID J:112424]

Houghtaling S; Newell A; Akkari Y; Taniguchi T; Olson S; Grompe M. 2005. Fancd2 functions in a double strand break repair pathway that is distinct from non-homologous end joining. Hum Mol Genet 14(20):3027-33. [PubMed: 16135554]  [MGI Ref ID J:102754]

Hsu DM; Agarwal S; Benham A; Coarfa C; Trahan DN; Chen Z; Stowers PN; Courtney AN; Lakoma A; Barbieri E; Metelitsa LS; Gunaratne P; Kim ES; Shohet JM. 2013. G-CSF Receptor Positive Neuroblastoma Subpopulations Are Enriched in Chemotherapy-Resistant or Relapsed Tumors and Are Highly Tumorigenic. Cancer Res 73(13):4134-46. [PubMed: 23687340]  [MGI Ref ID J:199119]

Hu Z; Van Rooijen N; Yang YG. 2011. Macrophages prevent human red blood cell reconstitution in immunodeficient mice. Blood 118(22):5938-46. [PubMed: 21926352]  [MGI Ref ID J:178783]

Hua C; Chang B; Ma B-L; Li Y; Wang G. 1992. Reduction of lymphokine-activated killer cell activity by the introduction of the beige gene into SCID mice ILAR News 34(1-2):S15-S16.  [MGI Ref ID J:2627]

Huang P; Huo Y; Lou LX; Li H; Barnstable CJ; Zhang C; Zhang SS. 2013. CD4 positive T helper cells contribute to retinal ganglion cell death in mouse model of ischemia reperfusion injury. Exp Eye Res 115:131-9. [PubMed: 23792169]  [MGI Ref ID J:210412]

Hubner A; Mulholland DJ; Standen CL; Karasarides M; Cavanagh-Kyros J; Barrett T; Chi H; Greiner DL; Tournier C; Sawyers CL; Flavell RA; Wu H; Davis RJ. 2012. JNK and PTEN cooperatively control the development of invasive adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(30):12046-51. [PubMed: 22753496]  [MGI Ref ID J:186492]

Hubner MP; Shi Y; Torrero MN; Mueller E; Larson D; Soloviova K; Gondorf F; Hoerauf A; Killoran KE; Stocker JT; Davies SJ; Tarbell KV; Mitre E. 2012. Helminth protection against autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice is independent of a type 2 immune shift and requires TGF-beta. J Immunol 188(2):559-68. [PubMed: 22174447]  [MGI Ref ID J:180789]

Hugues S; Mougneau E; Ferlin W; Jeske D; Hofman P; Homann D; Beaudoin L; Schrike C; Von Herrath M; Lehuen A; Glaichenhaus N. 2002. Tolerance to islet antigens and prevention from diabetes induced by limited apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells. Immunity 16(2):169-81. [PubMed: 11869679]  [MGI Ref ID J:132052]

Hull ML; Johan MZ; Hodge WL; Robertson SA; Ingman WV. 2012. Host-derived TGFB1 deficiency suppresses lesion development in a mouse model of endometriosis. Am J Pathol 180(3):880-7. [PubMed: 22210480]  [MGI Ref ID J:181959]

Hunter CA; Ellis-Neyes LA; Slifer T; Kanaly S; Grunig G; Fort M; Rennick D; Araujo FG. 1997. IL-10 is required to prevent immune hyperactivity during infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. J Immunol 158(7):3311-6. [PubMed: 9120288]  [MGI Ref ID J:110835]

Ichimura Y; Waguri S; Sou YS; Kageyama S; Hasegawa J; Ishimura R; Saito T; Yang Y; Kouno T; Fukutomi T; Hoshii T; Hirao A; Takagi K; Mizushima T; Motohashi H; Lee MS; Yoshimori T; Tanaka K; Yamamoto M; Komatsu M. 2013. Phosphorylation of p62 activates the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway during selective autophagy. Mol Cell 51(5):618-31. [PubMed: 24011591]  [MGI Ref ID J:203811]

Ingman WV; Robertson SA. 2008. Mammary gland development in transforming growth factor beta1 null mutant mice: systemic and epithelial effects. Biol Reprod 79(4):711-7. [PubMed: 18614704]  [MGI Ref ID J:140882]

Ingman WV; Robertson SA. 2007. Transforming growth factor-beta1 null mutation causes infertility in male mice associated with testosterone deficiency and sexual dysfunction. Endocrinology 148(8):4032-43. [PubMed: 17478551]  [MGI Ref ID J:129629]

Ingman WV; Robker RL; Woittiez K; Robertson SA. 2006. Null mutation in transforming growth factor beta1 disrupts ovarian function and causes oocyte incompetence and early embryo arrest. Endocrinology 147(2):835-45. [PubMed: 16269452]  [MGI Ref ID J:129446]

Ippolito GC; Hoi KH; Reddy ST; Carroll SM; Ge X; Rogosch T; Zemlin M; Shultz LD; Ellington AD; Vandenberg CL; Georgiou G. 2012. Antibody repertoires in humanized NOD-scid-IL2Rgamma(null) mice and human B cells reveals human-like diversification and tolerance checkpoints in the mouse. PLoS One 7(4):e35497. [PubMed: 22558161]  [MGI Ref ID J:187283]

Ishii T; Zhao Y; Sozer S; Shi J; Zhang W; Hoffman R; Xu M. 2007. Behavior of CD34+ cells isolated from patients with polycythemia vera in NOD/SCID mice. Exp Hematol 35(11):1633-40. [PubMed: 17764815]  [MGI Ref ID J:132540]

Ishii-Ohba H; Kobayashi S; Nishimura M; Shimada Y; Tsuji H; Sado T; Ogiu T. 2007. Existence of a threshold-like dose for gamma-ray induction of thymic lymphomas and no susceptibility to radiation-induced solid tumors in SCID mice. Mutat Res 619(1-2):124-33. [PubMed: 17397880]  [MGI Ref ID J:120953]

Ishikawa F; Yasukawa M; Lyons B; Yoshida S; Miyamoto T; Yoshimoto G; Watanabe T; Akashi K; Shultz LD; Harada M. 2005. Development of functional human blood and immune systems in NOD/SCID/IL2 receptor {gamma} chain(null) mice. Blood 106(5):1565-73. [PubMed: 15920010]  [MGI Ref ID J:142411]

Ito M; Hiramatsu H; Kobayashi K; Suzue K; Kawahata M; Hioki K; Ueyama Y; Koyanagi Y; Sugamura K; Tsuji K; Heike T; Nakahata T. 2002. NOD/SCID/gamma(c)(null) mouse: an excellent recipient mouse model for engraftment of human cells. Blood 100(9):3175-82. [PubMed: 12384415]  [MGI Ref ID J:163373]

Ito R; Katano I; Ida-Tanaka M; Kamisako T; Kawai K; Suemizu H; Aiso S; Ito M. 2012. Efficient xenoengraftment in severe immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid IL2rgammanull mice is attributed to a lack of CD11c+B220+CD122+ cells. J Immunol 189(9):4313-20. [PubMed: 23018460]  [MGI Ref ID J:190612]

Ito R; Negishi N; Irie N; Matsuo K; Suzuki D; Katano I; Hayakawa E; Kawai K; Kamisako T; Eto T; Ogura T; Hozumi K; Ando K; Aiso S; Tamaoki N; Habu S; Ito M. 2012. Osteosclerosis and inhibition of human hematopoiesis in NOG mice expressing human Delta-like 1 in osteoblasts. Exp Hematol 40(11):953-963.e3. [PubMed: 22771497]  [MGI Ref ID J:203591]

Ito R; Takahashi T; Katano I; Kawai K; Kamisako T; Ogura T; Ida-Tanaka M; Suemizu H; Nunomura S; Ra C; Mori A; Aiso S; Ito M. 2013. Establishment of a human allergy model using human IL-3/GM-CSF-transgenic NOG mice. J Immunol 191(6):2890-9. [PubMed: 23956433]  [MGI Ref ID J:205873]

Ito T; Seyama T; Kyoizumi S; Teraoka S; Iwamoto KS; Mizuno T; Tsuyama N; Asahara T; Dohi K; Akiyama M. 1995. The usefulness of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice to study human carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 88(1):113-7. [PubMed: 7850767]  [MGI Ref ID J:23712]

Iwai H; Abe M; Hirose S; Tsushima F; Tezuka K; Akiba H; Yagita H; Okumura K; Kohsaka H; Miyasaka N; Azuma M. 2003. Involvement of inducible costimulator-B7 homologous protein costimulatory pathway in murine lupus nephritis. J Immunol 171(6):2848-54. [PubMed: 12960306]  [MGI Ref ID J:120381]

Jaakkola I; Jalkanen S; Hanninen A. 2003. Diabetogenic T cells are primed both in pancreatic and gut-associated lymph nodes in NOD mice. Eur J Immunol 33(12):3255-64. [PubMed: 14635033]  [MGI Ref ID J:87142]

Jaeschke A; Rincon M; Doran B; Reilly J; Neuberg D; Greiner DL; Shultz LD; Rossini AA; Flavell RA; Davis RJ. 2005. Disruption of the Jnk2 (Mapk9) gene reduces destructive insulitis and diabetes in a mouse model of type I diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(19):6931-5. [PubMed: 15867147]  [MGI Ref ID J:99056]

Jaiswal S; Pearson T; Friberg H; Shultz LD; Greiner DL; Rothman AL; Mathew A. 2009. Dengue virus infection and virus-specific HLA-A2 restricted immune responses in humanized NOD-scid IL2rgammanull mice. PLoS One 4(10):e7251. [PubMed: 19802382]  [MGI Ref ID J:154110]

Janes MR; Limon JJ; So L; Chen J; Lim RJ; Chavez MA; Vu C; Lilly MB; Mallya S; Ong ST; Konopleva M; Martin MB; Ren P; Liu Y; Rommel C; Fruman DA. 2010. Effective and selective targeting of leukemia cells using a TORC1/2 kinase inhibitor. Nat Med 16(2):205-13. [PubMed: 20072130]  [MGI Ref ID J:162611]

Jimenez de Bagues MP; de Martino A; Quintana JF; Alcaraz A; Pardo J. 2011. Course of Infection with the Emergent Pathogen Brucella microti in Immunocompromised Mice. Infect Immun 79(10):3934-9. [PubMed: 21825066]  [MGI Ref ID J:175995]

Johnson RM; Papp E; Grandal I; Kowalski PE; Nutter L; Wong RC; Joseph-George AM; Danska JS; Guidos CJ. 2014. MuLV-related endogenous retroviral elements and Flt3 participate in aberrant end-joining events that promote B-cell leukemogenesis. Genes Dev 28(11):1179-90. [PubMed: 24888589]  [MGI Ref ID J:211638]

Jones-Carson J; Vazquez-Torres A; Balish E. 1995. Defective killing of Candida albicans hyphae by neutrophils from beige mice. J Infect Dis 171(6):1664-7. [PubMed: 7769315]  [MGI Ref ID J:25930]

Juelke K; Killig M; Luetke-Eversloh M; Parente E; Gruen J; Morandi B; Ferlazzo G; Thiel A; Schmitt-Knosalla I; Romagnani C. 2010. CD62L expression identifies a unique subset of polyfunctional CD56dim NK cells. Blood 116(8):1299-307. [PubMed: 20505160]  [MGI Ref ID J:163485]

Jun HS; Santamaria P; Lim HW; Zhang ML; Yoon JW. 1999. Absolute requirement of macrophages for the development and activation of beta-cell cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells in T-cell receptor transgenic NOD mice. Diabetes 48(1):34-42. [PubMed: 9892220]  [MGI Ref ID J:108751]

Kagari T; Doi H; Shimozato T. 2002. The importance of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha, and the noninvolvement of IL-6, in the development of monoclonal antibody-induced arthritis. J Immunol 169(3):1459-66. [PubMed: 12133972]  [MGI Ref ID J:120707]

Kahiri CN; Khalil MW; Tekpetey F; Kidder GM. 2006. Leydig cell function in mice lacking connexin43. Reproduction 132(4):607-616. [PubMed: 17008472]  [MGI Ref ID J:112888]

Kalaany NY; Sabatini DM. 2009. Tumours with PI3K activation are resistant to dietary restriction. Nature 458(7239):725-31. [PubMed: 19279572]  [MGI Ref ID J:147281]

Kalscheuer H; Onoe T; Dahmani A; Li HW; Holzl M; Yamada K; Sykes M. 2014. Xenograft tolerance and immune function of human T cells developing in pig thymus xenografts. J Immunol 192(7):3442-50. [PubMed: 24591363]  [MGI Ref ID J:209878]

Kariya R; Taura M; Suzu S; Kai H; Katano H; Okada S. 2014. HIV protease inhibitor Lopinavir induces apoptosis of primary effusion lymphoma cells via suppression of NF-kappaB pathway. Cancer Lett 342(1):52-9. [PubMed: 24012878]  [MGI Ref ID J:204517]

Katakura K; Lee J; Rachmilewitz D; Li G; Eckmann L; Raz E. 2005. Toll-like receptor 9-induced type I IFN protects mice from experimental colitis. J Clin Invest 115(3):695-702. [PubMed: 15765149]  [MGI Ref ID J:110027]

Katakura T; Yoshida T; Kobayashi M; Herndon DN; Suzuki F. 2005. Immunological control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in an immunodeficient murine model of thermal injuries. Clin Exp Immunol 142(3):419-25. [PubMed: 16297152]  [MGI Ref ID J:107603]

Kawaguchi-Miyashita M; Shimada S; Kurosu H; Kato-Nagaoka N; Matsuoka Y; Ohwaki M; Ishikawa H; Nanno M. 2001. An accessory role of TCRgammadelta (+) cells in the exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease in TCRalpha mutant mice. Eur J Immunol 31(4):980-8. [PubMed: 11298322]  [MGI Ref ID J:68810]

Kawahara M; Pandolfi A; Bartholdy B; Barreyro L; Will B; Roth M; Okoye-Okafor UC; Todorova TI; Figueroa ME; Melnick A; Mitsiades CS; Steidl U. 2012. H2.0-like homeobox regulates early hematopoiesis and promotes acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Cell 22(2):194-208. [PubMed: 22897850]  [MGI Ref ID J:191823]

Kayama H; Ueda Y; Sawa Y; Jeon SG; Ma JS; Okumura R; Kubo A; Ishii M; Okazaki T; Murakami M; Yamamoto M; Yagita H; Takeda K. 2012. Intestinal CX3C chemokine receptor 1high (CX3CR1high) myeloid cells prevent T-cell-dependent colitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(13):5010-5. [PubMed: 22403066]  [MGI Ref ID J:182225]

Kazerounian S; Gerald D; Huang M; Chin YR; Udayakumar D; Zheng N; O'Donnell RK; Perruzzi C; Mangiante L; Pourat J; Phung TL; Bravo-Nuevo A; Shechter S; McNamara S; Duhadaway JB; Kocher ON; Brown LF; Toker A; Prendergast GC; Benjamin LE. 2013. RhoB differentially controls Akt function in tumor cells and stromal endothelial cells during breast tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 73(1):50-61. [PubMed: 23135917]  [MGI Ref ID J:194113]

Kelly MN; Zheng M; Ruan S; Kolls J; D'Souza A; Shellito JE. 2013. Memory CD4+ T Cells Are Required for Optimal NK Cell Effector Functions against the Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Pneumocystis murina. J Immunol 190(1):285-95. [PubMed: 23203926]  [MGI Ref ID J:190830]

Kemp CJ; Vo K; Gurley KE. 1999. Resistance to skin tumorigenesis in DNAPK-deficient SCID mice is not due to immunodeficiency but results from hypersensitivity to TPA-induced apoptosis. Carcinogenesis 20(11):2051-6. [PubMed: 10545405]  [MGI Ref ID J:58425]

Khaled AR; Li WQ; Huang J; Fry TJ; Khaled AS; Mackall CL; Muegge K; Young HA; Durum SK. 2002. Bax deficiency partially corrects interleukin-7 receptor alpha deficiency. Immunity 17(5):561-73. [PubMed: 12433363]  [MGI Ref ID J:93139]

Kharbanda S; Pandey P; Jin S; Inoue S; Bharti A; Yuan ZM; Weichselbaum R; Weaver D; Kufe D. 1997. Functional interaction between DNA-PK and c-Abl in response to DNA damage. Nature 386(6626):732-5. [PubMed: 9109492]  [MGI Ref ID J:116399]

Kiaris H; Chatzistamou I; Trimis G; Frangou-Plemmenou M; Pafiti-Kondi A; Kalofoutis A. 2005. Evidence for nonautonomous effect of p53 tumor suppressor in carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 65(5):1627-30. [PubMed: 15753354]  [MGI Ref ID J:97031]

Kiefer K; Nakajima PB; Oshinsky J; Seeholzer SH; Radic M; Bosma GC; Bosma MJ. 2008. Antigen receptor editing in anti-DNA transitional B cells deficient for surface IgM. J Immunol 180(9):6094-106. [PubMed: 18424731]  [MGI Ref ID J:160356]

Kiefer K; Oshinsky J; Kim J; Nakajima PB; Bosma GC; Bosma MJ. 2007. The catalytic subunit of DNA-protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is not required for Ig class-switch recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(8):2843-8. [PubMed: 17296939]  [MGI Ref ID J:125895]

Kim KD; Srikanth S; Yee MK; Mock DC; Lawson GW; Gwack Y. 2011. ORAI1 deficiency impairs activated T cell death and enhances T cell survival. J Immunol 187(7):3620-30. [PubMed: 21873530]  [MGI Ref ID J:179333]

Kim S; Dubrovska A; Salamone RJ; Walker JR; Grandinetti KB; Bonamy GM; Orth AP; Elliott J; Porta DG; Garcia-Echeverria C; Reddy VA. 2013. FGFR2 promotes breast tumorigenicity through maintenance of breast tumor-initiating cells. PLoS One 8(1):e51671. [PubMed: 23300950]  [MGI Ref ID J:195822]

King MA; Covassin L; Brehm MA; Racki W; Pearson T; Leif J; Laning J; Fodor W; Foreman O; Burzenski L; Chase TH; Gott B; Rossini AA; Bortell R; Shultz LD; Greiner DL. 2009. Human peripheral blood leucocyte non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene mouse model of xenogeneic graft-versus-host-like disease and the role of host major histocompatibility complex. Clin Exp Immunol 157(1):104-18. [PubMed: 19659776]  [MGI Ref ID J:151390]

Kitamura K; Nakamoto Y; Kaneko S; Mukaida N. 2004. Pivotal roles of interleukin-6 in transmural inflammation in murine T cell transfer colitis. J Leukoc Biol 76(6):1111-7. [PubMed: 15339938]  [MGI Ref ID J:94173]

Kitaura H; Zhou P; Kim HJ; Novack DV; Ross FP; Teitelbaum SL. 2005. M-CSF mediates TNF-induced inflammatory osteolysis. J Clin Invest 115(12):3418-27. [PubMed: 16294221]  [MGI Ref ID J:104533]

Klein MA; Frigg R; Flechsig E; Raeber AJ; Kalinke U; Bluethmann H; Bootz F; Suter M; Zinkernagel RM; Aguzzi A. 1997. A crucial role for B cells in neuroinvasive scrapie [see comments] Nature 390(6661):687-90. [PubMed: 9414161]  [MGI Ref ID J:44933]

Klug F; Prakash H; Huber PE; Seibel T; Bender N; Halama N; Pfirschke C; Voss RH; Timke C; Umansky L; Klapproth K; Schakel K; Garbi N; Jager D; Weitz J; Schmitz-Winnenthal H; Hammerling GJ; Beckhove P. 2013. Low-dose irradiation programs macrophage differentiation to an iNOS(+)/M1 phenotype that orchestrates effective T cell immunotherapy. Cancer Cell 24(5):589-602. [PubMed: 24209604]  [MGI Ref ID J:206743]

Kobayashi M; Nakamura K; Cornforth M; Suzuki F. 2012. Role of M2b macrophages in the acceleration of bacterial translocation and subsequent sepsis in mice exposed to whole body [137Cs] gamma-irradiation. J Immunol 189(1):296-303. [PubMed: 22664870]  [MGI Ref ID J:188934]

Kodama T; Hikita H; Kawaguchi T; Saito Y; Tanaka S; Shigekawa M; Shimizu S; Li W; Miyagi T; Kanto T; Hiramatsu N; Tatsumi T; Takehara T. 2013. The Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins Bim and bid are functionally active and restrained by anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins in healthy liver. J Biol Chem 288(42):30009-18. [PubMed: 23986435]  [MGI Ref ID J:203931]

Kometani K; Aoki M; Kawamata S; Shinozuka Y; Era T; Taniwaki M; Hattori M; Minato N. 2006. Role of SPA-1 in phenotypes of chronic myelogenous leukemia induced by BCR-ABL-expressing hematopoietic progenitors in a mouse model. Cancer Res 66(20):9967-76. [PubMed: 17047059]  [MGI Ref ID J:114993]

Kong L; Robinson CP; Peck AB; Vela-Roch N; Sakata KM; Dang H; Talal N; Humphreys-Beher MG. 1998. Inappropriate apoptosis of salivary and lacrimal gland epithelium of immunodeficient NOD-scid mice. Clin Exp Rheumatol 16(6):675-81. [PubMed: 9844759]  [MGI Ref ID J:53650]

Kota DJ; Wiggins LL; Yoon N; Lee RH. 2013. TSG-6 produced by hMSCs delays the onset of autoimmune diabetes by suppressing Th1 development and enhancing tolerogenicity. Diabetes 62(6):2048-58. [PubMed: 23349496]  [MGI Ref ID J:208563]

Kumar P; Ban HS; Kim SS; Wu H; Pearson T; Greiner DL; Laouar A; Yao J; Haridas V; Habiro K; Yang YG; Jeong JH; Lee KY; Kim YH; Kim SW; Peipp M; Fey GH; Manjunath N; Shultz LD; Lee SK; Shankar P. 2008. T cell-specific siRNA delivery suppresses HIV-1 infection in humanized mice. Cell 134(4):577-86. [PubMed: 18691745]  [MGI Ref ID J:142409]

Kunisawa J; Gohda M; Kurashima Y; Ishikawa I; Higuchi M; Kiyono H. 2008. Sphingosine 1-phosphate-dependent trafficking of peritoneal B cells requires functional NF{kappa}B-inducing kinase in stromal cells. Blood 111(9):4646-52. [PubMed: 18292290]  [MGI Ref ID J:134340]

Kupfer TM; Crawford ML; Pham K; Gill RG. 2005. MHC-mismatched islet allografts are vulnerable to autoimmune recognition in vivo. J Immunol 175(4):2309-16. [PubMed: 16081800]  [MGI Ref ID J:107508]

Kurkjian C; Hollifield M; Lines JL; Rogosky A; Empey KM; Qureshi M; Brown SA; Garvy BA. 2012. Alveolar Macrophages in Neonatal Mice Are Inherently Unresponsive to Pneumocystis murina Infection. Infect Immun 80(8):2835-46. [PubMed: 22665378]  [MGI Ref ID J:186637]

Kwun J; Hu H; Schadde E; Roenneburg D; Sullivan KA; DeMartino J; Burlingham WJ; Knechtle SJ. 2007. Altered distribution of H60 minor H antigen-specific CD8 T cells and attenuated chronic vasculopathy in minor histocompatibility antigen mismatched heart transplantation in Cxcr3-/- mouse recipients. J Immunol 179(12):8016-25. [PubMed: 18056341]  [MGI Ref ID J:155042]

Larcher F; Del Rio M; Serrano F; Segovia JC; Ramirez A; Meana A; Page A; Abad JL; Gonzalez MA; Bueren J; Bernad A; Jorcano JL. 2001. A cutaneous gene therapy approach to human leptin deficiencies: correction of the murine ob/ob phenotype using leptin-targeted keratinocyte grafts. FASEB J 15(9):1529-38. [PubMed: 11427484]  [MGI Ref ID J:115148]

Lazarus JJ; Meadows MJ; Lintner RE; Wooten RM. 2006. IL-10 deficiency promotes increased Borrelia burgdorferi clearance predominantly through enhanced innate immune responses. J Immunol 177(10):7076-85. [PubMed: 17082624]  [MGI Ref ID J:140484]

Lee HM; Wysoczynski M; Liu R; Shin DM; Kucia M; Botto M; Ratajczak J; Ratajczak MZ. 2010. Mobilization studies in complement-deficient mice reveal that optimal AMD3100 mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells depends on complement cascade activation by AMD3100-stimulated granulocytes. Leukemia 24(3):573-82. [PubMed: 20033053]  [MGI Ref ID J:158026]

Lee SM; Yang H; Tartar DM; Gao B; Luo X; Ye SQ; Zaghouani H; Fang D. 2011. Prevention and treatment of diabetes with resveratrol in a non-obese mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia :. [PubMed: 21340626]  [MGI Ref ID J:169586]

Lefevre S; Knedla A; Tennie C; Kampmann A; Wunrau C; Dinser R; Korb A; Schnaker EM; Tarner IH; Robbins PD; Evans CH; Sturz H; Steinmeyer J; Gay S; Scholmerich J; Pap T; Muller-Ladner U; Neumann E. 2009. Synovial fibroblasts spread rheumatoid arthritis to unaffected joints. Nat Med 15(12):1414-20. [PubMed: 19898488]  [MGI Ref ID J:155763]

Leiter EH; Prochazka M; Shultz LD. 1987. Effect of immunodeficiency on diabetogenesis in genetically diabetic (db/db) mice. J Immunol 138(10):3224-9. [PubMed: 3553324]  [MGI Ref ID J:32752]

Leung J; Suh WK. 2013. Host B7-H4 regulates antitumor T cell responses through inhibition of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in a 4T1 tumor transplantation model. J Immunol 190(12):6651-61. [PubMed: 23686485]  [MGI Ref ID J:204842]

Li B; Sharpe EE; Maupin AB; Teleron AA; Pyle AL; Carmeliet P; Young PP. 2006. VEGF and PlGF promote adult vasculogenesis by enhancing EPC recruitment and vessel formation at the site of tumor neovascularization. FASEB J 20(9):1495-7. [PubMed: 16754748]  [MGI Ref ID J:111344]

Li CR; Mueller EE; Bradley LM. 2014. Islet antigen-specific Th17 cells can induce TNF-alpha-dependent autoimmune diabetes. J Immunol 192(4):1425-32. [PubMed: 24446517]  [MGI Ref ID J:209355]

Li E; Zhou P; Singer SM. 2006. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase is necessary for elimination of Giardia lamblia infections in mice. J Immunol 176(1):516-21. [PubMed: 16365445]  [MGI Ref ID J:126256]

Li G; Zhang L; Chen E; Wang J; Jiang X; Chen JH; Wickman G; Amundson K; Bergqvist S; Zobel J; Buckman D; Baxi SM; Bender SL; Casperson GF; Hu-Lowe DD. 2010. Dual functional monoclonal antibody PF-04605412 targets integrin alpha5beta1 and elicits potent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Cancer Res 70(24):10243-54. [PubMed: 21159645]  [MGI Ref ID J:167600]

Li SW; Koya V; Li Y; Donelan W; Lin P; Reeves WH; Yang LJ. 2010. Pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 protein is a novel beta-cell-specific autoantigen for type I diabetes. Lab Invest 90(1):31-9. [PubMed: 19901909]  [MGI Ref ID J:156607]

Li T; Ramirez K; Palacios R. 1996. Distinct patterns of Fas cell surface expression during development of T- or B-lymphocyte lineages in normal, scid, and mutant mice lacking or overexpressing p53, bcl-2, or rag-2 genes. Cell Growth Differ 7(1):107-14. [PubMed: 8788039]  [MGI Ref ID J:31364]

Li X; Sterling JA; Fan KH; Vessella RL; Shyr Y; Hayward SW; Matrisian LM; Bhowmick NA. 2012. Loss of TGF-beta responsiveness in prostate stromal cells alters chemokine levels and facilitates the development of mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic bone lesions. Mol Cancer Res 10(4):494-503. [PubMed: 22290877]  [MGI Ref ID J:205394]

Li Y; Su J; Dingzhang X; Zhang J; Yoshimoto M; Liu S; Bijian K; Gupta A; Squire JA; Alaoui Jamali MA; Bismar TA. 2011. PTEN deletion and heme oxygenase-1 overexpression cooperate in prostate cancer progression and are associated with adverse clinical outcome. J Pathol 224(1):90-100. [PubMed: 21381033]  [MGI Ref ID J:171247]

Liao MJ; Zhang XX; Hill R; Gao J; Qumsiyeh MB; Nichols W; Van Dyke T. 1998. No requirement for V(D)J recombination in p53-deficient thymic lymphoma. Mol Cell Biol 18(6):3495-501. [PubMed: 9584189]  [MGI Ref ID J:47667]

Libby SJ; Brehm MA; Greiner DL; Shultz LD; McClelland M; Smith KD; Cookson BT; Karlinsey JE; Kinkel TL; Porwollik S; Canals R; Cummings LA; Fang FC. 2010. Humanized nonobese diabetic-scid IL2rgammanull mice are susceptible to lethal Salmonella Typhi infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(35):15589-94. [PubMed: 20713716]  [MGI Ref ID J:163745]

Liebe B; Petukhova G; Barchi M; Bellani M; Braselmann H; Nakano T; Pandita TK; Jasin M; Fornace A; Meistrich ML; Baarends WM; Schimenti J; de Lange T; Keeney S; Camerini-Otero RD; Scherthan H. 2006. Mutations that affect meiosis in male mice influence the dynamics of the mid-preleptotene and bouquet stages. Exp Cell Res 312(19):3768-81. [PubMed: 17010969]  [MGI Ref ID J:147391]

Liebler JM; Lutzko C; Banfalvi A; Senadheera D; Aghamohammadi N; Crandall ED; Borok Z. 2008. Retention of human bone marrow-derived cells in murine lungs following bleomycin-induced lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 295(2):L285-92. [PubMed: 18515407]  [MGI Ref ID J:138638]

Lieke T; Steeg C; Graefe SE; Fleischer B; Jacobs T. 2006. Interaction of natural killer cells with Trypanosoma cruzi-infected fibroblasts. Clin Exp Immunol 145(2):357-64. [PubMed: 16879257]  [MGI Ref ID J:112856]

Liu D; Zhang T; Marshall AJ; Okkenhaug K; Vanhaesebroeck B; Uzonna JE. 2009. The p110delta isoform of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase controls susceptibility to Leishmania major by regulating expansion and tissue homing of regulatory T cells. J Immunol 183(3):1921-33. [PubMed: 19596993]  [MGI Ref ID J:151583]

Liu Y; Carlsson R; Comabella M; Wang J; Kosicki M; Carrion B; Hasan M; Wu X; Montalban X; Dziegiel MH; Sellebjerg F; Sorensen PS; Helin K; Issazadeh-Navikas S. 2014. FoxA1 directs the lineage and immunosuppressive properties of a novel regulatory T cell population in EAE and MS. Nat Med 20(3):272-82. [PubMed: 24531377]  [MGI Ref ID J:208760]

Llamas B; Belanger S; Picard S; Deschepper CF. 2007. Cardiac mass and cardiomyocyte size are governed by different genetic loci on either autosomes or chromosome Y in recombinant inbred mice. Physiol Genomics 31(2):176-82. [PubMed: 17566079]  [MGI Ref ID J:127219]

Lode HN; Xiang R; Pertl U; Forster E; Schoenberger SP; Gillies SD; Reisfeld RA. 2000. Melanoma immunotherapy by targeted IL-2 depends on CD4(+) T-cell help mediated by CD40/CD40L interaction. J Clin Invest 105(11):1623-30. [PubMed: 10841521]  [MGI Ref ID J:62762]

Londono D; Bai Y; Zuckert WR; Gelderblom H; Cadavid D. 2005. Cardiac apoptosis in severe relapsing fever borreliosis. Infect Immun 73(11):7669-76. [PubMed: 16239571]  [MGI Ref ID J:104291]

Lou YR; Peng QY; Li T; Medvecky CM; Lin Y; Shih WJ; Conney AH; Shapses S; Wagner GC; Lu YP. 2011. Effects of high-fat diets rich in either omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice. Carcinogenesis 32(7):1078-84. [PubMed: 21525235]  [MGI Ref ID J:173643]

Lu L; Ghose AK; Quail MR; Albom MS; Durkin JT; Holskin BP; Angeles TS; Meyer SL; Ruggeri BA; Cheng M. 2009. ALK mutants in the kinase domain exhibit altered kinase activity and differential sensitivity to small molecule ALK inhibitors. Biochemistry 48(16):3600-9. [PubMed: 19249873]  [MGI Ref ID J:149248]

Lu M; Kardel MD; O'Connor MD; Eaves CJ. 2009. Enhanced generation of hematopoietic cells from human hepatocarcinoma cell-stimulated human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Exp Hematol 37(8):924-36. [PubMed: 19481135]  [MGI Ref ID J:151435]

Lucas S; Taront S; Magnan C; Fauconnier L; Delacre M; Macia L; Delanoye A; Verwaerde C; Spriet C; Saule P; Goormachtigh G; Heliot L; Ktorza A; Movassat J; Polakowska R; Auriault C; Poulain-Godefroy O; Di Santo J; Froguel P; Wolowczuk I. 2012. Interleukin-7 regulates adipose tissue mass and insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice through lymphocyte-dependent and independent mechanisms. PLoS One 7(6):e40351. [PubMed: 22768283]  [MGI Ref ID J:187900]

Lukacs RU; Memarzadeh S; Wu H; Witte ON. 2010. Bmi-1 is a crucial regulator of prostate stem cell self-renewal and malignant transformation. Cell Stem Cell 7(6):682-93. [PubMed: 21112563]  [MGI Ref ID J:168487]

Luo X; Tarbell KV; Yang H; Pothoven K; Bailey SL; Ding R; Steinman RM; Suthanthiran M. 2007. Dendritic cells with TGF-beta1 differentiate naive CD4+CD25- T cells into islet-protective Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(8):2821-6. [PubMed: 17307871]  [MGI Ref ID J:125908]

MacKenzie DA; Sollinger HW; Hullett DA. 1996. Acute graft rejection of human fetal pancreas allografts using donor-specific human peripheral blood lymphocytes in the SCID mouse. Transplantation 61(10):1461-4. [PubMed: 8633371]  [MGI Ref ID J:33268]

Madlambayan GJ; Meacham AM; Hosaka K; Mir S; Jorgensen M; Scott EW; Siemann DW; Cogle CR. 2010. Leukemia regression by vascular disruption and antiangiogenic therapy. Blood 116(9):1539-47. [PubMed: 20472832]  [MGI Ref ID J:164541]

Maeda K; Nagasawa H; Furukawa A; Hisaeda H; Himeno K. 1994. Split tolerance between spleen and lymph node cells in severe combined immunodeficiency mice grafted with AKR fetal liver cells. Int Immunol 6(8):1213-9. [PubMed: 7981149]  [MGI Ref ID J:22574]

Mahler M; Bristol IJ; Leiter EH; Workman AE; Birkenmeier EH; Elson CO; Sundberg JP. 1998. Differential susceptibility of inbred mouse strains to dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. Am J Physiol 274(3 Pt 1):G544-51. [PubMed: 9530156]  [MGI Ref ID J:46553]

Majeti R; Park CY; Weissman IL. 2007. Identification of a hierarchy of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors in human cord blood. Cell Stem Cell 1(6):635-45. [PubMed: 18371405]  [MGI Ref ID J:142413]

Mamalaki C; Elliott J; Norton T; Yannoutsos N; Townsend AR; Chandler P; Simpson E; Kioussis D. 1993. Positive and negative selection in transgenic mice expressing a T-cell receptor specific for influenza nucleoprotein and endogenous superantigen. Dev Immunol 3(3):159-74. [PubMed: 8281031]  [MGI Ref ID J:113713]

Mangada J; Pearson T; Brehm MA; Wicker LS; Peterson LB; Shultz LD; Serreze DV; Rossini AA; Greiner DL. 2009. Idd loci synergize to prolong islet allograft survival induced by costimulation blockade in NOD mice. Diabetes 58(1):165-73. [PubMed: 18984741]  [MGI Ref ID J:146982]

Manis JP; Dudley D; Kaylor L; Alt FW. 2002. IgH class switch recombination to IgG1 in DNA-PKcs-deficient B cells. Immunity 16(4):607-17. [PubMed: 11970883]  [MGI Ref ID J:113521]

Manuel JA; Gawronska-Kozak B. 2006. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is upregulated during scarless wound healing in athymic nude mice. Matrix Biol 25(8):505-14. [PubMed: 17010584]  [MGI Ref ID J:116052]

Marino E; Walters SN; Villanueva JE; Richards JL; Mackay CR; Grey ST. 2014. BAFF regulates activation of self-reactive T cells through B-cell dependent mechanisms and mediates protection in NOD mice. Eur J Immunol 44(4):983-93. [PubMed: 24435807]  [MGI Ref ID J:209374]

Marron MP; Graser RT; Chapman HD; Serreze DV. 2002. Functional evidence for the mediation of diabetogenic T cell responses by HLA-A2.1 MHC class I molecules through transgenic expression in NOD mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(21):13753-8. [PubMed: 12361980]  [MGI Ref ID J:109851]

Marsden MD; Kovochich M; Suree N; Shimizu S; Mehta R; Cortado R; Bristol G; An DS; Zack JA. 2012. HIV Latency in the Humanized BLT Mouse. J Virol 86(1):339-47. [PubMed: 22072769]  [MGI Ref ID J:179389]

Matsuoka K; Saito M; Shibata K; Sekine M; Shitara H; Taya C; Zhang X; Takahashi TA; Kohno K; Kikkawa Y; Yonekawa H. 2013. Generation of mouse models for type 1 diabetes by selective depletion of pancreatic beta cells using toxin receptor-mediated cell knockout. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 436(3):400-5. [PubMed: 23747725]  [MGI Ref ID J:204420]

McCool TL; Weiser JN. 2004. Limited role of antibody in clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a murine model of colonization. Infect Immun 72(10):5807-13. [PubMed: 15385481]  [MGI Ref ID J:93131]

McDermott SP; Eppert K; Lechman ER; Doedens M; Dick JE. 2010. Comparison of human cord blood engraftment between immunocompromised mouse strains. Blood 116(2):193-200. [PubMed: 20404133]  [MGI Ref ID J:162809]

Mehta S; Huillard E; Kesari S; Maire CL; Golebiowski D; Harrington EP; Alberta JA; Kane MF; Theisen M; Ligon KL; Rowitch DH; Stiles CD. 2011. The Central Nervous System-Restricted Transcription Factor Olig2 Opposes p53 Responses to Genotoxic Damage in Neural Progenitors and Malignant Glioma. Cancer Cell 19(3):359-71. [PubMed: 21397859]  [MGI Ref ID J:169930]

Meissner N; Swain S; McInnerney K; Han S; Harmsen AG. 2010. Type-I IFN signaling suppresses an excessive IFN-gamma response and thus prevents lung damage and chronic inflammation during pneumocystis (PC) clearance in CD4 T cell-competent mice. Am J Pathol 176(6):2806-18. [PubMed: 20395428]  [MGI Ref ID J:161163]

Meissner NN; Swain S; Tighe M; Harmsen A; Harmsen A. 2005. Role of type I IFNs in pulmonary complications of Pneumocystis murina infection. J Immunol 174(9):5462-71. [PubMed: 15843544]  [MGI Ref ID J:98407]

Miller RD; Hogg J; Ozaki JH; Gell D; Jackson SP; Riblet R. 1995. Gene for the catalytic subunit of mouse DNA-dependent protein kinase maps to the scid locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(23):10792-5. [PubMed: 7479885]  [MGI Ref ID J:29679]

Mishra R; Chen AT; Welsh RM; Szomolanyi-Tsuda E. 2010. NK cells and gammadelta T cells mediate resistance to polyomavirus-induced tumors. PLoS Pathog 6(5):e1000924. [PubMed: 20523894]  [MGI Ref ID J:162921]

Mizrahi K; Stein J; Pearl-Yafe M; Kaplan O; Yaniv I; Askenasy N. 2010. Regulatory functions of TRAIL in hematopoietic progenitors: human umbilical cord blood and murine bone marrow transplantation. Leukemia 24(7):1325-34. [PubMed: 20485377]  [MGI Ref ID J:162490]

Montecino-Rodriguez E; Leathers H; Dorshkind K. 2006. Identification of a B-1 B cell-specified progenitor. Nat Immunol 7(3):293-301. [PubMed: 16429139]  [MGI Ref ID J:112481]

Monteiro JP; Benjamin A; Costa ES; Barcinski MA; Bonomo A. 2005. Normal hematopoiesis is maintained by activated bone marrow CD4+ T cells. Blood 105(4):1484-91. [PubMed: 15514013]  [MGI Ref ID J:96600]

Morris SC; Heidorn SM; Herbert DR; Perkins C; Hildeman DA; Khodoun MV; Finkelman FD. 2009. Endogenously produced IL-4 nonredundantly stimulates CD8+ T cell proliferation. J Immunol 182(3):1429-38. [PubMed: 19155490]  [MGI Ref ID J:144327]

Morrison C; Smith GC; Stingl L; Jackson SP; Wagner EF; Wang ZQ. 1997. Genetic interaction between PARP and DNA-PK in V(D)J recombination and tumorigenesis. Nat Genet 17(4):479-82. [PubMed: 9398855]  [MGI Ref ID J:75374]

Mosier DE; Stell KL; Gulizia RJ; Torbett BE; Gilmore GL. 1993. Homozygous scid/scid;beige/beige mice have low levels of spontaneous or neonatal T cell-induced B cell generation. J Exp Med 177(1):191-4. [PubMed: 8418200]  [MGI Ref ID J:3479]

Mota J; Rico-Hesse R. 2009. Humanized mice show clinical signs of dengue fever according to infecting virus genotype. J Virol 83(17):8638-45. [PubMed: 19535452]  [MGI Ref ID J:153922]

Mustafi R; Dougherty U; Shah H; Dehghan H; Gliksberg A; Wu J; Zhu H; Joseph L; Hart J; Dive C; Fichera A; Threadgill D; Bissonnette M. 2012. Both stromal cell and colonocyte epidermal growth factor receptors control HCT116 colon cancer cell growth in tumor xenografts. Carcinogenesis 33(10):1930-9. [PubMed: 22791816]  [MGI Ref ID J:192954]

Mutwiri G K; Kosecka U; Benjamin M; Rosendal S; Perdue M; Butler D G. 2001. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis triggers intestinal pathophysiologic changes in beige/scid mice. Comp Med 51(6):538-44. [PubMed: 11924817]  [MGI Ref ID J:73720]

Nacht M; Strasser A; Chan YR; Harris AW; Schlissel M; Bronson RT; Jacks T. 1996. Mutations in the p53 and SCID genes cooperate in tumorigenesis. Genes Dev 10(16):2055-66. [PubMed: 8769648]  [MGI Ref ID J:35055]

Nakayama M; Beilke JN; Jasinski JM; Kobayashi M; Miao D; Li M; Coulombe MG; Liu E; Elliott JF; Gill RG; Eisenbarth GS. 2007. Priming and effector dependence on insulin B:9-23 peptide in NOD islet autoimmunity. J Clin Invest 117(7):1835-43. [PubMed: 17607359]  [MGI Ref ID J:124210]

Naramura M; Nandwani N; Gu H; Band V; Band H. 2010. Rapidly fatal myeloproliferative disorders in mice with deletion of Casitas B-cell lymphoma (Cbl) and Cbl-b in hematopoietic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(37):16274-9. [PubMed: 20805496]  [MGI Ref ID J:164365]

Nemoto Y; Kanai T; Takahara M; Oshima S; Okamoto R; Tsuchiya K; Matsumoto S; Watanabe M. 2013. Th1/Th17-mediated interstitial pneumonia in chronic colitis mice independent of intestinal microbiota. J Immunol 190(12):6616-25. [PubMed: 23670188]  [MGI Ref ID J:204854]

Niimi N; Sugo N; Aratani Y; Koyama H. 2005. Genetic interaction between DNA polymerase beta and DNA-PKcs in embryogenesis and neurogenesis. Cell Death Differ 12(2):184-91. [PubMed: 15647757]  [MGI Ref ID J:106364]

Nishiyama Y; Hamada H; Nonaka S; Yamamoto H; Nanno M; Katayama Y; Takahashi H; Ishikawa H. 2002. Homeostatic regulation of intestinal villous epithelia by B lymphocytes. J Immunol 168(6):2626-33. [PubMed: 11884426]  [MGI Ref ID J:126867]

Nonaka S; Naito T; Chen H; Yamamoto M; Moro K; Kiyono H; Hamada H; Ishikawa H. 2005. Intestinal gammadelta T cells develop in mice lacking thymus, all lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and isolated lymphoid follicles. J Immunol 174(4):1906-12. [PubMed: 15699117]  [MGI Ref ID J:96579]

Nonoyama S; Smith FO; Bernstein ID; Ochs HD. 1993. Strain-dependent leakiness of mice with severe combined immune deficiency. J Immunol 150(9):3817-24. [PubMed: 8473734]  [MGI Ref ID J:4610]

Noorchashm H; Reed AJ; Rostami SY; Mozaffari R; Zekavat G; Koeberlein B; Caton AJ; Naji A. 2006. B cell-mediated antigen presentation is required for the pathogenesis of acute cardiac allograft rejection. J Immunol 177(11):7715-22. [PubMed: 17114442]  [MGI Ref ID J:140848]

Notley CA; Inglis JJ; Alzabin S; McCann FE; McNamee KE; Williams RO. 2008. Blockade of tumor necrosis factor in collagen-induced arthritis reveals a novel immunoregulatory pathway for Th1 and Th17 cells. J Exp Med 205(11):2491-7. [PubMed: 18936235]  [MGI Ref ID J:140651]

O'Boyle G; Fox CR; Walden HR; Willet JD; Mavin ER; Hine DW; Palmer JM; Barker CE; Lamb CA; Ali S; Kirby JA. 2012. Chemokine receptor CXCR3 agonist prevents human T-cell migration in a humanized model of arthritic inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(12):4598-603. [PubMed: 22392992]  [MGI Ref ID J:182231]

O'Hara JR; Skinn AC; MacNaughton WK; Sherman PM; Sharkey KA. 2006. Consequences of Citrobacter rodentium infection on enteroendocrine cells and the enteric nervous system in the mouse colon. Cell Microbiol 8(4):646-60. [PubMed: 16548890]  [MGI Ref ID J:135756]

O'Malley JT; Eri RD; Stritesky GL; Mathur AN; Chang HC; Hogenesch H; Srinivasan M; Kaplan MH. 2008. STAT4 isoforms differentially regulate Th1 cytokine production and the severity of inflammatory bowel disease. J Immunol 181(7):5062-70. [PubMed: 18802110]  [MGI Ref ID J:142733]

O'Reilly LA; Harris AW; Strasser A. 1997. bcl-2 transgene expression promotes survival and reduces proliferation of CD3-CD4-CD8- T cell progenitors. Int Immunol 9(9):1291-301. [PubMed: 9310832]  [MGI Ref ID J:93122]

O'Reilly LA; Harris AW; Tarlinton DM; Corcoran LM; Strasser A. 1997. Expression of a bcl-2 transgene reduces proliferation and slows turnover of developing B lymphocytes in vivo. J Immunol 159(5):2301-11. [PubMed: 9278319]  [MGI Ref ID J:93123]

Ochiai M; Ubagai T; Kawamori T; Imai H; Sugimura T; Nakagama H. 2001. High susceptibility of Scid mice to colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane indicates a possible caretaker role for DNA-dependent protein kinase. Carcinogenesis 22(9):1551-5. [PubMed: 11532879]  [MGI Ref ID J:84343]

Ohsugi T; Kiuchi Y; Shimoda K; Oguri S; Maejima K. 1996. Translocation of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract in immunodeficient mice. Lab Anim 30(1):46-50. [PubMed: 8709573]  [MGI Ref ID J:31261]

Oida T; Suzuki K; Nanno M; Kanamori Y; Saito H; Kubota E; Kato S; Itoh M; Kaminogawa S; Ishikawa H. 2000. Role of gut cryptopatches in early extrathymic maturation of intestinal intraepithelial T cells. J Immunol 164(7):3616-26. [PubMed: 10725718]  [MGI Ref ID J:112139]

Okada K; Shoda J; Taguchi K; Maher JM; Ishizaki K; Inoue Y; Ohtsuki M; Goto N; Takeda K; Utsunomiya H; Oda K; Warabi E; Ishii T; Osaka K; Hyodo I; Yamamoto M. 2008. Ursodeoxycholic acid stimulates Nrf2-mediated hepatocellular transport, detoxification, and antioxidative stress systems in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 295(4):G735-47. [PubMed: 18687751]  [MGI Ref ID J:142149]

Okazaki T; Okazaki IM; Wang J; Sugiura D; Nakaki F; Yoshida T; Kato Y; Fagarasan S; Muramatsu M; Eto T; Hioki K; Honjo T. 2011. PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibitory co-receptors act synergistically to prevent autoimmunity in mice. J Exp Med 208(2):395-407. [PubMed: 21300912]  [MGI Ref ID J:176845]

Okazuka K; Wakabayashi Y; Kashihara M; Inoue J; Sato T; Yokoyama M; Aizawa S; Aizawa Y; Mishima Y; Kominami R. 2005. p53 prevents maturation of T cell development to the immature CD4(-)CD8(+) stage in Bcl11b(-/-) mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 328(2):545-549. [PubMed: 15694382]  [MGI Ref ID J:96179]

Omori K; Mitsuhashi M; Ishiyama K; Nair I; Rawson J; Todorov I; Kandeel F; Mullen Y. 2011. mRNA of the pro-apoptotic gene BBC3 serves as a molecular marker for TNF-alpha-induced islet damage in humans. Diabetologia 54(8):2056-66. [PubMed: 21567299]  [MGI Ref ID J:175299]

Opata MM; Ye Z; Hollifield M; Garvy BA. 2013. B Cell Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor in Response to Pneumocystis murina Infection in Mice. Infect Immun 81(11):4252-60. [PubMed: 24002064]  [MGI Ref ID J:201876]

Origanti S; Cai SR; Munir AZ; White LS; Piwnica-Worms H. 2013. Synthetic lethality of Chk1 inhibition combined with p53 and/or p21 loss during a DNA damage response in normal and tumor cells. Oncogene 32(5):577-88. [PubMed: 22430210]  [MGI Ref ID J:193369]

Osmond DG; Kim N; Manoukian R; Phillips RA; Rico-Vargas SA; Jacobsen K. 1992. Dynamics and localization of early B-lymphocyte precursor cells (pro-B cells) in the bone marrow of scid mice. Blood 79(7):1695-703. [PubMed: 1373084]  [MGI Ref ID J:737]

Owyang AM; Zaph C; Wilson EH; Guild KJ; McClanahan T; Miller HR; Cua DJ; Goldschmidt M; Hunter CA; Kastelein RA; Artis D. 2006. Interleukin 25 regulates type 2 cytokine-dependent immunity and limits chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. J Exp Med 203(4):843-9. [PubMed: 16606667]  [MGI Ref ID J:123808]

Ozaki H; Mori K; Nakagawa Y; Hoshikawa S; Ito S; Inoue Y; Takai T; Yoshida K. 2009. Autoimmune thyroiditis in Fcgamma receptor-deficient nonobese diabetic mice. Clin Immunol 132(2):291-3. [PubMed: 19447681]  [MGI Ref ID J:151452]

Paciorkowski N; Porte P; Shultz LD; Rajan TV. 2000. B1 B lymphocytes play a critical role in host protection against lymphatic filarial parasites. J Exp Med 191(4):731-6. [PubMed: 10684864]  [MGI Ref ID J:112016]

Paliwal P; Conboy IM. 2011. Inhibitors of tyrosine phosphatases and apoptosis reprogram lineage-marked differentiated muscle to myogenic progenitor cells. Chem Biol 18(9):1153-66. [PubMed: 21944754]  [MGI Ref ID J:190199]

Pancewicz J; Taylor JM; Datta A; Baydoun HH; Waldmann TA; Hermine O; Nicot C. 2010. Notch signaling contributes to proliferation and tumor formation of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-associated adult T-cell leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(38):16619-24. [PubMed: 20823234]  [MGI Ref ID J:164350]

Papagiannakopoulos T; Friedmann-Morvinski D; Neveu P; Dugas JC; Gill RM; Huillard E; Liu C; Zong H; Rowitch DH; Barres BA; Verma IM; Kosik KS. 2012. Pro-neural miR-128 is a glioma tumor suppressor that targets mitogenic kinases. Oncogene 31(15):1884-95. [PubMed: 21874051]  [MGI Ref ID J:186143]

Papeta N; Zheng Z; Schon EA; Brosel S; Altintas MM; Nasr SH; Reiser J; D'Agati VD; Gharavi AG. 2010. Prkdc participates in mitochondrial genome maintenance and prevents Adriamycin-induced nephropathy in mice. J Clin Invest 120(11):4055-64. [PubMed: 20978358]  [MGI Ref ID J:166909]

Park CW; Ryu HW; Ryu KY. 2012. Locus coeruleus neurons are resistant to dysfunction and degeneration by maintaining free ubiquitin levels although total ubiquitin levels decrease upon disruption of polyubiquitin gene Ubb. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 418(3):541-6. [PubMed: 22285186]  [MGI Ref ID J:181255]

Pauza ME; Dobbs CM; He J; Patterson T; Wagner S; Anobile BS; Bradley BJ; Lo D; Haskins K. 2004. T-cell receptor transgenic response to an endogenous polymorphic autoantigen determines susceptibility to diabetes. Diabetes 53(4):978-88. [PubMed: 15047613]  [MGI Ref ID J:89082]

Pearson T; Greiner DL; Shultz LD. 2008. Creation of 'humanized' mice to study human immunity. Curr Protoc Immunol Chapter 15:Unit 15.21. [PubMed: 18491294]  [MGI Ref ID J:151386]

Pearson T; Shultz LD; Lief J; Burzenski L; Gott B; Chase T; Foreman O; Rossini AA; Bottino R; Trucco M; Greiner DL. 2008. A new immunodeficient hyperglycaemic mouse model based on the Ins2 ( Akita ) mutation for analyses of human islet and beta stem and progenitor cell function. Diabetologia 51(8):1449-56. [PubMed: 18563383]  [MGI Ref ID J:138005]

Pearson T; Shultz LD; Miller D; King M; Laning J; Fodor W; Cuthbert A; Burzenski L; Gott B; Lyons B; Foreman O; Rossini AA; Greiner DL. 2008. Non-obese diabetic-recombination activating gene-1 (NOD-Rag1 null) interleukin (IL)-2 receptor common gamma chain (IL2r gamma null) null mice: a radioresistant model for human lymphohaematopoietic engraftment. Clin Exp Immunol 154(2):270-84. [PubMed: 18785974]  [MGI Ref ID J:140388]

Pedraza-Alva G; Koulnis M; Charland C; Thornton T; Clements JL; Schlissel MS; Rincon M. 2006. Activation of p38 MAP kinase by DNA double-strand breaks in V(D)J recombination induces a G2/M cell cycle checkpoint. EMBO J 25(4):763-73. [PubMed: 16456545]  [MGI Ref ID J:105987]

Pei Y; Moore CE; Wang J; Tewari AK; Eroshkin A; Cho YJ; Witt H; Korshunov A; Read TA; Sun JL; Schmitt EM; Miller CR; Buckley AF; McLendon RE; Westbrook TF; Northcott PA; Taylor MD; Pfister SM; Febbo PG; Wechsler-Reya RJ. 2012. An Animal Model of MYC-Driven Medulloblastoma. Cancer Cell 21(2):155-67. [PubMed: 22340590]  [MGI Ref ID J:181463]

Percy DH; Auger DC; Croy BA. 1994. Signs and lesions of experimental Sendai virus infection in two genetically distinct strains of SCID/beige mice. Vet Pathol 31(1):67-73. [PubMed: 8140728]  [MGI Ref ID J:17913]

Percy DH; Barta JR. 1993. Spontaneous and experimental infections in scid and scid/beige mice. Lab Anim Sci 43(2):127-32. [PubMed: 8320959]  [MGI Ref ID J:4752]

Perone MJ; Bertera S; Tawadrous ZS; Shufesky WJ; Piganelli JD; Baum LG; Trucco M; Morelli AE. 2006. Dendritic cells expressing transgenic galectin-1 delay onset of autoimmune diabetes in mice. J Immunol 177(8):5278-89. [PubMed: 17015713]  [MGI Ref ID J:139444]

Petitto JM; Huang Z; Lo J; Streit WJ. 2003. IL-2 gene knockout affects T lymphocyte trafficking and the microglial response to regenerating facial motor neurons. J Neuroimmunol 134(1-2):95-103. [PubMed: 12507776]  [MGI Ref ID J:105891]

Phillips JM; Parish NM; Drage M; Cooke A. 2001. Cutting edge: interactions through the IL-10 receptor regulate autoimmune diabetes. J Immunol 167(11):6087-91. [PubMed: 11714766]  [MGI Ref ID J:119045]

Pierce EM; Carpenter K; Jakubzick C; Kunkel SL; Flaherty KR; Martinez FJ; Hogaboam CM. 2007. Therapeutic targeting of CC ligand 21 or CC chemokine receptor 7 abrogates pulmonary fibrosis induced by the adoptive transfer of human pulmonary fibroblasts to immunodeficient mice. Am J Pathol 170(4):1152-64. [PubMed: 17392156]  [MGI Ref ID J:120124]

Pierce MA; Chapman HD; Post CM; Svetlanov A; Efrat S; Horwitz M; Serreze DV. 2003. Adenovirus early region 3 antiapoptotic 10.4K, 14.5K, and 14.7K genes decrease the incidence of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Diabetes 52(5):1119-27. [PubMed: 12716741]  [MGI Ref ID J:83195]

Porubsky S; Wang S; Kiss E; Dehmel S; Bonrouhi M; Dorn T; Luckow B; Brakebusch C; Grone HJ. 2011. Rhoh deficiency reduces peripheral T-cell function and attenuates allogenic transplant rejection. Eur J Immunol 41(1):76-88. [PubMed: 21182079]  [MGI Ref ID J:174659]

Powrie F; Leach MW; Mauze S; Menon S; Caddle LB; Coffman RL. 1994. Inhibition of Th1 responses prevents inflammatory bowel disease in scid mice reconstituted with CD45RBhi CD4+ T cells. Immunity 1(7):553-62. [PubMed: 7600284]  [MGI Ref ID J:133778]

Prochazka M; Gaskins HR; Shultz LD; Leiter EH. 1992. The nonobese diabetic scid mouse: model for spontaneous thymomagenesis associated with immunodeficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(8):3290-4. [PubMed: 1373493]  [MGI Ref ID J:513]

Qing Y; Lin Y; Gerson SL. 2012. An intrinsic BM hematopoietic niche occupancy defect of HSC in scid mice facilitates exogenous HSC engraftment. Blood 119(7):1768-71. [PubMed: 22147896]  [MGI Ref ID J:181738]

Qualls JE; Kaplan AM; van Rooijen N; Cohen DA. 2006. Suppression of experimental colitis by intestinal mononuclear phagocytes. J Leukoc Biol 80(4):802-15. [PubMed: 16888083]  [MGI Ref ID J:113033]

Quintana E; Shackleton M; Sabel MS; Fullen DR; Johnson TM; Morrison SJ. 2008. Efficient tumour formation by single human melanoma cells. Nature 456(7222):593-8. [PubMed: 19052619]  [MGI Ref ID J:142408]

Rappa G; Mercapide J; Lorico A. 2012. Spontaneous Formation of Tumorigenic Hybrids between Breast Cancer and Multipotent Stromal Cells Is a Source of Tumor Heterogeneity. Am J Pathol 180(6):2504-15. [PubMed: 22542847]  [MGI Ref ID J:184798]

Rauch DA; Hurchla MA; Harding JC; Deng H; Shea LK; Eagleton MC; Niewiesk S; Lairmore MD; Piwnica-Worms D; Rosol TJ; Weber JD; Ratner L; Weilbaecher KN. 2010. The ARF tumor suppressor regulates bone remodeling and osteosarcoma development in mice. PLoS One 5(12):e15755. [PubMed: 21209895]  [MGI Ref ID J:168312]

Rauner G; Leviav A; Mavor E; Barash I. 2013. Development of Foreign Mammary Epithelial Morphology in the Stroma of Immunodeficient Mice. PLoS One 8(6):e68637. [PubMed: 23825700]  [MGI Ref ID J:204342]

Read TA; Fogarty MP; Markant SL; McLendon RE; Wei Z; Ellison DW; Febbo PG; Wechsler-Reya RJ. 2009. Identification of CD15 as a marker for tumor-propagating cells in a mouse model of medulloblastoma. Cancer Cell 15(2):135-47. [PubMed: 19185848]  [MGI Ref ID J:144811]

Riggs J; Stowers R. 1996. Ability of spleen, peritoneal cavity, and lymph node B cells to reconstitute serum immunoglobulin in SCID mice. Immunology 88(1):20-7. [PubMed: 8707345]  [MGI Ref ID J:32916]

Riggs JE; Feeney AJ; Kirven M; Mosier DE. 1994. VH11 bias and normal V-D-J junctions in SCID B lymphocytes rescued by neonatal T cell transfer. Mol Immunol 31(11):783-91. [PubMed: 8047070]  [MGI Ref ID J:19789]

Rival C; Samy E; Setiady Y; Tung K. 2013. Cutting edge: Ly49C/I(-) neonatal NK cells predispose newborns to autoimmune ovarian disease induced by maternal autoantibody. J Immunol 191(6):2865-9. [PubMed: 23960238]  [MGI Ref ID J:205867]

Rivera J; Zaragoza O; Casadevall A. 2005. Antibody-mediated protection against Cryptococcus neoformans pulmonary infection is dependent on B cells. Infect Immun 73(2):1141-50. [PubMed: 15664957]  [MGI Ref ID J:95620]

Roberts JL; Abe R; Shores EW; Singer A. 1992. Expression of Mls determinants in mice exhibiting the severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mutation or X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) defect. J Immunol 149(5):1577-82. [PubMed: 1506683]  [MGI Ref ID J:2072]

Rochford R; Ohrt C; Baresel PC; Campo B; Sampath A; Magill AJ; Tekwani BL; Walker LA. 2013. Humanized mouse model of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency for in vivo assessment of hemolytic toxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(43):17486-91. [PubMed: 24101478]  [MGI Ref ID J:201977]

Rolink A; Melchers F; Andersson J. 1996. The SCID but not the RAG-2 gene product is required for S mu-S epsilon heavy chain class switching. Immunity 5(4):319-30. [PubMed: 8885865]  [MGI Ref ID J:36026]

Rosario CO; Ko MA; Haffani YZ; Gladdy RA; Paderova J; Pollett A; Squire JA; Dennis JW; Swallow CJ. 2010. Plk4 is required for cytokinesis and maintenance of chromosomal stability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(15):6888-93. [PubMed: 20348415]  [MGI Ref ID J:159310]

Roths JB; Smith AL; Sidman CL. 1993. Lethal exacerbation of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in severe combined immunodeficiency mice after infection by pneumonia virus of mice. J Exp Med 177(4):1193-8. [PubMed: 8459214]  [MGI Ref ID J:109921]

Rotolo JA; Mesicek J; Maj J; Truman JP; Haimovitz-Friedman A; Kolesnick R; Fuks Z. 2010. Regulation of ceramide synthase-mediated crypt epithelium apoptosis by DNA damage repair enzymes. Cancer Res 70(3):957-67. [PubMed: 20086180]  [MGI Ref ID J:156862]

Ruan S; McKinley L; Zheng M; Rudner X; D'Souza A; Kolls JK; Shellito JE. 2008. Interleukin-12 and host defense against murine Pneumocystis pneumonia. Infect Immun 76(5):2130-7. [PubMed: 18332204]  [MGI Ref ID J:134470]

Ruetsch NR; Bosma GC; Bosma MJ. 2000. Unexpected rearrangement and expression of the immunoglobulin lambda1 locus in scid mice. J Exp Med 191(11):1933-43. [PubMed: 10839808]  [MGI Ref ID J:62701]

Rynda-Apple A; Dobrinen E; McAlpine M; Read A; Harmsen A; Richert LE; Calverley M; Pallister K; Voyich J; Wiley JA; Johnson B; Young M; Douglas T; Harmsen AG. 2012. Virus-Like Particle-Induced Protection Against MRSA Pneumonia Is Dependent on IL-13 and Enhancement of Phagocyte Function. Am J Pathol 181(1):196-210. [PubMed: 22642909]  [MGI Ref ID J:185523]

Salem ML; Al-Khami AA; El-Naggar SA; Diaz-Montero CM; Chen Y; Cole DJ. 2010. Cyclophosphamide induces dynamic alterations in the host microenvironments resulting in a Flt3 ligand-dependent expansion of dendritic cells. J Immunol 184(4):1737-47. [PubMed: 20083664]  [MGI Ref ID J:159482]

Samy ET; Meyer CA; Caplazi P; Langrish CL; Lora JM; Bluethmann H; Peng SL. 2007. Cutting edge: Modulation of intestinal autoimmunity and IL-2 signaling by sphingosine kinase 2 independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate. J Immunol 179(9):5644-8. [PubMed: 17947634]  [MGI Ref ID J:153014]

Santidrian AF; Matsuno-Yagi A; Ritland M; Seo BB; LeBoeuf SE; Gay LJ; Yagi T; Felding-Habermann B. 2013. Mitochondrial complex I activity and NAD+/NADH balance regulate breast cancer progression. J Clin Invest 123(3):1068-81. [PubMed: 23426180]  [MGI Ref ID J:196392]

Saville SP; Lazzell AL; Chaturvedi AK; Monteagudo C; Lopez-Ribot JL. 2008. Use of a genetically engineered strain to evaluate the pathogenic potential of yeast cell and filamentous forms during Candida albicans systemic infection in immunodeficient mice. Infect Immun 76(1):97-102. [PubMed: 17967861]  [MGI Ref ID J:130296]

Savinov AY; Rozanov DV; Strongin AY. 2007. Specific inhibition of autoimmune T cell transmigration contributes to beta cell functionality and insulin synthesis in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. J Biol Chem 282(44):32106-11. [PubMed: 17761671]  [MGI Ref ID J:126809]

Savinov AY; Tcherepanov A; Green EA; Flavell RA; Chervonsky AV. 2003. Contribution of Fas to diabetes development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100(2):628-32. [PubMed: 12525697]  [MGI Ref ID J:81416]

Savouret C; Brisson E; Essers J; Kanaar R; Pastink A; te Riele H; Junien C; Gourdon G. 2003. CTG repeat instability and size variation timing in DNA repair-deficient mice. EMBO J 22(9):2264-73. [PubMed: 12727892]  [MGI Ref ID J:83373]

Schito ML; Barta JR. 1997. Nonspecific immune responses and mechanisms of resistance to Eimeria papillata infections in mice. Infect Immun 65(8):3165-70. [PubMed: 9234770]  [MGI Ref ID J:41839]

Schmidt RE; Dorsey DA; Beaudet LN; Frederick KE; Parvin CA; Plurad SB; Levisetti MG. 2003. Non-obese diabetic mice rapidly develop dramatic sympathetic neuritic dystrophy: a new experimental model of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Am J Pathol 163(5):2077-91. [PubMed: 14578206]  [MGI Ref ID J:86318]

Schon MP; Schon M; Warren HB; Donohue JP; Parker CM. 2000. Cutaneous inflammatory disorder in integrin alphaE (CD103)-deficient mice. J Immunol 165(11):6583-9. [PubMed: 11086102]  [MGI Ref ID J:110810]

Schuler W; Weiler IJ; Schuler A; Phillips RA; Rosenberg N; Mak TW; Kearney JF; Perry RP; Bosma MJ. 1986. Rearrangement of antigen receptor genes is defective in mice with severe combined immune deficiency. Cell 46(7):963-72. [PubMed: 3093081]  [MGI Ref ID J:8420]

Searles S; Gauss K; Wilkison M; Hoyt TR; Dobrinen E; Meissner N. 2013. Modulation of inflammasome-mediated pulmonary immune activation by type I IFNs protects bone marrow homeostasis during systemic responses to Pneumocystis lung infection. J Immunol 191(7):3884-95. [PubMed: 23975863]  [MGI Ref ID J:205844]

Seif AE; Barrett DM; Milone M; Brown VI; Grupp SA; Reid GS. 2009. Long-term protection from syngeneic acute lymphoblastic leukemia by CpG ODN-mediated stimulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Blood 114(12):2459-66. [PubMed: 19636062]  [MGI Ref ID J:152910]

Sekiguchi J; Ferguson DO; Chen HT; Yang EM; Earle J; Frank K; Whitlow S; Gu Y; Xu Y; Nussenzweig A; Alt FW. 2001. Genetic interactions between ATM and the nonhomologous end-joining factors in genomic stability and development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(6):3243-8. [PubMed: 11248063]  [MGI Ref ID J:68074]

Sela U; Olds P; Park A; Schlesinger SJ; Steinman RM. 2011. Dendritic cells induce antigen-specific regulatory T cells that prevent graft versus host disease and persist in mice. J Exp Med 208(12):2489-96. [PubMed: 22084406]  [MGI Ref ID J:178615]

Serpe CJ; Kohm AP; Huppenbauer CB; Sanders VM; Jones KJ. 1999. Exacerbation of facial motoneuron loss after facial nerve transection in severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice. J Neurosci 19(11):RC7. [PubMed: 10341268]  [MGI Ref ID J:120563]

Serreze DV; Chapman HD; Varnum DS; Gerling I; Leiter EH; Shultz LD. 1997. Initiation of autoimmune diabetes in NOD/Lt mice is MHC class I-dependent. J Immunol 158(8):3978-86. [PubMed: 9103469]  [MGI Ref ID J:39473]

Serreze DV; Johnson EA; Chapman HD; Graser RT; Marron MP; DiLorenzo TP; Silveira P; Yoshimura Y; Nathenson SG; Joyce S. 2001. Autoreactive diabetogenic T-cells in NOD mice can efficiently expand from a greatly reduced precursor pool. Diabetes 50(9):1992-2000. [PubMed: 11522664]  [MGI Ref ID J:71050]

Serreze DV; Leiter EH; Hanson MS; Christianson SW; Shultz LD; Hesselton RM; Greiner DL. 1995. Emv30null NOD-scid mice. An improved host for adoptive transfer of autoimmune diabetes and growth of human lymphohematopoietic cells. Diabetes 44(12):1392-8. [PubMed: 7589844]  [MGI Ref ID J:29951]

Severe S; Gauvrit A; Vu AT; Bach JM. 2007. CD8(+) T lymphocytes specific for glutamic acid decarboxylase 90-98 epitope mediate diabetes in NOD(SCID) mouse. Mol Immunol 44(11):2950-60. [PubMed: 17336387]  [MGI Ref ID J:119811]

Shang L; Hua H; Foo K; Martinez H; Watanabe K; Zimmer M; Kahler DJ; Freeby M; Chung W; LeDuc C; Goland R; Leibel RL; Egli D. 2014. beta-cell dysfunction due to increased ER stress in a stem cell model of Wolfram syndrome. Diabetes 63(3):923-33. [PubMed: 24227685]  [MGI Ref ID J:208989]

Shellito JE; Kolls JK; Olariu R; Beck JM. 1996. Nitric oxide and host defense against Pneumocystis carinii infection in a mouse model. J Infect Dis 173(2):432-9. [PubMed: 8568306]  [MGI Ref ID J:31163]

Shibata S; Asano T; Ogura A; Hashimoto N; Hayakawa J; Uetsuka K ; Nakayama H ; Doi K. 1997. SCID-bg mice as xenograft recipients. Lab Anim 31(2):163-8. [PubMed: 9175014]  [MGI Ref ID J:40569]

Shoji S; Watanabe H; Katoh O; Masaoka Y; Matsuura S; Tauchi H; Endo S; Komatsu K. 1998. Developmental malformations and intrauterine deaths in gamma-ray-irradiated scid mouse embryos. Int J Radiat Biol 73(6):705-9. [PubMed: 9690689]  [MGI Ref ID J:51083]

Shores EW; Nakayama T; Wiest DL; Takahama Y; Sharrow S; Singer A. 1993. Structurally distinct T cell receptor complexes on developmentally distinct T cell populations in severe combined immunodeficiency mice expressing a TCR beta transgene. J Immunol 150(4):1263-75. [PubMed: 8094405]  [MGI Ref ID J:111476]

Shultz LD; Banuelos S; Lyons B; Samuels R; Burzenski L; Gott B; Lang P; Leif J; Appel M; Rossini A; Greiner DL. 2003. NOD/LtSz-Rag1nullPfpnull mice: a new model system with increased levels of human peripheral leukocyte and hematopoietic stem-cell engraftment. Transplantation 76(7):1036-42. [PubMed: 14557749]  [MGI Ref ID J:109843]

Shultz LD; Ishikawa F; Greiner DL. 2007. Humanized mice in translational biomedical research. Nat Rev Immunol 7(2):118-30. [PubMed: 17259968]  [MGI Ref ID J:142414]

Shultz LD; Lyons BL; Burzenski LM; Gott B; Chen X; Chaleff S; Kotb M; Gillies SD; King M; Mangada J; Greiner DL; Handgretinger R. 2005. Human lymphoid and myeloid cell development in NOD/LtSz-scid IL2R gamma null mice engrafted with mobilized human hemopoietic stem cells. J Immunol 174(10):6477-89. [PubMed: 15879151]  [MGI Ref ID J:109833]

Shultz LD; Saito Y; Najima Y; Tanaka S; Ochi T; Tomizawa M; Doi T; Sone A; Suzuki N; Fujiwara H; Yasukawa M; Ishikawa F. 2010. Generation of functional human T-cell subsets with HLA-restricted immune responses in HLA class I expressing NOD/SCID/IL2r gamma(null) humanized mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(29):13022-7. [PubMed: 20615947]  [MGI Ref ID J:162315]

Shultz LD; Schweitzer PA; Christianson SW; Gott B; Schweitzer IB; Tennent B; McKenna S; Mobraaten L; Rajan TV; Greiner DL; Leiter EH. 1995. Multiple defects in innate and adaptive immunologic function in NOD/LtSz-scid mice. J Immunol 154(1):180-91. [PubMed: 7995938]  [MGI Ref ID J:22026]

Shurin MR; Potapovich AI; Tyurina YY; Tourkova IL; Shurin GV; Kagan VE. 2009. Recognition of live phosphatidylserine-labeled tumor cells by dendritic cells: a novel approach to immunotherapy of skin cancer. Cancer Res 69(6):2487-96. [PubMed: 19276376]  [MGI Ref ID J:147072]

Simard C; Klein SJ; Mak T; Jolicoeur P. 1997. Studies of the susceptibility of nude, CD4 knockout, and SCID mutant mice to the disease induced by the murine AIDS defective virus. J Virol 71(4):3013-22. [PubMed: 9060661]  [MGI Ref ID J:38897]

Simons BW; Hurley PJ; Huang Z; Ross AE; Miller R; Marchionni L; Berman DM; Schaeffer EM. 2012. Wnt signaling though beta-catenin is required for prostate lineage specification. Dev Biol 371(2):246-55. [PubMed: 22960283]  [MGI Ref ID J:190538]

Simpson-Abelson MR; Sonnenberg GF; Takita H; Yokota SJ; Conway TF Jr; Kelleher RJ Jr; Shultz LD; Barcos M; Bankert RB. 2008. Long-term engraftment and expansion of tumor-derived memory T cells following the implantation of non-disrupted pieces of human lung tumor into NOD-scid IL2Rgamma(null) mice. J Immunol 180(10):7009-18. [PubMed: 18453623]  [MGI Ref ID J:142412]

Smythies LE; Waites KB; Lindsey JR; Harris PR; Ghiara P; Smith PD. 2000. Helicobacter pylori-induced mucosal inflammation is Th1 mediated and exacerbated in IL-4, but not IFN-gamma, gene-deficient mice. J Immunol 165(2):1022-9. [PubMed: 10878379]  [MGI Ref ID J:120556]

Song X; Guo Y; Duo S; Che J; Wu C; Ochiya T; Ding M; Deng H. 2009. A mouse model of inducible liver injury caused by tet-on regulated urokinase for studies of hepatocyte transplantation. Am J Pathol 175(5):1975-83. [PubMed: 19808649]  [MGI Ref ID J:154703]

Spranger S; Jeremias I; Wilde S; Leisegang M; Starck L; Mosetter B; Uckert W; Heemskerk MH; Schendel DJ; Frankenberger B. 2012. TCR-transgenic lymphocytes specific for HMMR/Rhamm limit tumor outgrowth in vivo. Blood 119(15):3440-9. [PubMed: 22371883]  [MGI Ref ID J:183769]

Stalder AK; Carson MJ; Pagenstecher A; Asensio VC; Kincaid C; Benedict M; Powell HC; Masliah E; Campbell IL. 1998. Late-onset chronic inflammatory encephalopathy in immune-competent and severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice with astrocyte-targeted expression of tumor necrosis factor. Am J Pathol 153(3):767-83. [PubMed: 9736027]  [MGI Ref ID J:106595]

Stokes KY; Calahan L; Hamric CM; Russell JM; Granger DN. 2009. CD40/CD40L contributes to hypercholesterolemia-induced microvascular inflammation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 296(3):H689-97. [PubMed: 19112095]  [MGI Ref ID J:146361]

Stone JL; McMillan RE; Skaar DA; Bradshaw JM; Jirtle RL; Sikes ML. 2012. DNA Double-Strand Breaks Relieve USF-Mediated Repression of Dbeta2 Germline Transcription in Developing Thymocytes. J Immunol 188(5):2266-75. [PubMed: 22287717]  [MGI Ref ID J:181246]

Stracker TH; Couto SS; Cordon-Cardo C; Matos T; Petrini JH. 2008. Chk2 suppresses the oncogenic potential of DNA replication-associated DNA damage. Mol Cell 31(1):21-32. [PubMed: 18614044]  [MGI Ref ID J:138550]

Stracker TH; Williams BR; Deriano L; Theunissen JW; Adelman CA; Roth DB; Petrini JH. 2009. Artemis and nonhomologous end joining-independent influence of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit on chromosome stability. Mol Cell Biol 29(2):503-14. [PubMed: 19015239]  [MGI Ref ID J:144749]

Strasser A; Harris AW; Corcoran LM; Cory S. 1994. Bcl-2 expression promotes B- but not T-lymphoid development in scid mice. Nature 368(6470):457-60. [PubMed: 8133891]  [MGI Ref ID J:17426]

Stratford EW; Bostad M; Castro R; Skarpen E; Berg K; Hogset A; Myklebost O; Selbo PK. 2013. Photochemical internalization of CD133-targeting immunotoxins efficiently depletes sarcoma cells with stem-like properties and reduces tumorigenicity. Biochim Biophys Acta 1830(8):4235-43. [PubMed: 23643966]  [MGI Ref ID J:202381]

Strowig T; Chijioke O; Carrega P; Arrey F; Meixlsperger S; Ramer PC; Ferlazzo G; Munz C. 2010. Human NK cells of mice with reconstituted human immune system components require preactivation to acquire functional competence. Blood 116(20):4158-67. [PubMed: 20671122]  [MGI Ref ID J:167434]

Su MA; Davini D; Cheng P; Giang K; Fan U; DeVoss JJ; Johannes KP; Taylor L; Shum AK; Valenzise M; Meloni A; Bour-Jordan H; Anderson MS. 2012. Defective autoimmune regulator-dependent central tolerance to myelin protein zero is linked to autoimmune peripheral neuropathy. J Immunol 188(10):4906-12. [PubMed: 22490868]  [MGI Ref ID J:188686]

Su X; Hu Q; Kristan JM; Costa C; Shen Y; Gero D; Matis LA; Wang Y. 2000. Significant role for Fas in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. J Immunol 164(5):2523-32. [PubMed: 10679090]  [MGI Ref ID J:127009]

Suffia I; Reckling SK; Salay G; Belkaid Y. 2005. A role for CD103 in the retention of CD4+CD25+ Treg and control of Leishmania major infection. J Immunol 174(9):5444-55. [PubMed: 15845457]  [MGI Ref ID J:98414]

Sugiarto S; Persson AI; Munoz EG; Waldhuber M; Lamagna C; Andor N; Hanecker P; Ayers-Ringler J; Phillips J; Siu J; Lim DA; Vandenberg S; Stallcup W; Berger MS; Bergers G; Weiss WA; Petritsch C. 2011. Asymmetry-defective oligodendrocyte progenitors are glioma precursors. Cancer Cell 20(3):328-40. [PubMed: 21907924]  [MGI Ref ID J:175969]

Sugiura K; Taketani S; Yoshimura T; Nishino T; Nishino N; Fujisawa J; Hisha H; Inaba T; Ikehara S. 2007. Effect of hepatocyte growth factor on long term hematopoiesis of human progenitor cells in transgenic-severe combined immunodeficiency mice. Cytokine 37(3):218-26. [PubMed: 17512212]  [MGI Ref ID J:126823]

Sun X; Robertson SA; Ingman WV. 2013. Regulation of epithelial cell turnover and macrophage phenotype by epithelial cell-derived transforming growth factor beta1 in the mammary gland. Cytokine 61(2):377-88. [PubMed: 23290315]  [MGI Ref ID J:197873]

Sundberg JP (ed.). 1994. Handbook of Mouse Mutations with Skin and Hair Abnormalities: Animal Models and Biomedical Tools. In: Handbook of Mouse Mutations with Skin and Hair Abnormalities: Animal Models and Biomedical Tools. CRC Press, Boca Raton.  [MGI Ref ID J:30359]

Sundberg JP; Adkison DL; Bedigian HG. 1991. Skeletal muscle rhabdomyosarcomas in inbred laboratory mice. Vet Pathol 28(3):200-6. [PubMed: 1830433]  [MGI Ref ID J:24311]

Swaims AY; Khani F; Zhang Y; Roberts AI; Devadas S; Shi Y; Rabson AB. 2010. Immune activation induces immortalization of HTLV-1 LTR-Tax transgenic CD4+ T cells. Blood 116(16):2994-3003. [PubMed: 20634377]  [MGI Ref ID J:165866]

Swain SD; Siemsen DW; Pullen RR; Han S. 2014. CD4+ T cells and IFN-gamma are required for the development of Pneumocystis-associated pulmonary hypertension. Am J Pathol 184(2):483-93. [PubMed: 24361497]  [MGI Ref ID J:206386]

Szomolanyi-Tsuda E; Dundon PL; Joris I; Shultz LD; Woda BA; Welsh RM. 1994. Acute, lethal, natural killer cell-resistant myeloproliferative disease induced by polyomavirus in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Am J Pathol 144(2):359-71. [PubMed: 8311119]  [MGI Ref ID J:16875]

Ta VB; de Haan AB; de Bruijn MJ; Dingjan GM; Hendriks RW. 2011. Pre-B-cell leukemias in Btk/Slp65-deficient mice arise independently of ongoing V(D)J recombination activity. Leukemia 25(1):48-56. [PubMed: 21030983]  [MGI Ref ID J:167638]

Tadokoro Y; Ema H; Okano M; Li E; Nakauchi H. 2007. De novo DNA methyltransferase is essential for self-renewal, but not for differentiation, in hematopoietic stem cells. J Exp Med 204(4):715-22. [PubMed: 17420264]  [MGI Ref ID J:125606]

Takagi S; Saito Y; Hijikata A; Tanaka S; Watanabe T; Hasegawa T; Mochizuki S; Kunisawa J; Kiyono H; Koseki H; Ohara O; Saito T; Taniguchi S; Shultz LD; Ishikawa F. 2012. Membrane-bound human SCF/KL promotes in vivo human hematopoietic engraftment and myeloid differentiation. Blood :. [PubMed: 22279057]  [MGI Ref ID J:180274]

Takahama Y; Sugaya K; Tsuda S; Hasegawa T; Hashimoto Y. 1995. Regulation of early T cell development by the engagement of TCR-beta complex expressed on fetal thymocytes from TCR-beta-transgenic scid mice. J Immunol 154(11):5862-9. [PubMed: 7751632]  [MGI Ref ID J:25533]

Takahashi Y; Inamine A; Hashimoto S; Haraguchi S; Yoshioka E; Kojima N; Abe R; Takemori T. 2005. Novel role of the Ras cascade in memory B cell response. Immunity 23(2):127-38. [PubMed: 16111632]  [MGI Ref ID J:100532]

Takata M; Nakagomi T; Kashiwamura S; Nakano-Doi A; Saino O; Nakagomi N; Okamura H; Mimura O; Taguchi A; Matsuyama T. 2012. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-triggered T cells are key modulators for survival/death of neural stem/progenitor cells induced by ischemic stroke. Cell Death Differ 19(5):756-67. [PubMed: 22052192]  [MGI Ref ID J:203071]

Takenaka K; Prasolava TK; Wang JC; Mortin-Toth SM; Khalouei S; Gan OI; Dick JE; Danska JS. 2007. Polymorphism in Sirpa modulates engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells. Nat Immunol 8(12):1313-23. [PubMed: 17982459]  [MGI Ref ID J:127760]

Takeuchi D; Jones VC; Kobayashi M; Suzuki F. 2008. Cooperative role of macrophages and neutrophils in host Antiprotozoan resistance in mice acutely infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. Infect Immun 76(8):3657-63. [PubMed: 18519557]  [MGI Ref ID J:139362]

Tanaka S; Saito Y; Kunisawa J; Kurashima Y; Wake T; Suzuki N; Shultz LD; Kiyono H; Ishikawa F. 2012. Development of mature and functional human myeloid subsets in hematopoietic stem cell-engrafted NOD/SCID/IL2rgammaKO mice. J Immunol 188(12):6145-55. [PubMed: 22611244]  [MGI Ref ID J:188959]

Thayer TC; Delano M; Liu C; Chen J; Padgett LE; Tse HM; Annamali M; Piganelli JD; Moldawer LL; Mathews CE. 2011. Superoxide production by macrophages and T cells is critical for the induction of autoreactivity and type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 60(8):2144-51. [PubMed: 21715554]  [MGI Ref ID J:186804]

Thomas DC; Mellanby RJ; Phillips JM; Cooke A. 2007. An early age-related increase in the frequency of CD4+ Foxp3+ cells in BDC2.5NOD mice. Immunology 121(4):565-76. [PubMed: 17437531]  [MGI Ref ID J:125536]

Touvrey C; Couedel C; Soulas P; Couderc R; Jasin M; de Villartay JP; Marche PN; Jouvin-Marche E; Candeias SM. 2008. Distinct effects of DNA-PKcs and Artemis inactivation on signal joint formation in vivo. Mol Immunol 45(12):3383-91. [PubMed: 18501428]  [MGI Ref ID J:137712]

Trowbridge JJ; Scott MP; Bhatia M. 2006. Hedgehog modulates cell cycle regulators in stem cells to control hematopoietic regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(38):14134-9. [PubMed: 16968775]  [MGI Ref ID J:113717]

Tsai S; Serra P; Clemente-Casares X; Slattery RM; Santamaria P. 2013. Dendritic cell-dependent in vivo generation of autoregulatory T cells by antidiabetogenic MHC class II. J Immunol 191(1):70-82. [PubMed: 23740949]  [MGI Ref ID J:205347]

Tsai S; Shameli A; Yamanouchi J; Clemente-Casares X; Wang J; Serra P; Yang Y; Medarova Z; Moore A; Santamaria P. 2010. Reversal of autoimmunity by boosting memory-like autoregulatory T cells. Immunity 32(4):568-80. [PubMed: 20381385]  [MGI Ref ID J:179859]

Tsuchiya T; Fukuda S; Hamada H; Nakamura A; Kohama Y; Ishikawa H; Tsujikawa K; Yamamoto H. 2003. Role of gamma delta T cells in the inflammatory response of experimental colitis mice. J Immunol 171(10):5507-13. [PubMed: 14607957]  [MGI Ref ID J:106734]

Tsuji H; Ishii-Ohba H; Noda Y; Kubo E; Furuse T; Tatsumi K. 2009. Rag-dependent and Rag-independent mechanisms of Notch1 rearrangement in thymic lymphomas of Atm(-/-) and scid mice. Mutat Res 660(1-2):22-32. [PubMed: 19000702]  [MGI Ref ID J:144042]

Tsuji Y; Watanabe T; Kudo M; Arai H; Strober W; Chiba T. 2012. Sensing of Commensal Organisms by the Intracellular Sensor NOD1 Mediates Experimental Pancreatitis. Immunity 37(2):326-38. [PubMed: 22902233]  [MGI Ref ID J:187368]

Tucker TA; Kundert JA; Bondareva AA; Schmidt EE. 2005. Reproductive and neurological Quakingviable phenotypes in a severe combined immune deficient mouse background. Immunogenetics 57(3-4):226-31. [PubMed: 15900494]  [MGI Ref ID J:98496]

Turley SJ; Lee JW; Dutton-Swain N; Mathis D; Benoist C. 2005. Endocrine self and gut non-self intersect in the pancreatic lymph nodes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(49):17729-33. [PubMed: 16317068]  [MGI Ref ID J:104385]

Uhlig HH; McKenzie BS; Hue S; Thompson C; Joyce-Shaikh B; Stepankova R; Robinson N; Buonocore S; Tlaskalova-Hogenova H; Cua DJ; Powrie F. 2006. Differential activity of IL-12 and IL-23 in mucosal and systemic innate immune pathology. Immunity 25(2):309-18. [PubMed: 16919486]  [MGI Ref ID J:113470]

Unsinger J; McDonough JS; Shultz LD; Ferguson TA; Hotchkiss RS. 2009. Sepsis-induced human lymphocyte apoptosis and cytokine production in 'humanized' mice. J Leukoc Biol 86(2):219-27. [PubMed: 19369639]  [MGI Ref ID J:151270]

Van Buul PP; De Rooij DG; Zandman IM; Grigorova M; Van Duyn-Goedhart A. 1995. X-ray-induced chromosomal aberrations and cell killing in somatic and germ cells of the scid mouse. Int J Radiat Biol 67(5):549-55. [PubMed: 7775830]  [MGI Ref ID J:26914]

VanBuskirk KM; O'Neill MT; De La Vega P; Maier AG; Krzych U; Williams J; Dowler MG; Sacci JB Jr; Kangwanrangsan N; Tsuboi T; Kneteman NM; Heppner DG Jr; Murdock BA; Mikolajczak SA; Aly AS; Cowman AF; Kappe SH. 2009. Preerythrocytic, live-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidates by design. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(31):13004-9. [PubMed: 19625622]  [MGI Ref ID J:152010]

Vemuri MC; Schiller E; Naegele JR. 2001. Elevated DNA double strand breaks and apoptosis in the CNS of scid mutant mice. Cell Death Differ 8(3):245-55. [PubMed: 11319607]  [MGI Ref ID J:115402]

Verma-Gandhu M; Bercik P; Motomura Y; Verdu EF; Khan WI; Blennerhassett PA; Wang L; El-Sharkawy RT; Collins SM. 2006. CD4+ T-cell modulation of visceral nociception in mice. Gastroenterology 130(6):1721-8. [PubMed: 16697736]  [MGI Ref ID J:124915]

Viatour P; Ehmer U; Saddic LA; Dorrell C; Andersen JB; Lin C; Zmoos AF; Mazur PK; Schaffer BE; Ostermeier A; Vogel H; Sylvester KG; Thorgeirsson SS; Grompe M; Sage J. 2011. Notch signaling inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma following inactivation of the RB pathway. J Exp Med 208(10):1963-76. [PubMed: 21875955]  [MGI Ref ID J:177573]

Viret C; Leung-Theung-Long S; Serre L; Lamare C; Vignali DA; Malissen B; Carrier A; Guerder S. 2011. Thymus-specific serine protease controls autoreactive CD4 T cell development and autoimmune diabetes in mice. J Clin Invest 121(5):1810-21. [PubMed: 21505262]  [MGI Ref ID J:173941]

Viriyakosol S; Matthias MA; Swancutt MA; Kirkland TN; Vinetz JM. 2006. Toll-like receptor 4 protects against lethal Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae infection and contributes to in vivo control of leptospiral burden. Infect Immun 74(2):887-95. [PubMed: 16428731]  [MGI Ref ID J:105019]

Volkmann A; Doffinger R; Ruther U; Kyewski BA. 1996. Insertional mutagenesis affecting programmed cell death leads to thymic hyperplasia and altered thymopoiesis. J Immunol 156(1):136-45. [PubMed: 8598454]  [MGI Ref ID J:108193]

Vujanovic L; Szymkowski DE; Alber S; Watkins SC; Vujanovic NL; Butterfield LH. 2010. Virally infected and matured human dendritic cells activate natural killer cells via cooperative activity of plasma membrane-bound TNF and IL-15. Blood 116(4):575-83. [PubMed: 20430958]  [MGI Ref ID J:162797]

Waldner H; Sobel RA; Price N; Kuchroo VK. 2006. The autoimmune diabetes locus Idd9 regulates development of type 1 diabetes by affecting the homing of islet-specific T cells. J Immunol 176(9):5455-62. [PubMed: 16622013]  [MGI Ref ID J:131655]

Walzer PD; Runck J; Steele P; White M; Linke MJ; Sidman CL. 1997. Immunodeficient and immunosuppressed mice as models to test anti-Pneumocystis carinii drugs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41(2):251-8. [PubMed: 9021175]  [MGI Ref ID J:39028]

Wang C; Bogue MA; Levitt JM; Roth DB. 1999. Irradiation-mediated rescue of T cell-specific V(D)J recombination and thymocyte differentiation in severe combined immunodeficient mice by bone marrow cells. J Exp Med 190(9):1257-62. [PubMed: 10544197]  [MGI Ref ID J:115093]

Wang GY; So PL; Wang L; Libove E; Wang J; Epstein EH Jr. 2011. Establishment of murine basal cell carcinoma allografts: a potential model for preclinical drug testing and for molecular analysis. J Invest Dermatol 131(11):2298-305. [PubMed: 21833014]  [MGI Ref ID J:182174]

Wang J; Cho S; Ueno A; Cheng L; Xu BY; Desrosiers MD; Shi Y; Yang Y. 2008. Ligand-dependent induction of noninflammatory dendritic cells by anergic invariant NKT cells minimizes autoimmune inflammation. J Immunol 181(4):2438-45. [PubMed: 18684934]  [MGI Ref ID J:140188]

Wang LX; Kang G; Kumar P; Lu W; Li Y; Zhou Y; Li Q; Wood C. 2014. Humanized-BLT mouse model of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(8):3146-51. [PubMed: 24516154]  [MGI Ref ID J:206819]

Wang P; Rodriguez RT; Wang J; Ghodasara A; Kim SK. 2011. Targeting SOX17 in human embryonic stem cells creates unique strategies for isolating and analyzing developing endoderm. Cell Stem Cell 8(3):335-46. [PubMed: 21362573]  [MGI Ref ID J:171124]

Wang Y; Sul HS. 2009. Pref-1 regulates mesenchymal cell commitment and differentiation through Sox9. Cell Metab 9(3):287-302. [PubMed: 19254573]  [MGI Ref ID J:147095]

Warner T; Balish E. 1995. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. A spontaneous and inducible disease in immunodeficient germ-free mice. Am J Pathol 146(4):1017-24. [PubMed: 7717446]  [MGI Ref ID J:24415]

Wecker H; Grusby MJ; Auchincloss H Jr. 1995. Effector cells must recognize antigens expressed in the graft to cause efficient skin graft rejection in SCID mice. Transplantation 59(8):1223-7. [PubMed: 7732570]  [MGI Ref ID J:25110]

Westwell-Roper C; Dai DL; Soukhatcheva G; Potter KJ; van Rooijen N; Ehses JA; Verchere CB. 2011. IL-1 blockade attenuates islet amyloid polypeptide-induced proinflammatory cytokine release and pancreatic islet graft dysfunction. J Immunol 187(5):2755-65. [PubMed: 21813778]  [MGI Ref ID J:179268]

White RE; Ramer PC; Naresh KN; Meixlsperger S; Pinaud L; Rooney C; Savoldo B; Coutinho R; Bodor C; Gribben J; Ibrahim HA; Bower M; Nourse JP; Gandhi MK; Middeldorp J; Cader FZ; Murray P; Munz C; Allday MJ. 2012. EBNA3B-deficient EBV promotes B cell lymphomagenesis in humanized mice and is found in human tumors. J Clin Invest 122(4):1487-502. [PubMed: 22406538]  [MGI Ref ID J:184554]

Wicklein D; Schmidt A; Labitzky V; Ullrich S; Valent P; Schumacher U. 2013. E- and p-selectins are essential for repopulation of chronic myelogenous and chronic eosinophilic leukemias in a scid mouse xenograft model. PLoS One 8(7):e70139. [PubMed: 23922938]  [MGI Ref ID J:204363]

Wigginton JM; Lee JK; Wiltrout TA; Alvord WG; Hixon JA; Subleski J; Back TC; Wiltrout RH. 2002. Synergistic engagement of an ineffective endogenous anti-tumor immune response and induction of IFN-gamma and Fas-ligand-dependent tumor eradication by combined administration of IL-18 and IL-2. J Immunol 169(8):4467-74. [PubMed: 12370382]  [MGI Ref ID J:109850]

Wilkison M; Gauss K; Ran Y; Searles S; Taylor D; Meissner N. 2012. Type 1 interferons suppress accelerated osteoclastogenesis and prevent loss of bone mass during systemic inflammatory responses to pneumocystis lung infection. Am J Pathol 181(1):151-62. [PubMed: 22626807]  [MGI Ref ID J:185537]

Willimann K; Matile H; Weiss NA; Imhof BA. 1995. In vivo sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected human erythrocytes: a severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model for cerebral malaria. J Exp Med 182(3):643-53. [PubMed: 7650476]  [MGI Ref ID J:28277]

Winslow GM; Yager E; Shilo K; Collins DN; Chu FK. 1998. Infection of the laboratory mouse with the intracellular pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Infect Immun 66(8):3892-9. [PubMed: 9673277]  [MGI Ref ID J:48876]

Wong FS; Du W; Thomas IJ; Wen L. 2005. The influence of the major histocompatibility complex on development of autoimmune diabetes in RIP-B7.1 mice. Diabetes 54(7):2032-40. [PubMed: 15983204]  [MGI Ref ID J:109830]

Woods NB; Bottero V; Schmidt M; von Kalle C; Verma IM. 2006. Gene therapy: therapeutic gene causing lymphoma. Nature 440(7088):1123. [PubMed: 16641981]  [MGI Ref ID J:108380]

Wu T; Sun C; Chen Z; Zhen Y; Peng J; Qi Z; Yang X; Zhao Y. 2012. Smad3-deficient CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells prevent allograft rejection via the nitric oxide pathway. J Immunol 189(10):4989-5000. [PubMed: 23045614]  [MGI Ref ID J:190588]

Xu W; Xin L; Soong L; Zhang K. 2011. Sphingolipid degradation by Leishmania major is required for its resistance to acidic pH in the mammalian host. Infect Immun 79(8):3377-87. [PubMed: 21576322]  [MGI Ref ID J:175272]

XuFeng R; Boyer MJ; Shen H; Li Y; Yu H; Gao Y; Yang Q; Wang Q; Cheng T. 2009. ADAR1 is required for hematopoietic progenitor cell survival via RNA editing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(42):17763-8. [PubMed: 19805087]  [MGI Ref ID J:153698]

Yahata T; Ando K; Nakamura Y; Ueyama Y; Shimamura K; Tamaoki N; Kato S; Hotta T. 2002. Functional human T lymphocyte development from cord blood CD34+ cells in nonobese diabetic/Shi-scid, IL-2 receptor gamma null mice. J Immunol 169(1):204-9. [PubMed: 12077246]  [MGI Ref ID J:77239]

Yamasaki H; Sada A; Iwata T; Niwa T; Tomizawa M; Xanthopoulos KG; Koike T; Shiojiri N. 2006. Suppression of C/EBP{alpha} expression in periportal hepatoblasts may stimulate biliary cell differentiation through increased Hnf6 and Hnf1b expression. Development 133(21):4233-43. [PubMed: 17021047]  [MGI Ref ID J:114400]

Yamashita J; Iwamura C; Ito T; Narita M; Hara Y; Sasaki T; Masuda D; Takahashi M; Tsuchiya M; Hada K; Ishikawa M; Matsuo T; Ohno Y; Tanaka H; Maruyama H; Ogawa Y; Nakayama T. 2013. Paraoxonase-1 suppresses experimental colitis via the inhibition of IFN-gamma production from CD4 T cells. J Immunol 191(2):949-60. [PubMed: 23772025]  [MGI Ref ID J:204816]

Yan BS; Pichugin AV; Jobe O; Helming L; Eruslanov EB; Gutierrez-Pabello JA; Rojas M; Shebzukhov YV; Kobzik L; Kramnik I. 2007. Progression of pulmonary tuberculosis and efficiency of bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination are genetically controlled via a common sst1-mediated mechanism of innate immunity. J Immunol 179(10):6919-32. [PubMed: 17982083]  [MGI Ref ID J:154010]

Yang GX; Wu Y; Tsukamoto H; Leung PS; Lian ZX; Rainbow DB; Hunter KM; Morris GA; Lyons PA; Peterson LB; Wicker LS; Gershwin ME; Ridgway WM. 2011. CD8 T cells mediate direct biliary ductule damage in nonobese diabetic autoimmune biliary disease. J Immunol 186(2):1259-67. [PubMed: 21169553]  [MGI Ref ID J:168755]

Yang L; Chen G; Mohanty S; Scott G; Fazal F; Rahman A; Begum S; Hynes RO; Xu L. 2011. GPR56 Regulates VEGF Production and Angiogenesis during Melanoma Progression. Cancer Res 71(16):5558-68. [PubMed: 21724588]  [MGI Ref ID J:175446]

Yang L; Friedland S; Corson N; Xu L. 2014. GPR56 inhibits melanoma growth by internalizing and degrading its ligand TG2. Cancer Res 74(4):1022-31. [PubMed: 24356421]  [MGI Ref ID J:208172]

Yang PL; Althage A; Chung J; Maier H; Wieland S; Isogawa M; Chisari FV. 2010. Immune effectors required for hepatitis B virus clearance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(2):798-802. [PubMed: 20080755]  [MGI Ref ID J:156523]

Yang X; Zhang Y; Yang Y; Lim S; Cao Z; Rak J; Cao Y. 2013. Vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent spatiotemporal dual roles of placental growth factor in modulation of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110(34):13932-7. [PubMed: 23918367]  [MGI Ref ID J:200676]

Yang YG; Chen AM; Garrett LJ; Sergio JJ; Theodore P; Awwad M; VerHalen J; Bodine DM; Sachs DH; Sykes M. 2000. Development and analysis of transgenic mice expressing porcine hematopoietic cytokines: a model for achieving durable porcine hematopoietic chimerism across an extensive xenogeneic barrier. Xenotransplantation 7(1):58-64. [PubMed: 10809058]  [MGI Ref ID J:94302]

Yasuda A; Tsuji O; Shibata S; Nori S; Takano M; Kobayashi Y; Takahashi Y; Fujiyoshi K; Hara CM; Miyawaki A; Okano HJ; Toyama Y; Nakamura M; Okano H. 2011. Significance of remyelination by neural stem/progenitor cells transplanted into the injured spinal cord. Stem Cells 29(12):1983-94. [PubMed: 22028197]  [MGI Ref ID J:190194]

Yasutomo K; Maeda K; Hisaeda H; Good RA; Kuroda Y; Himeno K. 1997. The Fas-deficient SCID mouse exhibits the development of T cells in the thymus. J Immunol 158(10):4729-33. [PubMed: 9144486]  [MGI Ref ID J:40207]

Yeh ES; Lew BO; Means AR. 2006. The loss of PIN1 deregulates cyclin E and sensitizes mouse embryo fibroblasts to genomic instability. J Biol Chem 281(1):241-51. [PubMed: 16223725]  [MGI Ref ID J:105781]

Yi S; Ji M; Wu J; Ma X; Phillips P; Hawthorne WJ; O'Connell PJ. 2012. Adoptive transfer with in vitro expanded human regulatory T cells protects against porcine islet xenograft rejection via interleukin-10 in humanized mice. Diabetes 61(5):1180-91. [PubMed: 22403295]  [MGI Ref ID J:196728]

Yi Z; Diz R; Martin AJ; Morillon YM; Kline DE; Li L; Wang B; Tisch R. 2012. Long-term remission of diabetes in NOD mice is induced by nondepleting anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 antibodies. Diabetes 61(11):2871-80. [PubMed: 22751694]  [MGI Ref ID J:208520]

Yi Z; Li L; Garland A; He Q; Wang H; Katz JD; Tisch R; Wang B. 2012. IFN-gamma receptor deficiency prevents diabetes induction by diabetogenic CD4+, but not CD8+, T cells. Eur J Immunol 42(8):2010-8. [PubMed: 22865049]  [MGI Ref ID J:187880]

Yoshida K; van den Berg TK; Dijkstra CD. 1994. The functional state of follicular dendritic cells in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice: role of the lymphocytes. Eur J Immunol 24(2):464-8. [PubMed: 8299696]  [MGI Ref ID J:16866]

Yoshioka T; Otero J; Chen Y; Kim YM; Koutcher JA; Satagopan J; Reuter V; Carver B; de Stanchina E; Enomoto K; Greenberg NM; Scardino PT; Scher HI; Sawyers CL; Giancotti FG. 2013. beta4 Integrin signaling induces expansion of prostate tumor progenitors. J Clin Invest :. [PubMed: 23348745]  [MGI Ref ID J:194482]

Yoshizawa M; Okada T; Morikawa Y; Sasaki F; Kiso Y. 1994. Murine granulated metrial gland cell population in beige (bg/bg) and SCID (scid/scid) genotypes. J Vet Med Sci 56(2):415-6. [PubMed: 8075241]  [MGI Ref ID J:21177]

Young D; Kearney JF. 1995. Sequence analysis and antigen binding characteristics of Ig SCID Ig+ mice. Int Immunol 7(5):807-19. [PubMed: 7547707]  [MGI Ref ID J:25547]

Yui MA; Rothenberg EV. 2004. Deranged early T cell development in immunodeficient strains of nonobese diabetic mice. J Immunol 173(9):5381-91. [PubMed: 15494484]  [MGI Ref ID J:132809]

Zane NA; Gundelach JH; Lindquist LD; Bram RJ. 2012. Essential role for CAML in follicular B cell survival and homeostasis. J Immunol 188(7):3009-18. [PubMed: 22351938]  [MGI Ref ID J:183110]

Zare F; Bokarewa M; Nenonen N; Bergstrom T; Alexopoulou L; Flavell RA; Tarkowski A. 2004. Arthritogenic properties of double-stranded (viral) RNA. J Immunol 172(9):5656-63. [PubMed: 15100310]  [MGI Ref ID J:89689]

Zavidij O; Ball CR; Herbst F; Fessler S; Schmidt M; von Kalle C; Glimm H. 2010. Hematopoietic activity of human short-term repopulating cells in mobilized peripheral blood cell transplants is restricted to the first 5 months after transplantation. Blood 115(24):5023-5. [PubMed: 20382848]  [MGI Ref ID J:161539]

Zhang B; Strauss AC; Chu S; Li M; Ho Y; Shiang KD; Snyder DS; Huettner CS; Shultz L; Holyoake T; Bhatia R. 2010. Effective targeting of quiescent chronic myelogenous leukemia stem cells by histone deacetylase inhibitors in combination with imatinib mesylate. Cancer Cell 17(5):427-42. [PubMed: 20478526]  [MGI Ref ID J:160523]

Zhang C; Cui Y; Houston S; Chang LJ. 1996. Protective immunity to HIV-1 in SCID/beige mice reconstituted with peripheral blood lymphocytes of exposed but uninfected individuals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(25):14720-5. [PubMed: 8962121]  [MGI Ref ID J:37253]

Zhang H; Zhou X; McQuade T; Li J; Chan FK; Zhang J. 2011. Functional complementation between FADD and RIP1 in embryos and lymphocytes. Nature 471(7338):373-6. [PubMed: 21368761]  [MGI Ref ID J:170816]

Zhang JQ; Okumura C; McCarty T; Shin MS; Mukhopadhyay P; Hori M; Torrey TA; Naghashfar Z; Zhou JX; Lee CH; Roopenian DC; Morse HC 3rd; Davidson WF. 2004. Evidence for selective transformation of autoreactive immature plasma cells in mice deficient in Fasl. J Exp Med 200(11):1467-78. [PubMed: 15583018]  [MGI Ref ID J:94696]

Zhang S; Yajima H; Huynh H; Zheng J; Callen E; Chen HT; Wong N; Bunting S; Lin YF; Li M; Lee KJ; Story M; Gapud E; Sleckman BP; Nussenzweig A; Zhang CC; Chen DJ; Chen BP. 2011. Congenital bone marrow failure in DNA-PKcs mutant mice associated with deficiencies in DNA repair. J Cell Biol 193(2):295-305. [PubMed: 21482716]  [MGI Ref ID J:171351]

Zhang X; Wan G; Mlotshwa S; Vance V; Berger FG; Chen H; Lu X. 2010. Oncogenic Wip1 phosphatase is inhibited by miR-16 in the DNA damage signaling pathway. Cancer Res 70(18):7176-86. [PubMed: 20668064]  [MGI Ref ID J:164245]

Zhao Y; Guo C; Hwang D; Lin B; Dingeldein M; Mihailescu D; Sam S; Sidhwani S; Zhang Y; Jain S; Skidgel RA; Prabhakar BS; Mazzone T; Holterman MJ. 2010. Selective destruction of mouse islet beta cells by human T lymphocytes in a newly-established humanized type 1 diabetic model. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 399(4):629-36. [PubMed: 20691153]  [MGI Ref ID J:164900]

Zheng CF; Guan KL. 1993. Cloning and characterization of two distinct human extracellular signal-regulated kinase activator kinases, MEK1 and MEK2. J Biol Chem 268(15):11435-9. [PubMed: 8388392]  [MGI Ref ID J:31929]

Zheng M; Ramsay AJ; Robichaux MB; Norris KA; Kliment C; Crowe C; Rapaka RR; Steele C; McAllister F; Shellito JE; Marrero L; Schwarzenberger P; Zhong Q; Kolls JK. 2005. CD4+ T cell-independent DNA vaccination against opportunistic infections. J Clin Invest 115(12):3536-44. [PubMed: 16308571]  [MGI Ref ID J:104584]

Zhou P; Szot GL; Guo Z; Kim O; He G; Wang J; Grusby MJ; Newell KA; Thistlethwaite JR; Bluestone JA; Alegre ML. 2000. Role of STAT4 and STAT6 signaling in allograft rejection and CTLA4-Ig-mediated tolerance. J Immunol 165(10):5580-7. [PubMed: 11067913]  [MGI Ref ID J:119580]

Zhu C; Roth DB. 1995. Characterization of coding ends in thymocytes of scid mice: implications for the mechanism of V(D)J recombination. Immunity 2(1):101-12. [PubMed: 7600297]  [MGI Ref ID J:28349]

de Laval B; Pawlikowska P; Petit-Cocault L; Bilhou-Nabera C; Aubin-Houzelstein G; Souyri M; Pouzoulet F; Gaudry M; Porteu F. 2013. Thrombopoietin-increased DNA-PK-dependent DNA repair limits hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell mutagenesis in response to DNA damage. Cell Stem Cell 12(1):37-48. [PubMed: 23246483]  [MGI Ref ID J:194947]

de Oliveira VL; Keijsers RR; van de Kerkhof PC; Seyger MM; Fasse E; Svensson L; Latta M; Norsgaard H; Labuda T; Hupkens P; van Erp PE; Joosten I; Koenen HJ. 2012. Humanized mouse model of skin inflammation is characterized by disturbed keratinocyte differentiation and influx of IL-17A producing T cells. PLoS One 7(10):e45509. [PubMed: 23094018]  [MGI Ref ID J:192181]

van Buul PP; Abramsson-Zetterberg L; Zandman IM; van Duyn-Goedhart A. 1998. Further characterization of the radiosensitivity of the scid mouse. Int J Radiat Biol 74(1):35-41. [PubMed: 9687973]  [MGI Ref ID J:115137]

van Essen D; Dullforce P; Gray D. 2000. Role of B cells in maintaining helper T-cell memory. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 355(1395):351-5. [PubMed: 10794053]  [MGI Ref ID J:106317]

van Rossum AM; Lysenko ES; Weiser JN. 2005. Host and bacterial factors contributing to the clearance of colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a murine model. Infect Immun 73(11):7718-26. [PubMed: 16239576]  [MGI Ref ID J:104292]

van den Pol AN. 2009. Brain trauma enhances transient cytomegalovirus invasion of the brain only in mice that are immunodeficient. J Virol 83(1):420-7. [PubMed: 18945784]  [MGI Ref ID J:153392]

van der Touw W; Cravedi P; Kwan WH; Paz-Artal E; Merad M; Heeger PS. 2013. Cutting edge: Receptors for C3a and C5a modulate stability of alloantigen-reactive induced regulatory T cells. J Immunol 190(12):5921-5. [PubMed: 23690475]  [MGI Ref ID J:204834]

von Herrath MG; Dockter J; Oldstone MB. 1994. How virus induces a rapid or slow onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in a transgenic model. Immunity 1(3):231-42. [PubMed: 7889411]  [MGI Ref ID J:81287]

Health & husbandry

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Room Number           AX18

Colony Maintenance

Breeding & HusbandryWhile maintaining a live colony, these mice are bred as homozygotes for both alleles.
Mating SystemSee Colony Maintenance under the Health & Care tab         (Female x Male)   22-JUN-12
Diet Information LabDiet® 5K52/5K67

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls


Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $199.90MaleHomozygous for Prkdcscid, Hemizygous for Dmdmdx  
$199.90FemaleHomozygous for Prkdcscid, Homozygous for Dmdmdx  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$399.80Homozygous for Prkdcscid, Homozygous for Dmdmdx x Homozygous for Prkdcscid, Hemizygous for Dmdmdx  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing

Live Mice

Price per mouse (US dollars $)GenderGenotypes Provided
Individual Mouse $259.90MaleHomozygous for Prkdcscid, Hemizygous for Dmdmdx  
$259.90FemaleHomozygous for Prkdcscid, Homozygous for Dmdmdx  
Price per Pair (US dollars $)Pair Genotype
$519.80Homozygous for Prkdcscid, Homozygous for Dmdmdx x Homozygous for Prkdcscid, Hemizygous for Dmdmdx  

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Repository-Live.
Repository-Live represents an exclusive set of over 1800 unique mouse models across a vast array of research areas. Breeding colonies provide mice for large and small orders and fluctuate in size depending on current research demand. If a strain is not immediately available, you will receive an estimated availability timeframe for your inquiry or order in 2-3 business days. Repository strains typically are delivered at 4 to 8 weeks of age. Requests for specific ages will be noted but not guaranteed and we do not accept age requests for breeder pairs. However, if cohorts of mice (5 or more of one gender) are needed at a specific age range for experiments, we will do our best to accommodate your age request.

Control Information

  Control
   000476 C57BL/10ScSnJ (approximate)
 
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.
 

Payment Terms and Conditions

Terms are granted by individual review and stated on the customer invoice(s) and account statement. These transactions are payable in U.S. currency within the granted terms. Payment for services, products, shipping containers, and shipping costs that are rendered are expected within the payment terms indicated on the invoice or stated by contract. Invoices and account balances in arrears of stated terms may result in The Jackson Laboratory pursuing collection activities including but not limited to outside agencies and court filings.


See Terms of Use tab for General Terms and Conditions


The Jackson Laboratory's Genotype Promise

The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
Ordering Information
JAX® Mice
Surgical and Preconditioning Services
JAX® Services
Customer Services and Support
Tel: 1-800-422-6423 or 1-207-288-5845
Fax: 1-207-288-6150
Technical Support Email Form

Terms of Use

Terms of Use


General Terms and Conditions


For Licensing and Use Restrictions view the link(s) below:
- Use of MICE by companies or for-profit entities requires a license prior to shipping.

Contact information

General inquiries regarding Terms of Use

Contracts Administration

phone:207-288-6470

JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use

"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCTS" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or services provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than the internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE or PRODUCTS from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON's prior written authorization.

No Warranty

MICE, PRODUCTS AND SERVICES ARE PROVIDED “AS IS”. JACKSON EXTENDS NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, WITH RESPECT TO MICE, PRODUCTS OR SERVICES, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR ANY WARRANTY OF NON-INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, TRADEMARK, OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS.

In case of dissatisfaction for a valid reason and claimed in writing by a purchaser within ninety (90) days of receipt of mice, products or services, JACKSON will, at its option, provide credit or replacement for the mice or product received or the services provided.

No Liability

In no event shall JACKSON, its trustees, directors, officers, employees, and affiliates be liable for any causes of action or damages, including any direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages, arising out of the provision of MICE, PRODUCTS or services, including economic damage or injury to property and lost profits, and including any damage arising from acts or negligence on the part of JACKSON, its agents or employees. Unless prohibited by law, in purchasing or receiving MICE, PRODUCTS or services from JACKSON, purchaser or recipient, or any party claiming by or through them, expressly releases and discharges JACKSON from all such causes of action or damages, and further agrees to defend and indemnify JACKSON from any costs or damages arising out of any third party claims.

MICE and PRODUCTS are to be used in a safe manner and in accordance with all applicable governmental rules and regulations.

The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or services. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS or services may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and services by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.

Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or services shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or services by JACKSON.


(6.8)