Strain Name:

STOCK Terctm1Rdp Dmdmdx/J

Stock Number:


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Use Restrictions Apply, see Terms of Use
Common Names: mdx/mTR;    
The mdx/mTR mouse model combines dystrophin-deficiency with telomere dysfunction/shortening. Because it is expected to recapitulate several of the human characteristics of DMD myopathology (progressive muscle weakness and damage, skeletal muscle fibrosis, diminished muscle stem cell regenerative capacity, dilated cardiomyopathy, heart failure and shortened life-span), these mice may be a superior Duchenne muscular dystrophy model.


The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Strain Information

Type Spontaneous Mutation; Targeted Mutation;
Additional information on Genetically Engineered and Mutant Mice.
Visit our online Nomenclature tutorial.
Specieslaboratory mouse
Generation Definitions
Donating Investigator Paul T. Martin,   The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital
Donating InvestigatorDr. Carol Greider,   Johns Hopkins Univ School of Medicine
Donating Investigator IMR Colony,   The Jackson Laboratory

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscular disorder caused by an imbalance between muscle degeneration and regeneration resulting in muscle degeneration, necrosis, accumulation of fat and fibrosis, and insufficient regeneration/loss of myofibers. The genetic cause of DMD are mutations of the dystrophin muscular dystrophy gene (DMD) on the X chromosome. Both the Dmdmdx (termination codon in exon 23) and Dmdmdx-4Cv (nonsense point mutation in exon 53) mutations in mice are predicted to express a truncated protein. Females heterozygous for either mutation are viable and fertile with no gross phenotypic abnormalities. Homozygous females and hemizygous males are viable and fertile with myopathic features of DMD; although the myopathology is both less severe than the human disease course and variable by mouse strain genetic background.
Specifically, the muscle pathology observed for C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx mice (C57BL/10.mdx ; Stock No. 001801) and B6Ros.Cg-Dmdmdx-4Cv mice (B6.mdx-4Cv ; Stock No. 002378) includes active fiber necrosis, cellular infiltration, a wide range of fiber sizes, and numerous centrally nucleated regenerating fibers. However, despite the absence of dystrophin in skeletal and cardiac muscles, adult C57BL/10.mdx and B6.mdx-4Cv mice fail to exhibit several of features of DMD, including severe muscle weakness, progressive cardiomyopathy and shortened lifespan. In addition, these animals do not show other skeletal muscle characteristics of DMD (such as smaller number of myofibers, accumulation of fat and fibrosis, insufficient myofiber regeneration, and loss of muscle weight).
Differences between the two mutations exist. The Dmdmdx-4Cv allele has very low frequency of reversion to the wildtype allele in skeletal muscle (~10-fold lower frequency than the Dmdmdx mutation). In addition, the Dmdmdx-4Cv mutation affects more of the transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage within the dystrophin gene compared to the Dmdmdx mutation.

While telomere shortening is normally observed over time in mitotically active tissues, muscle tissue exhibits a lower proliferation rate and less telomere shortening with age. However, increased telomere shortening is associated with dystrophic human muscle cells and DMD patients. C57BL/6J mice homozygous for the telomerase RNA component null allele (C57BL/6J.mTR-/- ; Stock No. 004132) lack telomerase activity. Early generation homozygous mice have intact telomeres and appear grossly unaffected and healthy. However, telomere length is progressively shortened with successive generations of breeding mTR-/- mice together; resulting in dysfunction of the reproductive and hematopoietic systems, but little or no skeletal muscle abnormalities.

To investigate how telomere dysfunction affects the severity of muscular dystrophy seen in Dmdmdx mice, The Jackson Laboratory Repository bred C57BL/6J-mTR-/- mice with C57BL/10-mdx mice to create the double mutant mdx/mTR colony (Stock No. 018915). These mice may be expected to have a similar phenotype as the C57BL/6J-congenic mdx/mTRKO mouse model (Stock No. 023535) that has the Dmdmdx-4Cv mutation rather than the Dmdmdx mutation. Those C57BL/6J-congenic mdx/mTRKO mice (Stock No. 023535) exhibit several features of severe human muscular dystrophy, including severe muscle weakness, progressive cardiomyopathy and shortened lifespan. The dystrophy phenotype of Stock No. 023535 becomes more severe with each successive generation of breeding mdx/mTRKO mice together (because such breeding results in progressively shorter telomere lengths with each generation).

In an attempt to offer alleles on well-characterized or multiple genetic backgrounds, alleles are frequently moved to a genetic background different from that on which an allele was first characterized. This is the case for these mice. It should be noted that the phenotype could vary from that originally described. We will modify the strain description if necessary as published results become available.

These mdx/mTR mice harbor two mutations; the mTR null allele (Terctm1Rdp) and the spontaneous X-linked muscular dystrophy mutation (Dmdmdx).

The mTR null allele was designed by Dr. Ronald DePinho (Albert Einstein College of Medicine) with a neomycin cassette replacing the entire telomerase RNA component gene on chromosome 3. C57BL/6J-congenic mice harboring the mTR null allele are described and available from The Jackson Laboratory Repository as Stock No. 004132.

The spontaneous mutation "X chromosome-linked muscular dystrophy" (mdx) has as a C-to-T transition (resulting in a termination codon) at position 3185 within exon 23 of the dystrophin muscular dystrophy gene (Dmd) on the X chromosome. C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx mice are described and available from The Jackson Laboratory Repository as Stock No. 001801.

To generate this mdx/mTR mutant line (Stock No. 018915), C57BL/6J-congenic mTR+/- males (Stock No. 004132) were bred with C57Bl/10ScSn-Dmdmdx/mdx females (Stock No. 001801). Because telomere length is progressively shortened with successive generations of breeding mTR-/- mice together, The Jackson Laboratory Repository will maintain the mdx/mTR colony by breeding:
i) mTR+/-;mdx-/- females with mTR+/+;mdx-/Y males (that is, females heterozygous for the Terctm1Rdp null allele and homozygous for the Dmdmdx allele with males wildtype at the Terc locus and hemizygous for the Dmdmdx allele)
ii) mTR+/+;mdx-/- females with mTR+/-;mdx-/Y males (that is, females wildtype at the Terc locus and homozygous for the Dmdmdx allele with males heterozygous for the Terctm1Rdp null allele and hemizygous for the Dmdmdx allele.
By this method, The Jackson Laboratory can distribute mTR+/-;mdx-/- females and mTR+/-;mdx-/Y males. This allows the receiving investigator to generate their own mTR/mdx homozygous colonies.

Control Information

   See control note: (approximate) Depending upon the nature of the experiment, the following mouse line(s) may be appropriate controls:
C57BL/6J-mTR-/- (Stock No. 004132: B6.Cg-Terctm1Rdp/J)
and/or C57BL/10-mdx (Stock No. 001801: C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx/J)
  Considerations for Choosing Controls

Related Strains

View Strains carrying   Dmdmdx     (7 strains)

Strains carrying   Terctm1Rdp allele
023535   B6.Cg-Terctm1Rdp Dmdmdx-4Cv/BlauJ
004132   B6.Cg-Terctm1Rdp/J
View Strains carrying   Terctm1Rdp     (2 strains)

Strains carrying other alleles of Dmd
002377   B6.Cg-Dmdmdx-3Cv/J
023535   B6.Cg-Terctm1Rdp Dmdmdx-4Cv/BlauJ
002388   B6Ros.Cg-Dmdmdx-2Cv/J
002378   B6Ros.Cg-Dmdmdx-4Cv/J
002379   B6Ros.Cg-Dmdmdx-5Cv/J
View Strains carrying other alleles of Dmd     (5 strains)


Phenotype Information

View Related Disease (OMIM) Terms

Related Disease (OMIM) Terms provided by MGI
- Model with phenotypic similarity to human disease where etiologies involve orthologs. Human genes are associated with this disease. Orthologs of those genes appear in the mouse genotype(s).
Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne Type; DMD
- Potential model based on gene homology relationships. Phenotypic similarity to the human disease has not been tested.
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 3b; CMD3B   (DMD)
Dyskeratosis Congenita, Autosomal Dominant, 1; DKCA1   (TERC)
Muscular Dystrophy, Becker Type; BMD   (DMD)
Pulmonary Fibrosis and/or Bone Marrow Failure, Telomere-Related, 2;   (TERC)
View Mammalian Phenotype Terms

Mammalian Phenotype Terms provided by MGI
      assigned by genotype

The following phenotype information is associated with a similar, but not exact match to this JAX® Mice strain.

Dmdmdx/Y Terctm1Rdp/Terc+

        involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6J * C57BL/10ScSn * SJL
  • muscle phenotype
  • abnormal diaphragm morphology
    • diaphragms exhibit increased diameter compared with control mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • abnormal muscle physiology
    • muscle stem cell proliferation in undamaged muscles is higher than in control mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • centrally nucleated skeletal muscle fibers   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • increased circulating creatine kinase level
    • with increasing age   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)

Dmdmdx/Y Terctm1Rdp/Terctm1Rdp

        involves: 129/Sv * C57BL/6J * C57BL/10ScSn * SJL
  • mortality/aging
  • premature death
    • second generation mice beginning at 48 weeks of age likely due to respiratory failure   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • muscle phenotype
  • abnormal muscle physiology
    • at 8 weeks, second generation mice exhibit increased myofiber membrane permeability compared with control mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
    • second generation mice exhibit impaired muscle stem cell proliferation compared with control mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
    • muscle stem cells from second generation mice exhibit impaired proliferative potential in culture compared with control cells   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
    • muscle stem cells from second generation mice exhibit impaired engrafting after transplantation compared with control cells   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
    • abnormal muscle electrophysiology
      • at 8 weeks, first and second generation mice exhibit decreased muscle twitch force, tetanic force, and tetanic tension compared with control mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
    • muscle weakness
      • at 8 weeks, second generation mice spend less time running on a treadmill than control mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
      • at 8 weeks, second generation mice hold onto a grid for less time than control mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
    • myositis
      • at 8 weeks in second generation mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • abnormal skeletal muscle morphology
    • first and second generation mice exhibit a progressive reduction in revertant myofiber cluster size compared to in control mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
    • abnormal diaphragm morphology
      • diaphragms in first and second generation mice exhibit increased diameter compared with control mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
      • by 76 weeks, diaphragm muscle is atrophied unlike in control mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
    • centrally nucleated skeletal muscle fibers
      • in first and second generation mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
    • decreased satellite cell number
      • in aged second generation mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
    • increased variability of skeletal muscle fiber size
      • at 8 weeks in second generation mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
    • skeletal muscle degeneration
      • in second generation mice with age   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
    • skeletal muscle fibrosis
      • in second generation mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
    • skeletal muscle necrosis
      • at 8 weeks in second generation mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • dystrophic muscle
    • second generation mice exhibit progressive muscular dystrophy with age unlike control mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
    • however, dystrophic phenotypes are improved by transplantation with wild-type muscle stem cells   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • muscular atrophy
    • in first and second generation mice prior to and after damage   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • homeostasis/metabolism phenotype
  • abnormal calcium ion homeostasis
    • second generation mice exhibit calcium depositions in the muscles unlike control mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • impaired exercise endurance
    • at 8 weeks, second generation mice spend less time running on a treadmill than control mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • increased circulating creatine kinase level
    • at 8 weeks in second generation mice, but declining after 60 weeks of age   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • cellular phenotype
  • abnormal telomere length
    • myoblasts from first and second generation exhibit shortened telomeres compared with control cells   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • chromosomal instability
    • myoblasts from first and second generation exhibit fused chromosomes unlike control cells   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • skeleton phenotype
  • kyphosis
    • in aged second generation mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • respiratory system phenotype
  • respiratory failure
    • second generation mice beginning at 48 weeks of age likely due to respiratory failure   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • immune system phenotype
  • myositis
    • at 8 weeks in second generation mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
  • behavior/neurological phenotype
  • impaired exercise endurance
    • at 8 weeks, second generation mice spend less time running on a treadmill than control mice   (MGI Ref ID J:167294)
View Research Applications

Research Applications
This mouse can be used to support research in many areas including:

Cancer Research
Genes Regulating Growth and Proliferation
      DNA Repair
Tumor Suppressor Genes

Cardiovascular Research
Heart Abnormalities

Cell Biology Research
Channel and Transporter Defects
DNA Damage Response
Protein Processing
Signal Transduction

Developmental Biology Research
Internal/Organ Defects
      hematopoietic defects
Lymphoid Tissue Defects
      hematopoietic defects
Mesodermal Defects
      Myogenesis Defects

Hematological Research
Hematopoietic Defects
Immunological Defects

Neurobiology Research
Ataxia (Movement) Defects
Channel and Transporter Defects
Muscular Dystrophy
      Duchenne type

Reproductive Biology Research
Developmental Defects Affecting Gonads
      germ cell deficient

Research Tools
Cardiovascular Research
Cell Biology Research
Genetics Research
Hematological Research
Reproductive Biology Research

Dmdmdx related

Cell Biology Research
Signal Transduction

Neurobiology Research
Muscular Dystrophy
      Duchenne type

Sensorineural Research

Terctm1Rdp related

Cancer Research
Genes Regulating Growth and Proliferation
      DNA Repair
Tumor Suppressor Genes

Cell Biology Research
DNA Damage Response

Research Tools
Cell Biology Research
Genetics Research

Genes & Alleles

Gene & Allele Information provided by MGI

Allele Symbol Dmdmdx
Allele Name X linked muscular dystrophy
Allele Type Spontaneous
Common Name(s) mdx; pke; pvruvate kinase expression;
Strain of OriginC57BL/10ScSn
Gene Symbol and Name Dmd, dystrophin, muscular dystrophy
Chromosome X
Gene Common Name(s) BMD; CMD3B; DXS142; DXS164; DXS206; DXS230; DXS239; DXS268; DXS269; DXS270; DXS272; Dp427; Dp71; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; MRX85; X-linked muscular dystrophy; dys; mdx; pke; pyruvate kinase expression;
Molecular Note This mutation arose in 1981 in a C57BL/10ScSn colony at University of Leicester. A C-to-T transition occurred at position 3185, resulting in a termination codon in place of a glutamine codon. This mutation is predicted to produce a truncated protein. [MGI Ref ID J:102707] [MGI Ref ID J:40541] [MGI Ref ID J:9866]
Allele Symbol Terctm1Rdp
Allele Name targeted mutation 1, Ronald DePinho
Allele Type Targeted (Null/Knockout)
Common Name(s) TR-; Terc-; mTR-; mTerc-;
Mutation Made ByDr. Carol Greider,   Johns Hopkins Univ School of Medicine
Strain of OriginSTOCK 129/Sv and C57BL/6J and SJL
ES Cell Line NameWW6
ES Cell Line StrainSTOCK 129/Sv and C57BL/6J and SJL
Gene Symbol and Name Terc, telomerase RNA component
Chromosome 3
Gene Common Name(s) mTER; mTR;
Molecular Note Replacement of the entire gene with a neomycin cassette. [MGI Ref ID J:43517]


Genotyping Information

Genotyping Protocols

DmdmdxEnd Point, End Point Analysis
Terctm1Rdpalternate2, MELT

Helpful Links

Genotyping resources and troubleshooting


References provided by MGI

Selected Reference(s)

Sacco A; Mourkioti F; Tran R; Choi J; Llewellyn M; Kraft P; Shkreli M; Delp S; Pomerantz JH; Artandi SE; Blau HM. 2010. Short telomeres and stem cell exhaustion model Duchenne muscular dystrophy in mdx/mTR mice. Cell 143(7):1059-71. [PubMed: 21145579]  [MGI Ref ID J:167294]

Additional References

Dmdmdx related

't Hoen PA; de Meijer EJ; Boer JM; Vossen RH; Turk R; Maatman RG; Davies KE; van Ommen GJ; van Deutekom JC; den Dunnen JT. 2008. Generation and characterization of transgenic mice with the full-length human DMD gene. J Biol Chem 283(9):5899-907. [PubMed: 18083704]  [MGI Ref ID J:132320]

Abmayr S; Crawford RW; Chamberlain JS. 2004. Characterization of ARC, apoptosis repressor interacting with CARD, in normal and dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle. Hum Mol Genet 13(2):213-21. [PubMed: 14645204]  [MGI Ref ID J:87688]

Acharyya S; Butchbach ME; Sahenk Z; Wang H; Saji M; Carathers M; Ringel MD; Skipworth RJ; Fearon KC; Hollingsworth MA; Muscarella P; Burghes AH; Rafael-Fortney JA; Guttridge DC. 2005. Dystrophin glycoprotein complex dysfunction: a regulatory link between muscular dystrophy and cancer cachexia. Cancer Cell 8(5):421-32. [PubMed: 16286249]  [MGI Ref ID J:103953]

Acharyya S; Villalta SA; Bakkar N; Bupha-Intr T; Janssen PM; Carathers M; Li ZW; Beg AA; Ghosh S; Sahenk Z; Weinstein M; Gardner KL; Rafael-Fortney JA; Karin M; Tidball JG; Baldwin AS; Guttridge DC. 2007. Interplay of IKK/NF-kappaB signaling in macrophages and myofibers promotes muscle degeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Clin Invest 117(4):889-901. [PubMed: 17380205]  [MGI Ref ID J:121279]

Acuna MJ; Pessina P; Olguin H; Cabrera D; Vio CP; Bader M; Munoz-Canoves P; Santos RA; Cabello-Verrugio C; Brandan E. 2014. Restoration of muscle strength in dystrophic muscle by angiotensin-1-7 through inhibition of TGF-beta signalling. Hum Mol Genet 23(5):1237-49. [PubMed: 24163134]  [MGI Ref ID J:206216]

Agbulut O; Noirez P; Butler-Browne G; Jockusch H. 2004. Specific isomyosin proportions in hyperexcitable and physiologically denervated mouse muscle. FEBS Lett 561(1-3):191-4. [PubMed: 15013776]  [MGI Ref ID J:117992]

Ahmad A; Brinson M; Hodges BL; Chamberlain JS; Amalfitano A. 2000. Mdx mice inducibly expressing dystrophin provide insights into the potential of gene therapy for duchenne muscular dystrophy Hum Mol Genet 9(17):2507-15. [PubMed: 11030755]  [MGI Ref ID J:65413]

Al-Rewashdy H; Ljubicic V; Lin W; Renaud JM; Jasmin BJ. 2015. Utrophin A is essential in mediating the functional adaptations of mdx mouse muscle following chronic AMPK activation. Hum Mol Genet 24(5):1243-55. [PubMed: 25324540]  [MGI Ref ID J:219231]

Alameddine HS; Quantin B; Cartaud A; Dehaupas M; Mandel JL; Fardeau M. 1994. Expression of a recombinant dystrophin in mdx mice using adenovirus vector. Neuromuscul Disord 4(3):193-203. [PubMed: 7919968]  [MGI Ref ID J:19384]

Alfaro LA; Dick SA; Siegel AL; Anonuevo AS; McNagny KM; Megeney LA; Cornelison DD; Rossi FM. 2011. CD34 promotes satellite cell motility and entry into proliferation to facilitate efficient skeletal muscle regeneration. Stem Cells 29(12):2030-41. [PubMed: 21997891]  [MGI Ref ID J:190197]

Altamirano F; Valladares D; Henriquez-Olguin C; Casas M; Lopez JR; Allen PD; Jaimovich E. 2013. Nifedipine treatment reduces resting calcium concentration, oxidative and apoptotic gene expression, and improves muscle function in dystrophic mdx mice. PLoS One 8(12):e81222. [PubMed: 24349043]  [MGI Ref ID J:209732]

Amenta AR; Yilmaz A; Bogdanovich S; McKechnie BA; Abedi M; Khurana TS; Fallon JR. 2011. Biglycan recruits utrophin to the sarcolemma and counters dystrophic pathology in mdx mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(2):762-7. [PubMed: 21187385]  [MGI Ref ID J:170566]

Amirouche A; Tadesse H; Lunde JA; Belanger G; Cote J; Jasmin BJ. 2013. Activation of p38 signaling increases utrophin A expression in skeletal muscle via the RNA-binding protein KSRP and inhibition of AU-rich element-mediated mRNA decay: implications for novel DMD therapeutics. Hum Mol Genet 22(15):3093-111. [PubMed: 23575223]  [MGI Ref ID J:198527]

Anderson JE. 2000. A role for nitric oxide in muscle repair: nitric oxide-mediated activation of muscle satellite cells. Mol Biol Cell 11(5):1859-74. [PubMed: 10793157]  [MGI Ref ID J:120497]

Anderson JE. 1991. Dystrophic changes in mdx muscle regenerating from denervation and devascularization. Muscle Nerve 14(3):268-79. [PubMed: 2041548]  [MGI Ref ID J:116345]

Anderson JE; Bressler BH; Ovalle WK. 1988. Functional regeneration in the hindlimb skeletal muscle of the mdx mouse. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 9(6):499-515. [PubMed: 3209690]  [MGI Ref ID J:152749]

Anderson JE; Garrett K; Moor A; McIntosh L; Penner K. 1998. Dystrophy and myogenesis in mdx diaphragm muscle. Muscle Nerve 21(9):1153-65. [PubMed: 9703441]  [MGI Ref ID J:116331]

Anderson JE; Kao L; Bressler BH; Gruenstein E. 1990. Analysis of dystrophin in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles from mdx and dy2J mice at different ages. Muscle Nerve 13(1):6-11. [PubMed: 2183046]  [MGI Ref ID J:116019]

Anderson JE; Lentz DL; Johnson RB. 1993. Recovery from disuse osteopenia coincident to restoration of muscle strength in mdx mice. Bone 14(4):625-34. [PubMed: 8274305]  [MGI Ref ID J:17563]

Anderson JE; Liu L; Kardami E. 1994. The effects of hyperthyroidism on muscular dystrophy in the mdx mouse: greater dystrophy in cardiac and soleus muscle. Muscle Nerve 17(1):64-73. [PubMed: 8264704]  [MGI Ref ID J:115865]

Anderson JE; Liu L; Kardami E; Murphy LJ. 1994. The pituitary-muscle axis in mdx dystrophic mice. J Neurol Sci 123(1-2):80-7. [PubMed: 8064326]  [MGI Ref ID J:18080]

Anderson JE; McIntosh LM; Moor AN; Yablonka-Reuveni Z. 1998. Levels of MyoD protein expression following injury of mdx and normal limb muscle are modified by thyroid hormone. J Histochem Cytochem 46(1):59-67. [PubMed: 9407021]  [MGI Ref ID J:45263]

Anderson JL; Head SI; Morley JW. 2003. Altered inhibitory input to Purkinje cells of dystrophin-deficient mice. Brain Res 982(2):280-3. [PubMed: 12915262]  [MGI Ref ID J:85437]

Anderson JL; Head SI; Morley JW. 2004. Long-term depression is reduced in cerebellar Purkinje cells of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. Brain Res 1019(1-2):289-92. [PubMed: 15306266]  [MGI Ref ID J:91994]

Angoli D; Corona P; Baresi R; Mora M; Wanke E. 1997. Laminin-alpha2 but not -alpha1-mediated adhesion of human (Duchenne) and murine (mdx) dystrophic myotubes is seriously defective. FEBS Lett 408(3):341-4. [PubMed: 9188790]  [MGI Ref ID J:40762]

Ardite E; Perdiguero E; Vidal B; Gutarra S; Serrano AL; Munoz-Canoves P. 2012. PAI-1-regulated miR-21 defines a novel age-associated fibrogenic pathway in muscular dystrophy. J Cell Biol 196(1):163-75. [PubMed: 22213800]  [MGI Ref ID J:179966]

Asai A; Sahani N; Kaneki M; Ouchi Y; Martyn JA; Yasuhara SE. 2007. Primary role of functional ischemia, quantitative evidence for the two-hit mechanism, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor therapy in mouse muscular dystrophy. PLoS ONE 2(8):e806. [PubMed: 17726536]  [MGI Ref ID J:129397]

Ascah A; Khairhallah M; Daussin F; Bourcier-Lucas C; Godin R; Allen BG; Petrof BJ; Des Rosiers C; Burelle Y. 2010. STRESS-INDUCED OPENING OF THE PERMEABILITY TRANSITION PORE IN THE DYSTROPHIN-DEFICIENT HEART IS ATTENUATED BY ACUTE TREATMENT WITH SILDENAFIL. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol :. [PubMed: 20971771]  [MGI Ref ID J:166227]

Asselin I; Tremblay M; Vilquin JT; Guerette B; Roy R; Tremblay JP. 1995. Quantification of normal dystrophin mRNA following myoblast transplantation in mdx mice. Muscle Nerve 18(9):980-6. [PubMed: 7643878]  [MGI Ref ID J:28866]

Asselin I; Tremblay M; Vilquin JT; Guerette B; Tremblay JP. 1994. Polymerase chain reaction-based assay to assess the success of myoblast transplantation in mdx mice. Transplant Proc 26(6):3389. [PubMed: 7527970]  [MGI Ref ID J:21945]

Attal P; Lambert F; Marchand-Adam S; Bobin S; Pourny JC; Chemla D; Lecarpentier Y; Coirault C. 2000. Severe mechanical dysfunction in pharyngeal muscle from adult mdx mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162(1):278-81. [PubMed: 10903254]  [MGI Ref ID J:103161]

Auda-Boucher G; Rouaud T; Lafoux A; Levitsky D; Huchet-Cadiou C; Feron M; Guevel L; Talon S; Fontaine-Perus J; Gardahaut MF. 2007. Fetal muscle-derived cells can repair dystrophic muscles in mdx mice. Exp Cell Res 313(5):997-1007. [PubMed: 17275812]  [MGI Ref ID J:119767]

Augustin M; Klopp N; Ewald K; Jockusch H. 1998. A multicopy c-Myc transgene as a nuclear label: overgrowth of Myctg50 cells in allophenic mice. Cell Biol Int 22(6):401-11. [PubMed: 10328848]  [MGI Ref ID J:127669]

Austin L; Bower JJ; Bennett TM; Lynch GS; Kapsa R; White JD; Barnard W; Gregorevic P; Byrne E. 2000. Leukemia inhibitory factor ameliorates muscle fiber degeneration in the mdx mouse. Muscle Nerve 23(11):1700-5. [PubMed: 11054748]  [MGI Ref ID J:116201]

Azzena GB; Mancinelli R. 1999. Nitric oxide regenerates the normal colonic peristaltic activity in mdx dystrophic mouse. Neurosci Lett 261(1-2):9-12. [PubMed: 10081914]  [MGI Ref ID J:107984]

Baccari MC; Romagnani P; Calamai F. 2000. Impaired nitrergic relaxations in the gastric fundus of dystrophic (mdx) mice. Neurosci Lett 282(1-2):105-8. [PubMed: 10713407]  [MGI Ref ID J:107938]

Badalamente MA; Stracher A. 2000. Delay of muscle degeneration and necrosis in mdx mice by calpain inhibition. Muscle Nerve 23(1):106-11. [PubMed: 10590413]  [MGI Ref ID J:116195]

Bagher P; Duan D; Segal SS. 2011. Evidence for impaired neurovascular transmission in a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Appl Physiol 110(3):601-9. [PubMed: 21109597]  [MGI Ref ID J:185890]

Bakker AJ; Head SI; Williams DA; Stephenson DG. 1993. Ca2+ levels in myotubes grown from the skeletal muscle of dystrophic (mdx) and normal mice. J Physiol 460:1-13. [PubMed: 8487190]  [MGI Ref ID J:15813]

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Terctm1Rdp related

Akbay EA; Contreras CM; Perera SA; Sullivan JP; Broaddus RR; Schorge JO; Ashfaq R; Saboorian H; Wong KK; Castrillon DH. 2008. Differential roles of telomere attrition in type I and II endometrial carcinogenesis. Am J Pathol 173(2):536-44. [PubMed: 18599611]  [MGI Ref ID J:138286]

Allsopp RC; Morin GB; DePinho R; Harley CB; Weissman IL. 2003. Telomerase is required to slow telomere shortening and extend replicative lifespan of HSCs during serial transplantation. Blood 102(2):517-20. [PubMed: 12663456]  [MGI Ref ID J:115695]

Argilla D; Chin K; Singh M; Hodgson JG; Bosenberg M; de Solorzano CO; Lockett S; DePinho RA; Gray J; Hanahan D. 2004. Absence of telomerase and shortened telomeres have minimal effects on skin and pancreatic carcinogenesis elicited by viral oncogenes. Cancer Cell 6(4):373-85. [PubMed: 15488760]  [MGI Ref ID J:94774]

Armanios M; Alder JK; Parry EM; Karim B; Strong MA; Greider CW. 2009. Short telomeres are sufficient to cause the degenerative defects associated with aging. Am J Hum Genet 85(6):823-32. [PubMed: 19944403]  [MGI Ref ID J:158466]

Artandi SE; Chang S; Lee SL; Alson S; Gottlieb GJ; Chin L; DePinho RA. 2000. Telomere dysfunction promotes non-reciprocal translocations and epithelial cancers in mice [see comments] Nature 406(6796):641-5. [PubMed: 10949306]  [MGI Ref ID J:63843]

Autexier C. 2008. POT of gold: modeling dyskeratosis congenita in the mouse. Genes Dev 22(13):1731-6. [PubMed: 18593874]  [MGI Ref ID J:137424]

Begus-Nahrmann Y; Hartmann D; Kraus J; Eshraghi P; Scheffold A; Grieb M; Rasche V; Schirmacher P; Lee HW; Kestler HA; Lechel A; Rudolph KL. 2012. Transient telomere dysfunction induces chromosomal instability and promotes carcinogenesis. J Clin Invest 122(6):2283-8. [PubMed: 22622037]  [MGI Ref ID J:190483]

Begus-Nahrmann Y; Lechel A; Obenauf AC; Nalapareddy K; Peit E; Hoffmann E; Schlaudraff F; Liss B; Schirmacher P; Kestler H; Danenberg E; Barker N; Clevers H; Speicher MR; Rudolph KL. 2009. p53 deletion impairs clearance of chromosomal-instable stem cells in aging telomere-dysfunctional mice. Nat Genet 41(10):1138-43. [PubMed: 19718028]  [MGI Ref ID J:155011]

Benetti R; Garcia-Cao M; Blasco MA. 2007. Telomere length regulates the epigenetic status of mammalian telomeres and subtelomeres. Nat Genet 39(2):243-50. [PubMed: 17237781]  [MGI Ref ID J:118330]

Bernardes de Jesus B; Schneeberger K; Vera E; Tejera A; Harley CB; Blasco MA. 2011. The telomerase activator TA-65 elongates short telomeres and increases health span of adult/old mice without increasing cancer incidence. Aging Cell 10(4):604-21. [PubMed: 21426483]  [MGI Ref ID J:216118]

Bhattacharjee RN; Banerjee B; Akira S; Hande MP. 2010. Telomere-mediated chromosomal instability triggers TLR4 induced inflammation and death in mice. PLoS One 5(7):e11873. [PubMed: 20686699]  [MGI Ref ID J:163068]

Blanco R; Munoz P; Flores JM; Klatt P; Blasco MA. 2007. Telomerase abrogation dramatically accelerates TRF2-induced epithelial carcinogenesis. Genes Dev 21(2):206-20. [PubMed: 17234886]  [MGI Ref ID J:117418]

Blasco MA; Lee HW; Hande MP; Samper E; Lansdorp PM; DePinho RA ; Greider CW. 1997. Telomere shortening and tumor formation by mouse cells lacking telomerase RNA [see comments] Cell 91(1):25-34. [PubMed: 9335332]  [MGI Ref ID J:43517]

Bojovic B; Booth RE; Jin Y; Zhou X; Crowe DL. 2015. Alternative lengthening of telomeres in cancer stem cells in vivo. Oncogene 34(5):611-20. [PubMed: 24531712]  [MGI Ref ID J:218628]

Bojovic B; Crowe DL. 2011. Telomere dysfunction promotes metastasis in a TERC null mouse model of head and neck cancer. Mol Cancer Res 9(7):901-13. [PubMed: 21593138]  [MGI Ref ID J:205225]

Brennan TA; Egan KP; Lindborg CM; Chen Q; Sweetwyne MT; Hankenson KD; Xie SX; Johnson FB; Pignolo RJ. 2014. Mouse models of telomere dysfunction phenocopy skeletal changes found in human age-related osteoporosis. Dis Model Mech 7(5):583-92. [PubMed: 24626990]  [MGI Ref ID J:213181]

Bu DX; Johansson ME; Ren J; Xu DW; Johnson FB; Edfeldt K; Yan ZQ. 2010. Nuclear factor {kappa}B-mediated transactivation of telomerase prevents intimal smooth muscle cell from replicative senescence during vascular repair. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 30(12):2604-10. [PubMed: 20864668]  [MGI Ref ID J:183205]

Cayuela ML; Flores JM; Blasco MA. 2005. The telomerase RNA component Terc is required for the tumour-promoting effects of Tert overexpression. EMBO Rep 6(3):268-74. [PubMed: 15731767]  [MGI Ref ID J:96945]

Chamberlain JS. 2010. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age. Cell 143(7):1040-2. [PubMed: 21183068]  [MGI Ref ID J:167707]

Chang S. 2005. Modeling aging and cancer in the telomerase knockout mouse. Mutat Res 576(1-2):39-53. [PubMed: 15927211]  [MGI Ref ID J:99987]

Chang S; Multani AS; Cabrera NG; Naylor ML; Laud P; Lombard D; Pathak S; Guarente L; DePinho RA. 2004. Essential role of limiting telomeres in the pathogenesis of Werner syndrome. Nat Genet 36(8):877-82. [PubMed: 15235603]  [MGI Ref ID J:91715]

Chiang YJ; Hemann MT; Hathcock KS; Tessarollo L; Feigenbaum L; Hahn WC; Hodes RJ. 2004. Expression of telomerase RNA template, but not telomerase reverse transcriptase, is limiting for telomere length maintenance in vivo. Mol Cell Biol 24(16):7024-31. [PubMed: 15282303]  [MGI Ref ID J:92243]

Chin L; Artandi SE; Shen Q; Tam A; Lee SL; Gottlieb GJ; Greider CW; DePinho RA. 1999. p53 deficiency rescues the adverse effects of telomere loss and cooperates with telomere dysfunction to accelerate carcinogenesis. Cell 97(4):527-38. [PubMed: 10338216]  [MGI Ref ID J:54988]

Choudhury AR; Ju Z; Djojosubroto MW; Schienke A; Lechel A; Schaetzlein S; Jiang H; Stepczynska A; Wang C; Buer J; Lee HW; von Zglinicki T; Ganser A; Schirmacher P; Nakauchi H; Rudolph KL. 2007. Cdkn1a deletion improves stem cell function and lifespan of mice with dysfunctional telomeres without accelerating cancer formation. Nat Genet 39(1):99-105. [PubMed: 17143283]  [MGI Ref ID J:117492]

Cosme-Blanco W; Shen MF; Lazar AJ; Pathak S; Lozano G; Multani AS; Chang S. 2007. Telomere dysfunction suppresses spontaneous tumorigenesis in vivo by initiating p53-dependent cellular senescence. EMBO Rep 8(5):497-503. [PubMed: 17396137]  [MGI Ref ID J:208249]

Denchi EL. 2009. Give me a break: How telomeres suppress the DNA damage response. DNA Repair (Amst) 8(9):1118-26. [PubMed: 19482563]  [MGI Ref ID J:151432]

Du X; Shen J; Kugan N; Furth EE; Lombard DB; Cheung C; Pak S; Luo G; Pignolo RJ; DePinho RA; Guarente L; Johnson FB. 2004. Telomere shortening exposes functions for the mouse werner and bloom syndrome genes. Mol Cell Biol 24(19):8437-46. [PubMed: 15367665]  [MGI Ref ID J:93016]

Espejel S; Franco S; Rodriguez-Perales S; Bouffler SD; Cigudosa JC; Blasco MA. 2002. Mammalian Ku86 mediates chromosomal fusions and apoptosis caused by critically short telomeres. EMBO J 21(9):2207-19. [PubMed: 11980718]  [MGI Ref ID J:76498]

Espejel S; Franco S; Sgura A; Gae D; Bailey SM; Taccioli GE; Blasco MA. 2002. Functional interaction between DNA-PKcs and telomerase in telomere length maintenance. EMBO J 21(22):6275-87. [PubMed: 12426399]  [MGI Ref ID J:111398]

Espejel S; Klatt P; Menissier-de Murcia J; Martin-Caballero J; Flores JM; Taccioli G; de Murcia G; Blasco MA. 2004. Impact of telomerase ablation on organismal viability, aging, and tumorigenesis in mice lacking the DNA repair proteins PARP-1, Ku86, or DNA-PKcs. J Cell Biol 167(4):627-38. [PubMed: 15545322]  [MGI Ref ID J:94117]

Farazi PA; Glickman J; Jiang S; Yu A; Rudolph KL; DePinho RA. 2003. Differential impact of telomere dysfunction on initiation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Res 63(16):5021-7. [PubMed: 12941829]  [MGI Ref ID J:85141]

Feldser D; Strong MA; Greider CW. 2006. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm) is not required for telomerase-mediated elongation of short telomeres. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(7):2249-51. [PubMed: 16467146]  [MGI Ref ID J:106070]

Feldser DM; Greider CW. 2007. Short telomeres limit tumor progression in vivo by inducing senescence. Cancer Cell 11(5):461-9. [PubMed: 17433785]  [MGI Ref ID J:121351]

Ferron S; Mira H; Franco S; Cano-Jaimez M; Bellmunt E; Ramirez C; Farinas I; Blasco MA. 2004. Telomere shortening and chromosomal instability abrogates proliferation of adult but not embryonic neural stem cells. Development 131(16):4059-70. [PubMed: 15269166]  [MGI Ref ID J:92059]

Ferron SR; Marques-Torrejon MA; Mira H; Flores I; Taylor K; Blasco MA; Farinas I. 2009. Telomere shortening in neural stem cells disrupts neuronal differentiation and neuritogenesis. J Neurosci 29(46):14394-407. [PubMed: 19923274]  [MGI Ref ID J:158281]

Flores I; Blasco MA. 2009. A p53-dependent response limits epidermal stem cell functionality and organismal size in mice with short telomeres. PLoS ONE 4(3):e4934. [PubMed: 19295915]  [MGI Ref ID J:147468]

Flores I; Canela A; Vera E; Tejera A; Cotsarelis G; Blasco MA. 2008. The longest telomeres: a general signature of adult stem cell compartments. Genes Dev 22(5):654-67. [PubMed: 18283121]  [MGI Ref ID J:131719]

Flores I; Cayuela ML; Blasco MA. 2005. Effects of telomerase and telomere length on epidermal stem cell behavior. Science 309(5738):1253-6. [PubMed: 16037417]  [MGI Ref ID J:100470]

Flores I; Evan G; Blasco MA. 2006. Genetic analysis of myc and telomerase interactions in vivo. Mol Cell Biol 26(16):6130-8. [PubMed: 16880523]  [MGI Ref ID J:111405]

Franco S; Alsheimer M; Herrera E; Benavente R; Blasco MA. 2002. Mammalian meiotic telomeres: composition and ultrastructure in telomerase-deficient mice. Eur J Cell Biol 81(6):335-40. [PubMed: 12113474]  [MGI Ref ID J:102812]

Franco S; Canela A; Klatt P; Blasco MA. 2005. Effectors of mammalian telomere dysfunction: a comparative transcriptome analysis using mouse models. Carcinogenesis 26(9):1613-26. [PubMed: 15860505]  [MGI Ref ID J:100743]

Franco S; Segura I; Riese HH; Blasco MA. 2002. Decreased B16F10 melanoma growth and impaired vascularization in telomerase-deficient mice with critically short telomeres. Cancer Res 62(2):552-9. [PubMed: 11809709]  [MGI Ref ID J:74001]

Franco S; van de Vrugt HJ; Fernandez P; Aracil M; Arwert F; Blasco MA. 2004. Telomere dynamics in Fancg-deficient mouse and human cells. Blood 104(13):3927-35. [PubMed: 15319283]  [MGI Ref ID J:95292]

Frescas D; de Lange T. 2014. A TIN2 dyskeratosis congenita mutation causes telomerase-independent telomere shortening in mice. Genes Dev 28(2):153-66. [PubMed: 24449270]  [MGI Ref ID J:207367]

Garcia-Beccaria M; Martinez P; Flores JM; Blasco MA. 2014. In vivo role of checkpoint kinase 2 in signaling telomere dysfunction. Aging Cell 13(5):810-6. [PubMed: 24920220]  [MGI Ref ID J:217323]

Garcia-Cao I; Garcia-Cao M; Tomas-Loba A; Martin-Caballero J; Flores JM; Klatt P; Blasco MA; Serrano M. 2006. Increased p53 activity does not accelerate telomere-driven ageing. EMBO Rep 7(5):546-52. [PubMed: 16582880]  [MGI Ref ID J:116879]

Ghosh A; Saginc G; Leow SC; Khattar E; Shin EM; Yan TD; Wong M; Zhang Z; Li G; Sung WK; Zhou J; Chng WJ; Li S; Liu E; Tergaonkar V. 2012. Telomerase directly regulates NF-kappaB-dependent transcription. Nat Cell Biol 14(12):1270-81. [PubMed: 23159929]  [MGI Ref ID J:195250]

Gonzalez-Suarez E; Goytisolo FA; Flores JM; Blasco MA. 2003. Telomere dysfunction results in enhanced organismal sensitivity to the alkylating agent N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Cancer Res 63(21):7047-50. [PubMed: 14612493]  [MGI Ref ID J:87029]

Gonzalez-Suarez E; Samper E; Flores JM; Blasco MA. 2000. Telomerase-deficient mice with short telomeres are resistant to skin tumorigenesis Nat Genet 26(1):114-7. [PubMed: 10973262]  [MGI Ref ID J:64363]

Greenberg RA; Chin L; Femino A; Lee KH; Gottlieb GJ; Singer RH; Greider CW; DePinho RA. 1999. Short dysfunctional telomeres impair tumorigenesis in the INK4a(delta2/3) cancer-prone mouse. Cell 97(4):515-25. [PubMed: 10338215]  [MGI Ref ID J:54989]

Gu BW; Bessler M; Mason PJ. 2008. A pathogenic dyskerin mutation impairs proliferation and activates a DNA damage response independent of telomere length in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(29):10173-8. [PubMed: 18626023]  [MGI Ref ID J:138335]

Guo N; Parry EM; Li LS; Kembou F; Lauder N; Hussain MA; Berggren PO; Armanios M. 2011. Short telomeres compromise beta-cell signaling and survival. PLoS One 6(3):e17858. [PubMed: 21423765]  [MGI Ref ID J:171692]

Hande MP; Samper E; Lansdorp P; Blasco MA. 1999. Telomere length dynamics and chromosomal instability in cells derived from telomerase null mice. J Cell Biol 144(4):589-601. [PubMed: 10037783]  [MGI Ref ID J:53241]

Hao LY; Armanios M; Strong MA; Karim B; Feldser DM; Huso D; Greider CW. 2005. Short telomeres, even in the presence of telomerase, limit tissue renewal capacity. Cell 123(6):1121-31. [PubMed: 16360040]  [MGI Ref ID J:115778]

Hao LY; Greider CW. 2004. Genomic instability in both wild-type and telomerase null MEFs. Chromosoma 113(2):62-8. [PubMed: 15258806]  [MGI Ref ID J:103501]

Hao LY; Strong MA; Greider CW. 2004. Phosphorylation of H2AX at short telomeres in T cells and fibroblasts. J Biol Chem 279(43):45148-54. [PubMed: 15322096]  [MGI Ref ID J:93974]

Hathcock KS; Hemann MT; Opperman KK; Strong MA; Greider CW; Hodes RJ. 2002. Haploinsufficiency of mTR results in defects in telomere elongation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99(6):3591-6. [PubMed: 11904421]  [MGI Ref ID J:81782]

He H; Wang Y; Guo X; Ramchandani S; Ma J; Shen MF; Garcia DA; Deng Y; Multani AS; You MJ; Chang S. 2009. Pot1b deletion and telomerase haploinsufficiency in mice initiate an ATR-dependent DNA damage response and elicit phenotypes resembling dyskeratosis congenita. Mol Cell Biol 29(1):229-40. [PubMed: 18936156]  [MGI Ref ID J:144553]

Hemann MT; Greider CW. 1999. G-strand overhangs on telomeres in telomerase-deficient mouse cells. Nucleic Acids Res 27(20):3964-9. [PubMed: 10497259]  [MGI Ref ID J:58129]

Hemann MT; Strong MA; Hao LY; Greider CW. 2001. The shortest telomere, not average telomere length, is critical for cell viability and chromosome stability. Cell 107(1):67-77. [PubMed: 11595186]  [MGI Ref ID J:107711]

Herrera E; Martinez-A C; Blasco MA. 2000. Impaired germinal center reaction in mice with short telomeres. EMBO J 19(3):472-81. [PubMed: 10654945]  [MGI Ref ID J:60223]

Herrera E; Samper E; Blasco MA. 1999. Telomere shortening in mTR-/- embryos is associated with failure to close the neural tube. EMBO J 18(5):1172-81. [PubMed: 10064584]  [MGI Ref ID J:53600]

Herrera E; Samper E; Martin-Caballero J; Flores JM; Lee HW; Blasco MA. 1999. Disease states associated with telomerase deficiency appear earlier in mice with short telomeres. EMBO J 18(11):2950-60. [PubMed: 10357808]  [MGI Ref ID J:55545]

Hockemeyer D; Daniels JP; Takai H; de Lange T. 2006. Recent expansion of the telomeric complex in rodents: Two distinct POT1 proteins protect mouse telomeres. Cell 126(1):63-77. [PubMed: 16839877]  [MGI Ref ID J:112185]

Hockemeyer D; Palm W; Wang RC; Couto SS; de Lange T. 2008. Engineered telomere degradation models dyskeratosis congenita. Genes Dev 22(13):1773-85. [PubMed: 18550783]  [MGI Ref ID J:137372]

Hu J; Hwang SS; Liesa M; Gan B; Sahin E; Jaskelioff M; Ding Z; Ying H; Boutin AT; Zhang H; Johnson S; Ivanova E; Kost-Alimova M; Protopopov A; Wang YA; Shirihai OS; Chin L; Depinho RA. 2012. Antitelomerase Therapy Provokes ALT and Mitochondrial Adaptive Mechanisms in Cancer. Cell 148(4):651-63. [PubMed: 22341440]  [MGI Ref ID J:181456]

Jackson SR; Lee J; Reddy R; Williams GN; Kikuchi A; Freiberg Y; Warburton D; Driscoll B. 2011. Partial pneumonectomy of telomerase null mice carrying shortened telomeres initiates cell growth arrest resulting in a limited compensatory growth response. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 300(6):L898-909. [PubMed: 21460122]  [MGI Ref ID J:174244]

Jiang H; Schiffer E; Song Z; Wang J; Zurbig P; Thedieck K; Moes S; Bantel H; Saal N; Jantos J; Brecht M; Jeno P; Hall MN; Hager K; Manns MP; Hecker H; Ganser A; Dohner K; Bartke A; Meissner C; Mischak H; Ju Z; Rudolph KL. 2008. Proteins induced by telomere dysfunction and DNA damage represent biomarkers of human aging and disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(32):11299-304. [PubMed: 18695223]  [MGI Ref ID J:140477]

Ju Z; Jiang H; Jaworski M; Rathinam C; Gompf A; Klein C; Trumpp A; Rudolph KL. 2007. Telomere dysfunction induces environmental alterations limiting hematopoietic stem cell function and engraftment. Nat Med 13(6):742-7. [PubMed: 17486088]  [MGI Ref ID J:121891]

Karlseder J; Kachatrian L; Takai H; Mercer K; Hingorani S; Jacks T; de Lange T. 2003. Targeted deletion reveals an essential function for the telomere length regulator Trf1. Mol Cell Biol 23(18):6533-41. [PubMed: 12944479]  [MGI Ref ID J:85440]

Khan AM; Babcock AA; Saeed H; Myhre CL; Kassem M; Finsen B. 2015. Telomere dysfunction reduces microglial numbers without fully inducing an aging phenotype. Neurobiol Aging 36(6):2164-75. [PubMed: 25892207]  [MGI Ref ID J:222704]

Khoo CM; Carrasco DR; Bosenberg MW; Paik JH; Depinho RA. 2007. Ink4a/Arf tumor suppressor does not modulate the degenerative conditions or tumor spectrum of the telomerase-deficient mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(10):3931-6. [PubMed: 17360455]  [MGI Ref ID J:120065]

Koh CM; Khattar E; Leow SC; Liu CY; Muller J; Ang WX; Li Y; Franzoso G; Li S; Guccione E; Tergaonkar V. 2015. Telomerase regulates MYC-driven oncogenesis independent of its reverse transcriptase activity. J Clin Invest 125(5):2109-22. [PubMed: 25893605]  [MGI Ref ID J:222699]

Laud PR; Multani AS; Bailey SM; Wu L; Ma J; Kingsley C; Lebel M; Pathak S; DePinho RA; Chang S. 2005. Elevated telomere-telomere recombination in WRN-deficient, telomere dysfunctional cells promotes escape from senescence and engagement of the ALT pathway. Genes Dev 19(21):2560-70. [PubMed: 16264192]  [MGI Ref ID J:102524]

Le R; Kou Z; Jiang Y; Li M; Huang B; Liu W; Li H; Kou X; He W; Rudolph KL; Ju Z; Gao S. 2014. Enhanced telomere rejuvenation in pluripotent cells reprogrammed via nuclear transfer relative to induced pluripotent stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 14(1):27-39. [PubMed: 24268696]  [MGI Ref ID J:205597]

Lechel A; Holstege H; Begus Y; Schienke A; Kamino K; Lehmann U; Kubicka S; Schirmacher P; Jonkers J; Rudolph KL. 2007. Telomerase deletion limits progression of p53-mutant hepatocellular carcinoma with short telomeres in chronic liver disease. Gastroenterology 132(4):1465-75. [PubMed: 17433324]  [MGI Ref ID J:128326]

Lee HW; Blasco MA; Gottlieb GJ; Horner JW 2nd; Greider CW; DePinho RA. 1998. Essential role of mouse telomerase in highly proliferative organs. Nature 392(6676):569-74. [PubMed: 9560153]  [MGI Ref ID J:46933]

Lee J; Reddy R; Barsky L; Scholes J; Chen H; Shi W; Driscoll B. 2009. Lung alveolar integrity is compromised by telomere shortening in telomerase-null mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 296(1):L57-70. [PubMed: 18952756]  [MGI Ref ID J:144864]

Lee J; Sung YH; Cheong C; Choi YS; Jeon HK; Sun W; Hahn WC; Ishikawa F; Lee HW. 2008. TERT promotes cellular and organismal survival independently of telomerase activity. Oncogene 27(26):3754-60. [PubMed: 18223679]  [MGI Ref ID J:138281]

Leri A; Franco S; Zacheo A; Barlucchi L; Chimenti S; Limana F; Nadal-Ginard B; Kajstura J; Anversa P; Blasco MA. 2003. Ablation of telomerase and telomere loss leads to cardiac dilatation and heart failure associated with p53 upregulation. EMBO J 22(1):131-9. [PubMed: 12505991]  [MGI Ref ID J:110900]

Liu L; Blasco M; Trimarchi J; Keefe D. 2002. An Essential Role for Functional Telomeres in Mouse Germ Cells during Fertilization and Early Development. Dev Biol 249(1):74. [PubMed: 12217319]  [MGI Ref ID J:78765]

Liu L; Blasco MA; Keefe DL. 2002. Requirement of functional telomeres for metaphase chromosome alignments and integrity of meiotic spindles. EMBO Rep 3(3):230-4. [PubMed: 11882542]  [MGI Ref ID J:108982]

Liu L; DiGirolamo CM; Navarro PA; Blasco MA; Keefe DL. 2004. Telomerase deficiency impairs differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Exp Cell Res 294(1):1-8. [PubMed: 14980495]  [MGI Ref ID J:115468]

Liu L; Franco S; Spyropoulos B; Moens PB; Blasco MA; Keefe DL. 2004. Irregular telomeres impair meiotic synapsis and recombination in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(17):6496-501. [PubMed: 15084742]  [MGI Ref ID J:89751]

Liu T; Ullenbruch M; Young Choi Y; Yu H; Ding L; Xaubet A; Pereda J; Feghali-Bostwick CA; Bitterman PB; Henke CA; Pardo A; Selman M; Phan SH. 2013. Telomerase and telomere length in pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 49(2):260-8. [PubMed: 23526226]  [MGI Ref ID J:221773]

Marion RM; Strati K; Li H; Tejera A; Schoeftner S; Ortega S; Serrano M; Blasco MA. 2009. Telomeres acquire embryonic stem cell characteristics in induced pluripotent stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 4(2):141-54. [PubMed: 19200803]  [MGI Ref ID J:149691]

Martinez P; Siegl-Cachedenier I; Flores JM; Blasco MA. 2009. MSH2 deficiency abolishes the anticancer and pro-aging activity of short telomeres. Aging Cell 8(1):2-17. [PubMed: 18986375]  [MGI Ref ID J:216125]

Maser RS; Choudhury B; Campbell PJ; Feng B; Wong KK; Protopopov A; O'Neil J; Gutierrez A; Ivanova E; Perna I; Lin E; Mani V; Jiang S; McNamara K; Zaghlul S; Edkins S; Stevens C; Brennan C; Martin ES; Wiedemeyer R; Kabbarah O; Nogueira C; Histen G; Aster J; Mansour M; Duke V; Foroni L; Fielding AK; Goldstone AH; Rowe JM; Wang YA; Look AT; Stratton MR; Chin L; Futreal PA; DePinho RA. 2007. Chromosomally unstable mouse tumours have genomic alterations similar to diverse human cancers. Nature 447(7147):966-71. [PubMed: 17515920]  [MGI Ref ID J:122751]

Maser RS; Wong KK; Sahin E; Xia H; Naylor M; Hedberg HM; Artandi SE; DePinho RA. 2007. DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit is not required for dysfunctional telomere fusion and checkpoint response in the telomerase-deficient mouse. Mol Cell Biol 27(6):2253-65. [PubMed: 17145779]  [MGI Ref ID J:118902]

McNees CJ; Tejera AM; Martinez P; Murga M; Mulero F; Fernandez-Capetillo O; Blasco MA. 2010. ATR suppresses telomere fragility and recombination but is dispensable for elongation of short telomeres by telomerase. J Cell Biol 188(5):639-52. [PubMed: 20212315]  [MGI Ref ID J:157978]

Morrish TA; Greider CW. 2009. Short telomeres initiate telomere recombination in primary and tumor cells. PLoS Genet 5(1):e1000357. [PubMed: 19180191]  [MGI Ref ID J:146864]

Mourkioti F; Kustan J; Kraft P; Day JW; Zhao MM; Kost-Alimova M; Protopopov A; DePinho RA; Bernstein D; Meeker AK; Blau HM. 2013. Role of telomere dysfunction in cardiac failure in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Nat Cell Biol 15(8):895-904. [PubMed: 23831727]  [MGI Ref ID J:200365]

Munoz P; Blanco R; Flores JM; Blasco MA. 2005. XPF nuclease-dependent telomere loss and increased DNA damage in mice overexpressing TRF2 result in premature aging and cancer. Nat Genet 37(10):1063-71. [PubMed: 16142233]  [MGI Ref ID J:102653]

Nalapareddy K; Choudhury AR; Gompf A; Ju Z; Ravipati S; Leucht T; Lechel A; Rudolph KL. 2010. CHK2-independent induction of telomere dysfunction checkpoints in stem and progenitor cells. EMBO Rep 11(8):619-25. [PubMed: 20577265]  [MGI Ref ID J:168164]

O'Hagan R; Chang S; Maser R; Mohan R; Artandi S; Chin L; DePinho R. 2002. Telomere dysfunction provokes regional amplification and deletion in cancer genomes. Cancer Cell 2(2):149-55. [PubMed: 12204535]  [MGI Ref ID J:78479]

Palacios JA; Herranz D; De Bonis ML; Velasco S; Serrano M; Blasco MA. 2010. SIRT1 contributes to telomere maintenance and augments global homologous recombination. J Cell Biol 191(7):1299-313. [PubMed: 21187328]  [MGI Ref ID J:167988]

Perera SA; Maser RS; Xia H; McNamara K; Protopopov A; Chen L; Hezel AF; Kim CF; Bronson RT; Castrillon DH; Chin L; Bardeesy N; Depinho RA; Wong KK. 2008. Telomere dysfunction promotes genome instability and metastatic potential in a K-ras p53 mouse model of lung cancer. Carcinogenesis 29(4):747-53. [PubMed: 18283039]  [MGI Ref ID J:133322]

Perez-Rivero G; Ruiz-Torres MP; Diez-Marques ML; Canela A; Lopez-Novoa JM; Rodriguez-Puyol M; Blasco MA; Rodriguez-Puyol D. 2008. Telomerase deficiency promotes oxidative stress by reducing catalase activity. Free Radic Biol Med 45(9):1243-51. [PubMed: 18718525]  [MGI Ref ID J:141204]

Perez-Rivero G; Ruiz-Torres MP; Rivas-Elena JV; Jerkic M; Diez-Marques ML; Lopez-Novoa JM; Blasco MA; Rodriguez-Puyol D. 2006. Mice deficient in telomerase activity develop hypertension because of an excess of endothelin production. Circulation 114(4):309-17. [PubMed: 16831983]  [MGI Ref ID J:123085]

Pickett HA; Henson JD; Au AY; Neumann AA; Reddel RR. 2011. Normal mammalian cells negatively regulate telomere length by telomere trimming. Hum Mol Genet 20(23):4684-92. [PubMed: 21903669]  [MGI Ref ID J:177559]

Pignolo RJ; Suda RK; McMillan EA; Shen J; Lee SH; Choi Y; Wright AC; Johnson FB. 2008. Defects in telomere maintenance molecules impair osteoblast differentiation and promote osteoporosis. Aging Cell 7(1):23-31. [PubMed: 18028256]  [MGI Ref ID J:214652]

Poch E; Carbonell P; Franco S; Diez-Juan A; Blasco MA; Andres V. 2004. Short telomeres protect from diet-induced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-null mice. FASEB J 18(2):418-20. [PubMed: 14688198]  [MGI Ref ID J:119421]

Qi L; Strong MA; Karim BO; Armanios M; Huso DL; Greider CW. 2003. Short telomeres and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated deficiency cooperatively increase telomere dysfunction and suppress tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 63(23):8188-96. [PubMed: 14678974]  [MGI Ref ID J:87091]

Qi L; Strong MA; Karim BO; Huso DL; Greider CW. 2005. Telomere fusion to chromosome breaks reduces oncogenic translocations and tumour formation. Nat Cell Biol 7(7):706-11. [PubMed: 15965466]  [MGI Ref ID J:100156]

Rai R; Zheng H; He H; Luo Y; Multani A; Carpenter PB; Chang S. 2010. The function of classical and alternative non-homologous end-joining pathways in the fusion of dysfunctional telomeres. EMBO J 29(15):2598-610. [PubMed: 20588252]  [MGI Ref ID J:163387]

Rodriguez S; Goyanes V; Segrelles E; Blasco M; Gosalvez J; Fernandez JL. 2005. Critically short telomeres are associated with sperm DNA fragmentation. Fertil Steril 84(4):843-5. [PubMed: 16213831]  [MGI Ref ID J:106586]

Rudolph KL; Chang S; Lee HW; Blasco M; Gottlieb GJ; Greider C; DePinho RA. 1999. Longevity, stress response, and cancer in aging telomerase-deficient mice. Cell 96(5):701-12. [PubMed: 10089885]  [MGI Ref ID J:53350]

Rudolph KL; Chang S; Millard M; Schreiber-Agus N; DePinho RA. 2000. Inhibition of experimental liver cirrhosis in mice by telomerase gene delivery [see comments] Science 287(5456):1253-8. [PubMed: 10678830]  [MGI Ref ID J:60636]

Rudolph KL; Millard M; Bosenberg MW; DePinho RA. 2001. Telomere dysfunction and evolution of intestinal carcinoma in mice and humans. Nat Genet 28(2):155-9. [PubMed: 11381263]  [MGI Ref ID J:69730]

Sarin KY; Cheung P; Gilison D; Lee E; Tennen RI; Wang E; Artandi MK; Oro AE; Artandi SE. 2005. Conditional telomerase induction causes proliferation of hair follicle stem cells. Nature 436(7053):1048-52. [PubMed: 16107853]  [MGI Ref ID J:100644]

Satyanarayana A; Wiemann SU; Buer J; Lauber J; Dittmar KE; Wustefeld T; Blasco MA; Manns MP; Rudolph KL. 2003. Telomere shortening impairs organ regeneration by inhibiting cell cycle re-entry of a subpopulation of cells. EMBO J 22(15):4003-13. [PubMed: 12881434]  [MGI Ref ID J:84928]

Schaetzlein S; Kodandaramireddy NR; Ju Z; Lechel A; Stepczynska A; Lilli DR; Clark AB; Rudolph C; Kuhnel F; Wei K; Schlegelberger B; Schirmacher P; Kunkel TA; Greenberg RA; Edelmann W; Rudolph KL. 2007. Exonuclease-1 deletion impairs DNA damage signaling and prolongs lifespan of telomere-dysfunctional mice. Cell 130(5):863-77. [PubMed: 17803909]  [MGI Ref ID J:129929]

Schaetzlein S; Lucas-Hahn A; Lemme E; Kues WA; Dorsch M; Manns MP; Niemann H; Rudolph KL. 2004. Telomere length is reset during early mammalian embryogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(21):8034-8. [PubMed: 15148368]  [MGI Ref ID J:90665]

Schoeftner S; Blanco R; de Silanes IL; Munoz P; Gomez-Lopez G; Flores JM; Blasco MA. 2009. Telomere shortening relaxes X chromosome inactivation and forces global transcriptome alterations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(46):19393-8. [PubMed: 19887628]  [MGI Ref ID J:154764]

Schoeftner S; Blasco MA. 2008. Developmentally regulated transcription of mammalian telomeres by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II. Nat Cell Biol 10(2):228-36. [PubMed: 18157120]  [MGI Ref ID J:132362]

Sebastian C; Herrero C; Serra M; Lloberas J; Blasco MA; Celada A. 2009. Telomere shortening and oxidative stress in aged macrophages results in impaired STAT5a phosphorylation. J Immunol 183(4):2356-64. [PubMed: 19605693]  [MGI Ref ID J:151571]

Siegl-Cachedenier I; Munoz P; Flores JM; Klatt P; Blasco MA. 2007. Deficient mismatch repair improves organismal fitness and survival of mice with dysfunctional telomeres. Genes Dev 21(17):2234-47. [PubMed: 17785530]  [MGI Ref ID J:125218]

Song Z; Wang J; Guachalla LM; Terszowski G; Rodewald HR; Ju Z; Rudolph KL. 2010. Alterations of the systemic environment are the primary cause of impaired B and T lymphopoiesis in telomere-dysfunctional mice. Blood 115(8):1481-9. [PubMed: 19965646]  [MGI Ref ID J:157779]

Song Z; Zhang J; Ju Z; Rudolph KL. 2012. Telomere dysfunctional environment induces loss of quiescence and inherent impairments of hematopoietic stem cell function. Aging Cell 11(3):449-55. [PubMed: 22284665]  [MGI Ref ID J:216115]

Sperka T; Song Z; Morita Y; Nalapareddy K; Guachalla LM; Lechel A; Begus-Nahrmann Y; Burkhalter MD; Mach M; Schlaudraff F; Liss B; Ju Z; Speicher MR; Rudolph KL. 2011. Puma and p21 represent cooperating checkpoints limiting self-renewal and chromosomal instability of somatic stem cells in response to telomere dysfunction. Nat Cell Biol 14(1):73-9. [PubMed: 22138576]  [MGI Ref ID J:178922]

Stout GJ; Blasco MA. 2013. Telomere length and telomerase activity impact the UV sensitivity syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum C. Cancer Res 73(6):1844-54. [PubMed: 23288511]  [MGI Ref ID J:196907]

Sung LY; Chang WF; Zhang Q; Liu CC; Liou JY; Chang CC; Ou-Yang H; Guo R; Fu H; Cheng WT; Ding ST; Chen CM; Okuka M; Keefe DL; Chen YE; Liu L; Xu J. 2014. Telomere elongation and naive pluripotent stem cells achieved from telomerase haplo-insufficient cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cell Rep 9(5):1603-9. [PubMed: 25464850]  [MGI Ref ID J:222602]

Tanemura K; Ogura A; Cheong C; Gotoh H; Matsumoto K; Sato E; Hayashi Y; Lee HW; Kondo T. 2005. Dynamic rearrangement of telomeres during spermatogenesis in mice. Dev Biol 281(2):196-207. [PubMed: 15893973]  [MGI Ref ID J:98586]

Tao S; Tang D; Morita Y; Sperka T; Omrani O; Lechel A; Sakk V; Kraus J; Kestler HA; Kuhl M; Rudolph KL. 2015. Wnt activity and basal niche position sensitize intestinal stem and progenitor cells to DNA damage. EMBO J 34(5):624-40. [PubMed: 25609789]  [MGI Ref ID J:219566]

Thanasoula M; Escandell JM; Martinez P; Badie S; Munoz P; Blasco MA; Tarsounas M. 2010. p53 Prevents entry into mitosis with uncapped telomeres. Curr Biol 20(6):521-6. [PubMed: 20226664]  [MGI Ref ID J:158665]

Tuo B; Ju Z; Riederer B; Engelhardt R; Manns MP; Rudolph KL; Seidler U. 2012. Telomere shortening is associated with reduced duodenal HCOFormula secretory but normal gastric acid secretory capacity in aging mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 303(12):G1312-21. [PubMed: 23019197]  [MGI Ref ID J:193657]

Vidal-Cardenas SL; Greider CW. 2010. Comparing effects of mTR and mTERT deletion on gene expression and DNA damage response: a critical examination of telomere length maintenance-independent roles of telomerase. Nucleic Acids Res 38(1):60-71. [PubMed: 19850716]  [MGI Ref ID J:173011]

Wang H; Chen Q; Lee SH; Choi Y; Johnson FB; Pignolo RJ. 2012. Impairment of osteoblast differentiation due to proliferation-independent telomere dysfunction in mouse models of accelerated aging. Aging Cell 11(4):704-13. [PubMed: 22621437]  [MGI Ref ID J:214714]

Wang J; Lu X; Sakk V; Klein CA; Rudolph KL. 2014. Senescence and apoptosis block hematopoietic activation of quiescent hematopoietic stem cells with short telomeres. Blood 124(22):3237-40. [PubMed: 25232057]  [MGI Ref ID J:218682]

Wang J; Sun Q; Morita Y; Jiang H; Gross A; Lechel A; Hildner K; Guachalla LM; Gompf A; Hartmann D; Schambach A; Wuestefeld T; Dauch D; Schrezenmeier H; Hofmann WK; Nakauchi H; Ju Z; Kestler HA; Zender L; Rudolph KL. 2012. A differentiation checkpoint limits hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal in response to DNA damage. Cell 148(5):1001-14. [PubMed: 22385964]  [MGI Ref ID J:190258]

Wang Y; Shen MF; Chang S. 2011. Essential roles for Pot1b in HSC self-renewal and survival. Blood 118(23):6068-77. [PubMed: 21948176]  [MGI Ref ID J:179106]

Westhoff JH; Schildhorn C; Jacobi C; Homme M; Hartner A; Braun H; Kryzer C; Wang C; von Zglinicki T; Kranzlin B; Gretz N; Melk A. 2010. Telomere shortening reduces regenerative capacity after acute kidney injury. J Am Soc Nephrol 21(2):327-36. [PubMed: 19959722]  [MGI Ref ID J:185862]

Wiemann SU; Satyanarayana A; Buer J; Kamino K; Manns MP; Rudolph KL. 2005. Contrasting effects of telomere shortening on organ homeostasis, tumor suppression, and survival during chronic liver damage. Oncogene 24(9):1501-9. [PubMed: 15608677]  [MGI Ref ID J:96885]

Wong KK; Chang S; Weiler SR; Ganesan S; Chaudhuri J; Zhu C; Artandi SE; Rudolph KL; Gottlieb GJ; Chin L; Alt FW; DePinho RA. 2000. Telomere dysfunction impairs DNA repair and enhances sensitivity to ionizing radiation Nat Genet 26(1):85-8. [PubMed: 10973255]  [MGI Ref ID J:64366]

Wong KK; Maser RS; Bachoo RM; Menon J; Carrasco DR; Gu Y; Alt FW; DePinho RA. 2003. Telomere dysfunction and Atm deficiency compromises organ homeostasis and accelerates ageing. Nature 421(6923):643-8. [PubMed: 12540856]  [MGI Ref ID J:81552]

von Figura G; Wagner M; Nalapareddy K; Hartmann D; Kleger A; Guachalla LM; Rolyan H; Adler G; Rudolph KL. 2011. Regeneration of the exocrine pancreas is delayed in telomere-dysfunctional mice. PLoS One 6(2):e17122. [PubMed: 21364961]  [MGI Ref ID J:171067]

Health & husbandry

The genotypes of the animals provided may not reflect those discussed in the strain description or the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation. Please inquire for possible genotypes for this specific strain.

Health & Colony Maintenance Information

Animal Health Reports

Production of mice from cryopreserved embryos or sperm occurs in a maximum barrier room, G200.

Colony Maintenance

Breeding & HusbandryThe Dmdmdx mutation is X-linked.

Because telomere length is progressively shortened with successive generations of breeding mTR-/- mice together, The Jackson Laboratory Repository will maintain the mdx/mTR colony by breeding:
i) mTR+/-;mdx-/- females with mTR+/+;mdx-/Y males (i.e., females heterozygous for the Terctm1Rdp null allele and homozygous for the Dmdmdx allele with males wildtype at the Terc locus and hemizygous for the Dmdmdx allele)
ii) mTR+/+;mdx-/- females with mTR+/-;mdx-/Y males (i.e., females wildtype at the Terc locus and homozygous for the Dmdmdx allele with males heterozygous for the Terctm1Rdp null allele and hemizygous for the Dmdmdx allele.
By this method, The Jackson Laboratory Repository can distribute dystrophin-deficient mice that are heterozygous for the mTR null allele (i.e., mTR+/-;mdx-/- females and mTR+/-;mdx-/Y males). This allows the receiving investigator to generate their own mTR/mdx homozygous colonies.

Pricing and Purchasing

Pricing, Supply Level & Notes, Controls

Pricing for USA, Canada and Mexico shipping destinations View International Pricing


Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $2625.00
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

Pricing for International shipping destinations View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing


Cryopreserved Mice - Ready for Recovery

Price (US dollars $)
Cryorecovery* $3412.50
Animals Provided

At least two mice that carry the mutation (if it is a mutant strain) will be provided. Their genotypes may not reflect those discussed in the strain description. Please inquire for possible genotypes and see additional details below.

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Supply Notes

  • Cryorecovery - Standard.
    Progeny testing is not required.

    The average number of mice provided from recovery of our cryopreserved strains is 10. The total number of animals provided, their gender and genotype will vary. We will fulfill your order by providing at least two pair of mice, at least one animal of each pair carrying the mutation of interest. Please inquire if larger numbers of animals with specific genotype and genders are needed. Animals typically ship between 10 and 14 weeks from the date of your order. If a second cryorecovery is needed in order to provide the minimum number of animals, animals will ship within 25 weeks. IMPORTANT NOTE: The genotypes of animals provided may not reflect the mating scheme utilized by The Jackson Laboratory prior to cryopreservation, or that discussed in the strain description. Please inquire about possible genotypes which will be recovered for this specific strain. The Jackson Laboratory cannot guarantee the reproductive success of mice shipped to your facility. If the mice are lost after the first three days (post-arrival) or do not produce progeny at your facility, a new order and fee will be necessary.

    Cryorecovery to establish a Dedicated Supply for greater quantities of mice. Mice recovered can be used to establish a dedicated colony to contractually supply you mice according to your requirements. Price by quotation. For more information on Dedicated Supply, please contact JAX® Services, Tel: 1-800-422-6423 (from U.S.A., Canada or Puerto Rico only) or 1-207-288-5845 (from any location).

View USA Canada and Mexico Pricing View International Pricing

Standard Supply

Cryopreserved. Ready for recovery. Please refer to pricing and supply notes on the strain data sheet for further information.

Control Information

   See control note: (approximate) Depending upon the nature of the experiment, the following mouse line(s) may be appropriate controls:
C57BL/6J-mTR-/- (Stock No. 004132: B6.Cg-Terctm1Rdp/J)
and/or C57BL/10-mdx (Stock No. 001801: C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx/J)
  Considerations for Choosing Controls
  Control Pricing Information for Genetically Engineered Mutant Strains.

Payment Terms and Conditions

Terms are granted by individual review and stated on the customer invoice(s) and account statement. These transactions are payable in U.S. currency within the granted terms. Payment for services, products, shipping containers, and shipping costs that are rendered are expected within the payment terms indicated on the invoice or stated by contract. Invoices and account balances in arrears of stated terms may result in The Jackson Laboratory pursuing collection activities including but not limited to outside agencies and court filings.

See Terms of Use tab for General Terms and Conditions

The Jackson Laboratory's Genotype Promise

The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic background of JAX® Mice strains as well as the genotypes of strains with identified molecular mutations. JAX® Mice strains are only made available to researchers after meeting our standards. However, the phenotype of each strain may not be fully characterized and/or captured in the strain data sheets. Therefore, we cannot guarantee a strain's phenotype will meet all expectations. To ensure that JAX® Mice will meet the needs of individual research projects or when requesting a strain that is new to your research, we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project.
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JAX® Mice
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Tel: 1-800-422-6423 or 1-207-288-5845
Fax: 1-207-288-6150
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Terms of Use

Terms of Use

General Terms and Conditions

For Licensing and Use Restrictions view the link(s) below:
- Use of MICE by companies or for-profit entities requires a license.

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JAX® Mice, Products & Services Conditions of Use

"MICE" means mouse strains, their progeny derived by inbreeding or crossbreeding, unmodified derivatives from mouse strains or their progeny supplied by The Jackson Laboratory ("JACKSON"). "PRODUCTS" means biological materials supplied by JACKSON, and their derivatives. "RECIPIENT" means each recipient of MICE, PRODUCTS, or services provided by JACKSON including each institution, its employees and other researchers under its control. MICE or PRODUCTS shall not be: (i) used for any purpose other than the internal research, (ii) sold or otherwise provided to any third party for any use, or (iii) provided to any agent or other third party to provide breeding or other services. Acceptance of MICE or PRODUCTS from JACKSON shall be deemed as agreement by RECIPIENT to these conditions, and departure from these conditions requires JACKSON's prior written authorization.

No Warranty


In case of dissatisfaction for a valid reason and claimed in writing by a purchaser within ninety (90) days of receipt of mice, products or services, JACKSON will, at its option, provide credit or replacement for the mice or product received or the services provided.

No Liability

In no event shall JACKSON, its trustees, directors, officers, employees, and affiliates be liable for any causes of action or damages, including any direct, indirect, special, or consequential damages, arising out of the provision of MICE, PRODUCTS or services, including economic damage or injury to property and lost profits, and including any damage arising from acts or negligence on the part of JACKSON, its agents or employees. Unless prohibited by law, in purchasing or receiving MICE, PRODUCTS or services from JACKSON, purchaser or recipient, or any party claiming by or through them, expressly releases and discharges JACKSON from all such causes of action or damages, and further agrees to defend and indemnify JACKSON from any costs or damages arising out of any third party claims.

MICE and PRODUCTS are to be used in a safe manner and in accordance with all applicable governmental rules and regulations.

The foregoing represents the General Terms and Conditions applicable to JACKSON’s MICE, PRODUCTS or services. In addition, special terms and conditions of sale of certain MICE, PRODUCTS or services may be set forth separately in JACKSON web pages, catalogs, price lists, contracts, and/or other documents, and these special terms and conditions shall also govern the sale of these MICE, PRODUCTS and services by JACKSON, and by its licensees and distributors.

Acceptance of delivery of MICE, PRODUCTS or services shall be deemed agreement to these terms and conditions. No purchase order or other document transmitted by purchaser or recipient that may modify the terms and conditions hereof, shall be in any way binding on JACKSON, and instead the terms and conditions set forth herein, including any special terms and conditions set forth separately, shall govern the sale of MICE, PRODUCTS or services by JACKSON.